Section_2_psych_.pdf PSYCH 3400
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by kalambe on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3400 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Intellectual Development in Infancy & Toddlerhood 10/10/16 8:34 AM First 3 years of life I. Theoretical Approaches to Studying Intellectual Development • Learning Theory o Behavior approach § Born with the ability to learn from our experiences o Classical Conditioning § Pavlov did his research with dogs § Kids can learn by association (comparing one thing to another) ú Little children naturally afraid of loud noises ú Can learn fears and natural responses via classical conditioning § Little Albert experiment ú Loud noise unconditioned stimulus ú White furry animal initially neutral ú Fear response is conditioned response o Operant Conditioning § Reinforcement ú Little children learn this way § Baby is learning to make a particular response to produce a particular effect o Observational Learning § Learn by observing and imita ting the behavior of others § Children learn by observation alone • Psychometric Theory o Attempts to quantify intelligence § Interested in individual differences b/w people § Intelligence tests can be classified ú Is the intelligence test want aptitude or achieve ment ú Is it individually administered or group § Aptitude test: predict our future intelligence § Achievement test: current level of competence ú Impossible to create a test that is purely aptitude or achievement o Wechsler Test § IQ score overall, Verball IQ score, Performance IQ score, sub -‐test scores which identify a persons strength and weakness § Has been standardized o Psychometric Properties § Test-‐retest reliability ú Took a test, take the test again at another time ú Consistency overtime, the scores would be similar § Internal consistency ú Consistency within a test ú Odd # and Even # of question results score are sometime similar o Stability of Intelligence scores § Not until the child get to be about 7, then there will be predictiveness ú IQ scores predictiveness increases as children get older • Piagetian theory o Believed that as we get older we move through stages of cognitive development § Children think in a different qualitatively different way than adults o Sensorimotor stage: first 2 years § Children understand world through their senses and actions § Object permanence ú Awareness that objects still exist even when they are not perceive ú Acquire 3-‐4 months of age § Stranger anxiety ú Awareness of unknown people ú Developed at 8-‐9 months of age § Causality ú Recognition that certain events cause other events ú Children begin to understand the roots of causality as early as 4 -‐ 6 months of age • By 10 months of age, doing there own mini experiments o Ex: flipping the light switch over & over again § Limited representational ability • Information Processing Theory o Focuses on what we do with information from the time we perceive it to the time we use it to solve problems § Take in the information, store it, and retrieve it § Focuses on individual differences b/c some people are more efficient in processing information than other people o Habituation § Babies excited to see new things and then their response to it decreases when it becomes old & familiar § How quickly babies habitu ate to stimuli is a predictor of intelligence o Attention recovery abilities § Presented with a stimuli, really excited at the beginning then not so much ú Then change it to a different stimuli o Visual novelty preference § Show the baby 2 different pictures, 1 old and familiar, 1 new and different ú Prefer the one that is new and different ú Shows predictor of later intelligence II. Development of Language • Stages o 1) Pre-‐Linguistic Speech § Before baby begins to use spoken language § Using crying to get their needs acr oss ú Not all cries are the same § Going to babble & imitate sounds o 2) First Words § begins linguistic speech § occurs between 10-‐14 months § using spoken language to convey meaning o 3) First Sentence § put two words together o 4) Early Syntax § 20-‐30 months § see significant growth in their vocabulary § understand more words about syntax § by the time they are 3 years old, babies can say up to a 1000 different words • Characteristics of early speech o Simplification: use telegraphic speech § Say just enough words in order to get their message across § Few words o Understand grammatical relationships that they can not yet express § Watch the puppy dog chase the cat around the table, they say “puppy chase” § Expressive vocabulary: ú The words the individuals can actually use § Receptive vocabulary: ú Words that they understand ú Have a larger receptive vocabulary than expressive o Underextension of word meanings § Young children restrict a words to a single object or person o Overextension of word meanings § Applying a word to more than one object or person o Overregulation of rule § Learn a rule then apply it without exceptions § Learn rules but don’t understand the excpetions • Language Acquisition Device (LAD) o Chomksy: believed that babies are born with a neurological capacity to develop languageà LAD § Recognized that it takes more than that LAD § Need to socially interact to further develop language skills • Motherse/Parentese/Child -‐Directed Speech (CDS) o Baby talk § Talk in a distinctive way to the baby § Use very short words , simple sentences, talk in a more high pitched sound, repeat words lots of repetition, exaggerate and draw out the vowel sounds, talk very slowly o Simplified speech o Babies prefer the baby talk § Find it highly engaging § More likely to attend to someone who it using the baby talk § Find more rapid learning when presented with baby talk § Mothers/fathers/siblings find it comes naturally when talking to a baby III. Development of Competence • Individual who are competent is someone who has well developed intellectual skills and well developed social skills • Bertin White o Did a study back in the 1960’s (Harvard Preschool Research Project) o Interested in studying children who were very young o Started with 400 preschoolers and rate d them based on different measures § Cognitive skills and social skills o Divided them into 3 groups (A, B, C) § A: were the children who rated the highest § C: children that scored the lowest § B: children who fell somewhere in between o Considered Group A and Grou p C and tried to identify the factors that differentiated these groups § Looked at family income, mom’s education level, mom was employed outside of the home, mom’s age § Most important factor: parenting style ú Whether or not Mom was able to establish a safe and stimulating environment ú In the home’s of group A, mom’s would serve as consultants for their child • If the child has a need, the Mom was there to help • If the child seemed to be doing well by themselves, she let them be and play independently ú Mom’s would set reasonable limits, but also gave them plenty of opportunity to explore • Bradley (HOME) o Constructed a measure of competence in Children o The Home Observation or Measurement of the Environment (HOME) § Looks at the impact of the child’s environment on their development of competence § Measure used in different studies o Measurement includes scale of level of parentness § Is the parent affectionate with the child § How responsive is that parent to the child o Researchers went into and counted the number of books that they found § More books = more opportunities the child had to develop intellectually o Took measures of all of the stimulating toys o Monitored the parent’s involvement Psychosocial Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood 10/10/16 8:34 AM I. Mother-‐Child Relationship • Attachment: o Child begin working on the emotional bond with their mom’s à attachment o Very active: both the mom and child play a role in establishing it o It is long lasting o Important in terms of the child’s survival • Ainsworth’s research on attachment: o Strange situation § Bring mom and baby into the laboratory, observe mom and baby § Would ask mom t o leave and baby would be by themselves § Introduce a stranger and see how the baby responds § How did the baby respond when mom left or with the stranger with/without mom o Patterns of attachment § Securely attached ú 2/3 babies § Avoidant attachment ú 25% § Ambivalent attachment ú 12% § Disorganized-‐disoriented ú Least secure o More important to look at what the baby does when mom returns NOT what the baby does when mom leaves to determine type of attachment • How is attachment established? o Formed by what the baby does and what the Mom does § Reciprocal relationship, active relationship o Role of the mother § Affectionate, attentive, responsive à more likely to foster the secure attachment o Role of the baby § Little babies need their needs met ú That’s how you establish the secure attachment § Attachment behaviors: any kind of behavior that elicits a response from an adult (ex: crying, smiling, clinging) • Long-‐term effects of early, secure attachment on later development o Babies who are securely atta ched in infancy, when they get to toddlerhood they are more curious, more competent, get along better with their peers § When the kids are in middle childhood, they are more self -‐reliant and more adaptable § When these children reach adolescence, have a higher self esteem and better peer relationships II. Father-‐Child Relationship • Engrossment: o Dad’s have the potential to establish a close bond with their child immediately after birth o Dad’s very preoccupied with their baby o Babies prefer the mom and the dad to the stranger § Between mom and dad probably going to prefer mom • Father’s interaction with infants o Dad’s have the potential to be as sensitive and as responsive to the babies needs as mom, but in practice they typically are not • Cross-‐cultural differences in fathers o Playing behavior in U.S. § Mom’s tend to play more quiet games, sing to their babies § Dad’s more likely to play more physically with babies o In other countries like Germany and Sweden, dad’s don’t play more rough with their babies § Suggest not simply biology, also is something that they learn (culturally influenced) III. Disturbances in Family Relationships • Loss of parents o Institutionalization § Children are more likely to develop emotional problems, learning problems o Institutionalization and the Spitz research study § 3 different groups of children ú 1 group: babes who were born to teenage unwed mothers • initially be taken care of their own mom or another women in the home • children did fine ú 2 group: babies who were put in an orphanage • taken care of in small groups by a nurse • taken care of by different nurses • babies here were smaller in size, more likely to get sick, intellectual development slowed, more likely to have psychological problems ú 3 group: babies who grew up in homes with mom a nd dads • control group § Spitz determined that the determine factor was the frequent change in caregivers ú Kids did not have the opportunity to secure an attachment ú Children who are institutionalized at a later age do not seem to have as many problems ú If child is separated from parent, get them in a setting as quickly as possible so they can form an attachment with someone o Hospitalization and the Bowlby research study § Looked at the influence of early hospitalization on early toddlers (2 nd and 3 year of life) § Kids who were brought into the hospital for a surgical procedure ú Parents could only stay during visiting hours then were forced to leave their child ú Toddlers were scared § Stages ú Protest: where the toddler would get up and cry and scream to try and get mom and dad to come back ú Despair: when the child would become very quiet, withdrawn; assumption that the child was adjusting but not actually what was happening ú Detachment: would start to eat & play a little more, but when mom and dad returned they would avoid mom and dad because they were mad § Parents are no encouraged to stay with their child if they are in the hospital • Child abuse & neglect o All of the kinds of abuses are not mutually exclusive à they overlap o In the 1980’s that their were 2 million children that were being physically abused § Today, 4 million children are being physically abused § About 80% are 3 years old or younger § About 90% of abuse occurs at home o Large majority of sexual abuse is perpetrated by the father or a father -‐figure o Considering all kinds of abuse together, then overall is most perpetrated by the mother o In the 1920’s, a pediatrician suggested that their were children he was seeing that were being physically abused by their parents § Remained relativity unrecognized a s a social problem § Kimpe (pediatrician) -‐ he coined the term battered child syndrome ú Children that were being intentionally physically abused at home o Misconceptions § It is limited to poor, disadvantage groups ú Cuts across all socioeconomic groups § Rare ú Not rare § Psychiatric model of child abuse à says that individuals that abuse their children or psychotic, criminals, or intellectually disabled ú Not correct o Characteristics of abusive parents § Lack support network of family and friends ú When a parent is feeling frustrated in any way someone can come and help out ú Single mom’s, don’t have family in the area, no one can help her so when she’s feeling frustrated she tends to take the anger out on the child o Effects § More behavior, social, social functioning problems o Intervention § Early intervention is key ú Better prognosis for the child ú Easier to teach the mom and dad alternative ways of parents before maladaptive behaviors get set in § Anyone who works with children as their job is legally required to report any suspicion of child abuse § Social workers check in on the family § Parents can be taught alternative ways of interacting with their child and can help stop abuse ú Need resources to do that ú Want to keep together the family unit as much as possible ú Try to establish a support system for the family IV. Relationship with Other Children • Siblings o Older sibling first have a little bit of aggressive when mom is having another baby o Some withdraw can occur o Also see pride in the older child because they get to do things tha t the other baby doesn’t get to do o 8-‐9 months in, older child has overcome the negative concerns o Sibling rivalry § Even though there is always going to be sibling rivalry, there is far more affection for siblings than rivalry § As the kids get older it becomes even more the case, they tend to value their siblings • Sociability o Child’s interest in other children o Tends to increase over the span of infancy and childhood § Become more sociable o Individual differences in sociability § Some children more sociable, in watching other children than others § Preference in sociability and interacting with others, tends to remain stable overtime o Belief that sociability is related to inborn temperamental styles § Impacted by their experiences (ex. S ociable momà more likely to be sociable yourself) § Genetic and environmental factors involved Physical Development in Early Childhood 10/10/16 8:34 AM Years between 3-‐6 I. Physical Growth and Change • Height, weight, appearance o 3 year old is going to become more slender, “athleticish” in their appearance o Look more like little people, not like babies anymore o Trunk, arms, legs more elongated o Head more proportional to the rest of the body o Each year during early childho od, children gain 4-‐6 pounds & 2-‐3 inches o Boys § Taller and heavier than girls § Except for when puberty kicks in ú Girls will be taller/heavier • Structural changes o Muscular systems and skeletal systems are stronger o Brian more mature o Respiratory system more mature o More stamina o Immune system is more developed § More resistant to getting sick • Development of Teeth o Beginning at age 3, all of the baby teeth are present o At the age of 6, the permanent teeth begin to appear o If the child is still sucking their thumb at the age of 5, parents encouraged to get child to stop doing that because the teeth can come in crooked II. Health • Health problems o On average, 7-‐8 colds per year § Sometimes last a few days, sometimes a few weeks o Minor illnesses § Respiratory § Stomach aches, viruses § Immune system is still not well developed § By middle childhood, the number of colds every year decreases to 6 o Major illnesses § Immunizations eradicated a lot of the contagious illnesses § Today, 25% of all preschoolers are not immunized ú Encouraging parents to get their children immunized ú Supposed research said that autism was developed by immunizations, but that was not true • Had a lingering effect of parents not immunizing their children § Influenza (flu) has decreased over the years § Ammonia has gone down § Childhood cancer has gone down § AIDS has increased in childhood § Obesity has increased ú Considered a worldwide epidemic § Malnutrition has increased o Accidents § Leading cause of death in early childhood ú Most often automobile accidents § Car seats and restraint are effective • Influences on Health o Exposure § Child who go to daycare when they are little, pick up more colds § More respiratory illnesses § Children growing up in a large family more likely to get sick o Stress § If there is significant stress in the family, increases likelihood that the child might get sick or have an accident o Poverty § Chief factor associated with ill -‐health in children § Can’t afford to take child to doctor, don’t have the resources ú Puts the child at risk o Homelessness § Children are vulnerable § Family’s with children count for a large percentage of all homeless individuals § Most homeless children are under the age of 5 III. Motor Skills • Gross and fine motor skills o 3 year olds § Cannot stop or turn suddenly or quickly § Can ascend stairway, alternating feet, unaided ú They can go up, but they can’t come back down § Can draw circle § Can button and unbutton o 4 year olds § Have more effective control of stopping, starting, and turning § Can descend stairway, alternating feet, if supported § Can draw person and crude letters § Can dress self with help o 5 year olds § Can stop, start, and turn effectively in games § Can descend stairway, alternating feet, unaided § Can copy square and triangle § Can dress self without much help • Handedness: typically prefers one hand to t he other o 90% right handed, 10% left handed § Possible genetic component § Left handed individuals are more likely to: be academically gifted, have allergies, problems sleeping, migraines, more accidents § Disproportionate number of left handed individuals in certain areas § Baseball players, artists, architects, mathematicians IV. Sleep • Stages o Stage 1: light sleeping, will wake up if there is a disturbance o Stage 2: a little deeper than stage 1 o Stage 3: a little deeper than stage 2 o Stage 4: typically considered deep sleep § We spend more time in stage 4 in the first 2 -‐3 hours of going to bed o REM sleep § We spend more time here towards the middle and end of the night • Normal sleep patterns o Typically, children sleep through the night – recommended that they take a nap at some point during the day o As they approach 5 year old, they struggle with going to sleep – they don’t want the day to end § So parents come up with elaborate bedtime routines ú Ex: snack, milk, brushing teeth, washing face, putting on pajamas, story time with dad, etc. o Transitional object – teddy bears, certain blankets, etc. that help the child adjust from being awake to going to bed § Not harmful to the child – children who have transitional objects at a later age tend to be better adjusted, they’ll get r id of the objects when they’re ready • Sleep related disturbances o Bedtime temper tantrums: child engages in extended struggles prior to bedtime § 20% of all children in their first 4 years of life engage in these – sometimes lasting more than an hour § Typically seen in children ages 2-‐4 § Best way to prevent this is to have a bedtime routine o Nightmares: child experiences frightening dreams that typically occur during REM sleep § Could be because of scary movies they watched before bed § If we think about it right after waking up, we can potentially remember dreams/nightmares o Night terrors: child abruptly awakens during stage 4 sleep with a panicky scream or cry § Usually occurs 2-‐3 hours after going to bed § Lasts between 1-‐10 minutes § Not fully awake – so if parents try to talk to them and calm them down, they’re not fully responsive § Children don’t remember night terrors § Run in families § Doesn’t mean children have any deep rooted problems or trauma § Can cause social ramifications – child is embarrassed bc of night terro rs and won’t sleep at a friend’s house bc of them § Can extend into adulthood (exception rather than rule) • Sleepwalking: child rises from bed during stage 4 sleep and walks around briefly o Tends to occur during same stage at night terrors – both considered stage 4 sleep disturbances o Lasts a few minutes o Eyes open, not fully awake o 10-‐30% all children have an episode of sleepwalking at some point o Carefully and gently wake them – don’t startle them o Runs in families o May be caused by anxiety the day before? Cause not known • Sleep talking: child verbalizes, typically during stage 4 sleep o Can occur during other stages o Not indicative of any significant issues of any kind, just happens sometimes • Enuresis or bed-‐wetting: child recurrently wets their bed or clothes eith er during the day or at night o On enuresis § Categorized under elimination disorders § To be diagnosed: ú Repeated voiding of urine into bed or clothes ú Frequency – twice a week for 3 consecutive months or presence of clinically significant distress or impairment in social, academic (occupational), or other important areas of functioning ú Chronological age is at least 5 years ú The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiological effect of a substance or general medical condition § Types ú Primary: diagnosed in child to never established urinary continence • Incontinence – should know this word ú Secondary: diagnosed in child who has regressed after at least a year of established urinary continence • Ex: baby brother is born and older child regresses o 5 year olds – 5-‐10% o 10 year olds – 3-‐5% o Adolescents – 1% o Only 1% of enuretic children will continue to be enuretic in adulthood o More common in boys than in girls • Etiology o Might be caused by medication, maybe an actual medical issue (like abetes) o Strong genetic component § More common in monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins • Treatment: Bell and pad method o Technique developed by Mowrer and Mowrer using classical conditioning to treat individuals with enuresis o Child sleeps on a pad wired to alarm o First drops of urine set off the alarm and wake the child o The child comes to associate a full bladder with awakening • 80% success rate Intellectual Development in Early Childhood 10/10/16 8:34 AM I. Aspects of intellectual development • Development of memory: child’s memory is better than we used to think it was o Recognition and recall memory § Recognition: ability to identify something that has been encountered before ú Ex: multiple choice test § Recall: ability to reproduce knowledge from memory ú Ex: essay test § Recognition memory is better than recall memory o Influences on child’s memory § Age: as they get older, they’re more and more able to establish long term memories § Children remember things better that are new & unique § Child tend to remember things that occ ur on a regular basis § If they had an opportunity to talk to someone about it ú Ex: what was in the museum à mom that talked to child about what was in the museum versus mom that didn’t volunteer information to the child § Talking out loud with someone as you study • Preoperational stage of cognitive development: Piaget o Spans from age 2-‐7 § Begins a little earlier than early childhood and extends a little past early childhood o Thinking in a qualitatively different way § Can represent things with words and images § Big milestone: acquisition of symbolic function o Skills: § Symbolic Function ú Child who can now learn by using symbols • Symbols: mental representations that people have attached meaning too • Something that stands for something else • Ex: word, picture ú Symbols allow us to think about objects and events that we have experienced even when it is not directly in front of us • b/c we’ve stored them in our memory system ú When the child starts using words can recognize they are using symbolic function ú Differed imitation: when a child imitates in observed action after some time has passed § Cause & Effect ú Have a greater understanding of causality § Numbers ú Ability to understand quantities ú Known understand the 1 to 1 principle • Only one number name applies to each item being counted ú Stable order principle: say number names in a set order ú Children understanding words that compare quantities • Relatively universal § Classification ú Proficiency in classifying or grouping items • Putting them into categories ú Color & shape categories § Empathy: ability to consider how other people feel ú Beginning to develop ú Jerone Kagin-‐ famous developmental psychologist • Put children in playroom with their moms • Young children are manifesting some empathy • Doll in room had no head, child brought to mom with concern § Theory of Mind ú Can imagine what someone is thinking and make a prediction about their behavior ú Understanding that mom and dad sometimes act differently § Concept of Identity ú Ex: Mom gets her hair done but the child knows its still mom ú Recognizes that he looked different as a baby § Animism ú Children have difficult distinguishes reality versus fantasy ú We believe that children are less subject to animism then we once thought § Lack Reversibility ú Ex: adding and subtracting are opposite operations § Transductive Reasoning ú Can’t think logically yet ú The tendency to see a connection b/w unrelated occurrences ú Children think in a qualitatively different way than we do • Ex: mom & dad getting a divorce; dad moving out because he was a bad boy in the morning § Egocentrism ú See the world from their own perspective
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