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by: kalambe

Section_2_psych_.pdf PSYCH 3400

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These notes cover Section 2
Lifespan and Developmental Psychology
Dr. Alley
Class Notes
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by kalambe on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3400 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Intellectual Development in Infancy & Toddlerhood 10/10/16 8:34 AM First  3  years  of  life   I.  Theoretical  Approaches  to  Studying  Intellectual  Development     • Learning  Theory     o Behavior  approach   § Born  with  the  ability  to  learn  from  our  experiences     o Classical  Conditioning     § Pavlov  did  his  research  with  dogs   § Kids  can  learn  by  association  (comparing  one  thing  to  another)     ú Little  children  naturally  afraid  of  loud  noises     ú Can  learn  fears  and  natural  responses  via  classical  conditioning   § Little  Albert  experiment   ú Loud  noise  unconditioned  stimulus   ú White  furry  animal   initially  neutral     ú Fear  response  is  conditioned  response     o Operant  Conditioning   § Reinforcement     ú Little  children  learn  this  way     § Baby  is  learning  to  make  a  particular  response  to  produce  a  particular   effect     o Observational  Learning   § Learn  by  observing  and  imita ting  the  behavior  of  others   § Children  learn  by  observation  alone     • Psychometric  Theory   o Attempts  to  quantify  intelligence     § Interested  in  individual  differences  b/w  people     § Intelligence  tests  can  be  classified     ú Is  the  intelligence  test  want  aptitude  or  achieve ment   ú Is  it  individually  administered  or  group     § Aptitude  test:  predict  our  future  intelligence   § Achievement  test:  current  level  of  competence   ú Impossible  to  create  a  test  that  is  purely  aptitude  or  achievement     o Wechsler  Test   § IQ  score  overall,  Verball  IQ  score,  Performance  IQ  score,  sub -­‐test  scores   which  identify  a  persons  strength  and  weakness   § Has  been  standardized   o Psychometric  Properties     § Test-­‐retest  reliability   ú Took  a  test,  take  the  test  again  at  another  time     ú Consistency  overtime,  the  scores  would   be  similar     § Internal  consistency     ú Consistency  within  a  test     ú Odd  #  and  Even  #  of  question  results  score  are  sometime  similar     o Stability  of  Intelligence  scores     § Not  until  the  child  get  to  be  about  7,  then  there  will  be  predictiveness     ú IQ  scores  predictiveness  increases  as  children  get  older   • Piagetian  theory   o Believed  that  as  we  get  older  we  move  through  stages  of  cognitive  development   § Children  think  in  a  different  qualitatively  different  way  than  adults   o Sensorimotor  stage:  first  2  years   § Children  understand  world  through  their  senses  and  actions   § Object  permanence   ú Awareness  that  objects  still  exist  even  when  they  are  not   perceive     ú Acquire  3-­‐4  months  of  age     § Stranger  anxiety     ú Awareness  of  unknown  people     ú Developed  at  8-­‐9  months  of  age     § Causality   ú Recognition  that  certain  events  cause  other  events     ú Children  begin  to  understand  the  roots  of  causality  as  early  as  4 -­‐ 6  months  of  age     • By  10  months  of  age,  doing  there  own  mini  experiments     o Ex:  flipping  the  light  switch  over  &  over  again     § Limited  representational  ability     • Information  Processing  Theory   o Focuses  on  what  we  do  with  information  from  the  time  we  perceive  it  to  the   time  we  use  it  to  solve  problems     § Take  in  the  information,  store  it,  and  retrieve  it   § Focuses  on  individual  differences  b/c  some  people  are  more  efficient  in   processing  information  than  other  people     o Habituation   § Babies  excited  to  see  new  things  and  then  their  response  to  it  decreases   when  it  becomes  old  &  familiar     § How  quickly  babies  habitu ate  to  stimuli  is  a  predictor  of  intelligence     o Attention  recovery  abilities   § Presented  with  a  stimuli,  really  excited  at  the  beginning  then  not  so   much   ú Then  change  it  to  a  different  stimuli     o Visual  novelty  preference   § Show  the  baby  2  different  pictures,  1   old  and  familiar,  1  new  and   different   ú Prefer  the  one  that  is  new  and  different     ú Shows  predictor  of  later  intelligence     II.  Development  of  Language   • Stages   o 1)  Pre-­‐Linguistic  Speech   § Before  baby  begins  to  use  spoken  language   § Using  crying  to  get  their  needs  acr oss   ú Not  all  cries  are  the  same   § Going  to  babble  &  imitate  sounds   o 2)  First  Words   § begins  linguistic  speech   § occurs  between  10-­‐14  months     § using  spoken  language  to  convey  meaning   o 3)  First  Sentence   § put  two  words  together     o 4)  Early  Syntax   § 20-­‐30  months   § see  significant  growth  in  their  vocabulary     § understand  more  words  about  syntax     § by  the  time  they  are  3  years  old,  babies  can  say  up  to  a  1000  different   words     • Characteristics  of  early  speech   o Simplification:  use  telegraphic  speech   § Say  just  enough  words  in  order  to  get  their  message  across     § Few  words   o Understand  grammatical  relationships  that  they  can  not  yet  express     § Watch  the  puppy  dog  chase  the  cat  around  the  table,  they  say  “puppy   chase”   § Expressive  vocabulary:     ú The  words  the  individuals  can  actually  use   § Receptive  vocabulary:   ú Words  that  they  understand   ú Have  a  larger  receptive  vocabulary  than  expressive     o Underextension  of  word  meanings   § Young  children  restrict  a  words  to  a   single  object  or  person     o Overextension  of  word  meanings   § Applying  a  word  to  more  than  one  object  or  person     o Overregulation  of  rule   § Learn  a  rule  then  apply  it  without  exceptions   § Learn  rules  but  don’t  understand  the  excpetions   • Language  Acquisition  Device  (LAD)   o Chomksy:  believed  that  babies  are  born  with  a  neurological   capacity  to  develop   languageà  LAD   § Recognized  that  it  takes  more  than  that  LAD   § Need  to  socially  interact  to  further  develop  language  skills   • Motherse/Parentese/Child -­‐Directed  Speech  (CDS)   o Baby  talk     § Talk  in  a  distinctive  way  to  the  baby     § Use  very  short  words ,  simple  sentences,  talk  in  a  more  high  pitched   sound,  repeat  words  lots  of  repetition,  exaggerate  and  draw  out  the   vowel  sounds,  talk  very  slowly     o Simplified  speech     o Babies  prefer  the  baby  talk   § Find  it  highly  engaging   § More  likely  to  attend  to  someone  who  it  using  the  baby  talk     § Find  more  rapid  learning  when  presented  with  baby  talk     § Mothers/fathers/siblings  find  it  comes  naturally  when  talking  to  a  baby     III.  Development  of  Competence     • Individual  who  are  competent  is  someone  who  has  well  developed  intellectual  skills  and   well  developed  social  skills     • Bertin  White   o Did  a  study  back  in  the  1960’s  (Harvard  Preschool  Research  Project)     o Interested  in  studying  children  who  were  very  young     o Started  with  400  preschoolers  and  rate d  them  based  on  different  measures   § Cognitive  skills  and  social  skills     o Divided  them  into  3  groups  (A,  B,  C)   § A:  were  the  children  who  rated  the  highest     § C:  children  that  scored  the  lowest   § B:  children  who  fell  somewhere  in  between   o Considered  Group  A  and  Grou p  C  and  tried  to  identify  the  factors  that   differentiated  these  groups     § Looked  at  family  income,  mom’s  education  level,  mom  was  employed   outside  of  the  home,  mom’s  age   § Most  important  factor:   parenting  style     ú Whether  or  not  Mom  was  able  to  establish  a  safe  and  stimulating   environment     ú In  the  home’s  of  group  A,  mom’s  would  serve  as  consultants  for   their  child     • If  the  child  has  a  need,  the  Mom  was  there  to  help     • If  the  child  seemed  to  be  doing  well  by  themselves,  she   let  them  be  and  play  independently     ú Mom’s  would  set  reasonable  limits,  but  also  gave  them  plenty  of   opportunity  to  explore   • Bradley  (HOME)   o Constructed  a  measure  of  competence  in  Children     o The  Home  Observation  or  Measurement  of  the  Environment  (HOME)   § Looks  at  the  impact  of  the  child’s  environment  on  their  development  of   competence     § Measure  used  in  different  studies     o Measurement  includes  scale  of  level  of  parentness   § Is  the  parent  affectionate  with  the  child   § How  responsive  is  that  parent  to  the  child   o Researchers  went  into  and  counted  the  number  of  books  that  they  found   § More  books  =  more  opportunities  the  child  had  to  develop  intellectually     o Took  measures  of  all  of  the  stimulating  toys   o Monitored  the  parent’s  involvement       Psychosocial Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood 10/10/16 8:34 AM   I.  Mother-­‐Child  Relationship   • Attachment:   o Child  begin  working  on  the  emotional  bond  with  their  mom’s   à  attachment     o Very  active:  both  the  mom  and  child  play  a  role  in  establishing  it   o It  is  long  lasting   o Important  in  terms  of  the  child’s  survival     • Ainsworth’s  research  on  attachment:   o Strange  situation     § Bring  mom  and  baby  into  the  laboratory,  observe  mom  and  baby   § Would  ask  mom  t o  leave  and  baby  would  be  by  themselves     § Introduce  a  stranger  and  see  how  the  baby  responds     § How  did  the  baby  respond  when  mom  left  or  with  the  stranger   with/without  mom     o Patterns  of  attachment   § Securely  attached   ú 2/3  babies   § Avoidant  attachment     ú 25%   § Ambivalent  attachment     ú 12%   § Disorganized-­‐disoriented   ú Least  secure   o More  important  to  look  at  what  the  baby  does  when  mom  returns  NOT  what  the   baby  does  when  mom  leaves  to  determine  type  of  attachment   • How  is  attachment  established?   o Formed  by  what  the  baby  does  and  what  the  Mom  does     § Reciprocal  relationship,  active  relationship     o Role  of  the  mother   § Affectionate,  attentive,  responsive   à  more  likely  to  foster  the  secure   attachment     o Role  of  the  baby     § Little  babies  need  their  needs  met     ú That’s  how  you  establish  the  secure  attachment     § Attachment  behaviors:  any  kind  of  behavior  that  elicits  a  response  from   an  adult  (ex:  crying,  smiling,  clinging)     • Long-­‐term  effects  of  early,  secure  attachment  on  later  development     o Babies  who  are  securely  atta ched  in  infancy,  when  they  get  to  toddlerhood  they   are  more  curious,  more  competent,  get  along  better  with  their  peers   § When  the  kids  are  in  middle  childhood,  they  are  more  self -­‐reliant  and   more  adaptable   § When  these  children  reach  adolescence,  have  a  higher  self  esteem  and   better  peer  relationships     II.  Father-­‐Child  Relationship     • Engrossment:   o Dad’s  have  the  potential  to  establish  a  close  bond  with  their  child  immediately   after  birth     o Dad’s  very  preoccupied  with  their  baby   o Babies  prefer  the  mom  and  the  dad  to  the  stranger   § Between  mom  and  dad  probably  going  to  prefer  mom     • Father’s  interaction  with  infants     o Dad’s  have  the  potential  to  be  as  sensitive  and  as  responsive  to  the  babies  needs   as  mom,  but  in  practice  they  typically  are  not   • Cross-­‐cultural  differences  in  fathers   o Playing  behavior  in  U.S.   § Mom’s  tend  to  play  more  quiet  games,  sing  to  their  babies   § Dad’s  more  likely  to  play  more  physically  with  babies     o In  other  countries  like  Germany  and  Sweden,  dad’s  don’t  play  more  rough  with   their  babies   § Suggest  not  simply  biology,  also  is  something  that  they  learn  (culturally   influenced)     III.  Disturbances  in  Family  Relationships   • Loss  of  parents   o Institutionalization     § Children  are  more  likely  to  develop  emotional  problems,  learning   problems   o Institutionalization  and  the  Spitz  research  study   § 3  different  groups  of  children     ú 1  group:  babes  who  were  born  to  teenage  unwed  mothers   • initially  be  taken  care  of  their  own  mom  or  another   women  in  the  home   • children  did  fine   ú 2  group:  babies  who  were  put  in  an  orphanage   • taken  care  of  in  small  groups  by  a  nurse   • taken  care  of  by  different  nurses   • babies  here  were  smaller  in  size,  more  likely  to  get  sick,   intellectual  development  slowed,  more  likely  to  have   psychological  problems     ú 3  group:  babies  who  grew  up  in  homes  with  mom  a nd  dads   • control  group   § Spitz  determined  that  the  determine  factor  was  the  frequent  change  in   caregivers   ú Kids  did  not  have  the  opportunity  to  secure  an  attachment     ú Children  who  are  institutionalized  at  a  later  age  do  not  seem  to   have  as  many  problems     ú If  child  is  separated  from  parent,  get  them  in  a  setting  as  quickly   as  possible  so  they  can  form  an  attachment  with  someone     o Hospitalization  and  the  Bowlby  research  study     § Looked  at  the  influence  of  early  hospitalization  on  early  toddlers  (2 nd   and  3  year  of  life)     § Kids  who  were  brought  into  the  hospital  for  a  surgical  procedure   ú Parents  could  only  stay  during  visiting  hours  then  were  forced  to   leave  their  child   ú Toddlers  were  scared     § Stages   ú Protest:  where  the  toddler  would  get  up  and  cry  and  scream  to   try  and  get  mom  and  dad  to  come  back     ú Despair:  when  the  child  would  become  very  quiet,  withdrawn;   assumption  that  the  child  was  adjusting  but  not  actually  what   was  happening   ú Detachment:  would  start  to  eat  &  play  a  little  more,  but  when   mom  and  dad  returned  they  would  avoid  mom  and  dad  because   they  were  mad   § Parents  are  no  encouraged  to  stay  with  their  child  if  they  are  in  the   hospital     • Child  abuse  &  neglect     o All  of  the  kinds  of  abuses  are  not  mutually  exclusive   à  they  overlap     o In  the  1980’s  that  their  were  2  million  children  that  were  being  physically   abused   § Today,  4  million  children  are  being  physically  abused     § About  80%  are  3  years  old  or  younger     § About  90%  of  abuse  occurs  at  home     o Large  majority  of  sexual  abuse  is  perpetrated  by  the  father  or  a  father -­‐figure   o Considering  all  kinds  of  abuse  together,  then  overall  is  most  perpetrated  by  the   mother   o In  the  1920’s,  a  pediatrician  suggested  that  their  were  children  he  was  seeing   that  were  being  physically  abused  by  their  parents     § Remained  relativity  unrecognized  a s  a  social  problem   § Kimpe  (pediatrician) -­‐  he  coined  the  term  battered  child  syndrome   ú Children  that  were  being  intentionally  physically  abused  at  home     o Misconceptions   § It  is  limited  to  poor,  disadvantage  groups   ú Cuts  across  all  socioeconomic  groups   § Rare   ú Not  rare   § Psychiatric  model  of  child  abuse   à  says  that  individuals  that  abuse  their   children  or  psychotic,  criminals,  or  intellectually  disabled     ú Not  correct     o Characteristics  of  abusive  parents     § Lack  support  network  of  family  and  friends   ú When  a  parent  is  feeling   frustrated  in  any  way  someone  can   come  and  help  out   ú Single  mom’s,  don’t    have  family  in  the  area,  no  one  can  help  her   so  when  she’s  feeling  frustrated  she  tends  to  take  the  anger  out   on  the  child   o Effects   § More  behavior,  social,  social  functioning  problems     o Intervention   § Early  intervention  is  key   ú Better  prognosis  for  the  child   ú Easier  to  teach  the  mom  and  dad  alternative  ways  of  parents   before  maladaptive  behaviors  get  set  in     § Anyone  who  works  with  children  as  their  job  is  legally  required  to   report  any  suspicion  of  child  abuse     § Social  workers  check  in  on  the  family     § Parents  can  be  taught  alternative  ways  of  interacting  with  their  child  and   can  help  stop  abuse   ú Need  resources  to  do  that     ú Want  to  keep  together  the  family  unit  as  much  as  possible     ú Try  to  establish  a  support  system  for  the  family   IV.  Relationship  with  Other  Children     • Siblings     o Older  sibling  first  have  a  little  bit  of  aggressive  when  mom  is  having  another   baby     o Some  withdraw  can  occur   o Also  see  pride  in  the  older  child  because  they  get  to  do  things  tha t  the  other   baby  doesn’t  get  to  do   o 8-­‐9  months  in,  older  child  has  overcome  the  negative  concerns     o Sibling  rivalry   § Even  though  there  is  always  going  to  be  sibling  rivalry,  there  is  far  more   affection  for  siblings  than  rivalry   § As  the  kids  get  older  it  becomes  even  more  the  case,  they  tend  to  value   their  siblings     • Sociability   o Child’s  interest  in  other  children   o Tends  to  increase  over  the  span  of  infancy  and  childhood   § Become  more  sociable     o Individual  differences  in  sociability   § Some  children  more  sociable,  in  watching  other  children  than  others   § Preference  in  sociability  and  interacting  with  others,  tends  to  remain   stable  overtime       o Belief  that  sociability  is  related  to  inborn  temperamental  styles     § Impacted  by  their  experiences  (ex.  S ociable  momà  more  likely  to  be   sociable  yourself)     § Genetic  and  environmental  factors  involved   Physical Development in Early Childhood 10/10/16 8:34 AM Years  between  3-­‐6     I.  Physical  Growth  and  Change   • Height,  weight,  appearance   o 3  year  old  is  going  to  become  more  slender,  “athleticish”  in  their  appearance   o Look  more  like  little  people,  not  like  babies  anymore     o Trunk,  arms,  legs  more  elongated   o Head  more  proportional  to  the  rest  of  the  body     o Each  year  during  early  childho od,  children  gain  4-­‐6  pounds  &  2-­‐3  inches     o Boys   § Taller  and  heavier  than  girls     § Except  for  when  puberty  kicks  in   ú Girls  will  be  taller/heavier     • Structural  changes   o Muscular  systems  and  skeletal  systems  are  stronger   o Brian  more  mature   o Respiratory  system  more   mature   o More  stamina     o Immune  system  is  more  developed   § More  resistant  to  getting  sick     • Development  of  Teeth   o Beginning  at  age  3,  all  of  the  baby  teeth  are  present     o At  the  age  of  6,  the  permanent  teeth  begin  to  appear     o If  the  child  is  still  sucking  their  thumb  at  the  age  of  5,  parents  encouraged  to  get   child  to  stop  doing  that  because  the  teeth  can  come  in  crooked     II.  Health   • Health  problems   o On  average,  7-­‐8  colds  per  year     § Sometimes  last  a  few  days,  sometimes  a  few  weeks   o Minor  illnesses   § Respiratory     § Stomach  aches,  viruses   § Immune  system  is  still  not  well  developed   § By  middle  childhood,  the  number  of  colds  every  year  decreases  to  6     o Major  illnesses   § Immunizations  eradicated  a  lot  of  the  contagious  illnesses     § Today,  25%  of  all  preschoolers  are  not  immunized     ú Encouraging  parents  to  get  their  children  immunized     ú Supposed  research  said  that  autism  was  developed  by   immunizations,  but  that  was  not  true   • Had  a  lingering  effect  of  parents  not  immunizing  their   children   § Influenza  (flu)  has  decreased  over  the  years   § Ammonia  has  gone  down   § Childhood  cancer  has  gone  down   § AIDS  has  increased  in  childhood   § Obesity  has  increased   ú Considered  a  worldwide  epidemic   § Malnutrition  has  increased     o Accidents   § Leading  cause  of  death  in  early  childhood   ú Most  often  automobile  accidents   § Car  seats  and  restraint  are  effective     • Influences  on  Health   o Exposure   § Child  who  go  to  daycare  when  they  are  little,  pick  up  more  colds   § More  respiratory  illnesses     § Children  growing  up  in  a  large  family  more  likely  to  get  sick     o Stress   § If  there  is  significant  stress  in  the  family,  increases  likelihood  that  the   child  might  get  sick  or  have  an  accident     o Poverty   § Chief  factor  associated  with  ill -­‐health  in  children   § Can’t  afford  to  take  child  to  doctor,  don’t  have  the  resources   ú Puts  the  child  at  risk   o Homelessness   § Children  are  vulnerable   § Family’s  with  children  count  for  a  large  percentage  of  all  homeless   individuals   § Most  homeless  children  are  under  the  age  of  5   III.  Motor  Skills     • Gross  and  fine  motor  skills   o 3  year  olds   § Cannot  stop  or  turn  suddenly  or  quickly   § Can  ascend  stairway,  alternating  feet,  unaided   ú They  can  go  up,  but  they  can’t  come  back  down   § Can  draw  circle   § Can  button  and  unbutton   o 4  year  olds   § Have  more  effective  control  of  stopping,  starting,  and  turning   § Can  descend  stairway,  alternating  feet,  if  supported   § Can  draw  person  and  crude  letters   § Can  dress  self  with  help   o 5  year  olds   § Can  stop,  start,  and  turn  effectively  in  games   § Can  descend  stairway,  alternating  feet,  unaided   § Can  copy  square  and  triangle   § Can  dress  self  without  much  help   • Handedness:  typically  prefers  one  hand  to  t he  other   o 90%  right  handed,  10%  left  handed     § Possible  genetic  component   § Left  handed  individuals  are  more  likely  to:  be  academically  gifted,  have   allergies,  problems  sleeping,  migraines,  more  accidents   § Disproportionate  number  of  left  handed  individuals  in   certain  areas   § Baseball  players,  artists,  architects,  mathematicians     IV.  Sleep     • Stages   o Stage  1:  light  sleeping,  will  wake  up  if  there  is  a  disturbance   o Stage  2:  a  little  deeper  than  stage  1   o Stage  3:  a  little  deeper  than  stage  2   o Stage  4:  typically  considered  deep  sleep   § We  spend  more  time  in  stage  4  in  the  first  2 -­‐3  hours  of  going  to  bed   o REM  sleep   § We  spend  more  time  here  towards  the  middle  and  end  of  the  night   • Normal  sleep  patterns   o Typically,  children  sleep  through  the  night   –  recommended  that  they  take  a  nap   at  some  point  during  the  day   o As  they  approach  5  year  old,  they  struggle  with  going  to  sleep   –  they  don’t  want   the  day  to  end     § So  parents  come  up  with  elaborate  bedtime  routines     ú Ex:  snack,  milk,  brushing  teeth,  washing  face,  putting  on  pajamas,   story  time  with  dad,  etc.     o Transitional  object  –  teddy  bears,  certain  blankets,  etc.  that  help  the  child  adjust   from  being  awake  to  going  to  bed   § Not  harmful  to  the  child   –  children  who  have  transitional  objects  at  a   later  age  tend  to  be  better  adjusted,  they’ll  get  r id  of  the  objects  when   they’re  ready   • Sleep  related  disturbances   o Bedtime  temper  tantrums:  child  engages  in  extended  struggles  prior  to  bedtime   § 20%  of  all  children  in  their  first  4  years  of  life  engage  in  these   –   sometimes  lasting  more  than  an  hour   § Typically  seen  in  children  ages  2-­‐4   § Best  way  to  prevent  this  is  to  have  a  bedtime  routine   o Nightmares:  child  experiences  frightening  dreams  that  typically  occur  during   REM  sleep   § Could  be  because  of  scary  movies  they  watched  before  bed   § If  we  think  about  it  right  after  waking  up,  we  can  potentially  remember   dreams/nightmares   o Night  terrors:  child  abruptly  awakens  during  stage  4  sleep  with  a  panicky   scream  or  cry   § Usually  occurs  2-­‐3  hours  after  going  to  bed   § Lasts  between  1-­‐10  minutes   § Not  fully  awake  –  so  if  parents  try  to  talk  to  them  and  calm  them  down,   they’re  not  fully  responsive   § Children  don’t  remember  night  terrors     § Run  in  families     § Doesn’t  mean  children  have  any  deep  rooted  problems  or  trauma   § Can  cause  social  ramifications   –  child  is  embarrassed  bc  of  night  terro rs   and  won’t  sleep  at  a  friend’s  house  bc  of  them   § Can  extend  into  adulthood  (exception  rather  than  rule)   • Sleepwalking:  child  rises  from  bed  during  stage  4  sleep  and  walks  around  briefly   o Tends  to  occur  during  same  stage  at  night  terrors   –  both  considered  stage  4   sleep  disturbances   o Lasts  a  few  minutes     o Eyes  open,  not  fully  awake   o 10-­‐30%  all  children  have  an  episode  of  sleepwalking  at  some  point     o Carefully  and  gently  wake  them   –  don’t  startle  them   o Runs  in  families     o May  be  caused  by  anxiety  the  day  before?  Cause  not  known   • Sleep  talking:  child  verbalizes,  typically  during  stage  4  sleep   o Can  occur  during  other  stages     o Not  indicative  of  any  significant  issues  of  any  kind,  just  happens  sometimes   • Enuresis  or  bed-­‐wetting:  child  recurrently  wets  their  bed  or  clothes  eith er  during  the   day  or  at  night   o On  enuresis   § Categorized  under  elimination  disorders   § To  be  diagnosed:     ú Repeated  voiding  of  urine  into  bed  or  clothes   ú Frequency  –  twice  a  week  for  3  consecutive  months  or  presence   of  clinically  significant  distress  or  impairment  in  social,  academic   (occupational),  or  other  important  areas  of  functioning   ú Chronological  age  is  at  least  5  years   ú The  behavior  is  not  due  exclusively  to  the  direct  physiological   effect  of  a  substance  or  general  medical  condition   § Types   ú Primary:  diagnosed  in  child  to  never  established  urinary   continence     • Incontinence  –  should  know  this  word   ú Secondary:  diagnosed  in  child  who  has  regressed  after  at  least  a   year  of  established  urinary  continence   • Ex:  baby  brother  is  born  and  older  child  regresses   o 5  year  olds  –  5-­‐10%     o 10  year  olds    –  3-­‐5%     o Adolescents  –  1%   o Only  1%  of  enuretic  children  will  continue  to  be  enuretic  in  adulthood   o More  common  in  boys  than  in  girls   • Etiology   o Might  be  caused  by  medication,  maybe  an  actual  medical  issue  (like  abetes) o Strong  genetic  component   § More  common  in  monozygotic  twins  than  dizygotic  twins   • Treatment:  Bell  and  pad  method   o Technique  developed  by  Mowrer  and  Mowrer  using  classical  conditioning  to   treat  individuals  with  enuresis   o Child  sleeps  on  a  pad  wired  to  alarm   o First  drops  of  urine  set  off  the  alarm  and  wake  the  child   o The  child  comes  to  associate  a  full  bladder  with  awakening   • 80%  success  rate     Intellectual Development in Early Childhood 10/10/16 8:34 AM   I.  Aspects  of  intellectual  development     • Development  of  memory:  child’s  memory  is  better  than  we  used  to  think  it  was   o Recognition  and  recall  memory   § Recognition:  ability  to  identify  something  that  has  been  encountered   before   ú Ex:  multiple  choice  test   § Recall:  ability  to  reproduce  knowledge  from  memory   ú Ex:  essay  test     § Recognition  memory  is  better  than  recall  memory   o Influences  on  child’s  memory   § Age:  as  they  get  older,  they’re  more  and  more  able  to  establish  long  term   memories   § Children  remember  things  better  that  are  new  &  unique   § Child  tend  to  remember  things  that  occ ur  on  a  regular  basis     § If  they  had  an  opportunity  to  talk  to  someone  about  it     ú Ex:  what  was  in  the  museum   à  mom  that  talked  to  child  about   what  was  in  the  museum  versus  mom  that  didn’t  volunteer   information  to  the  child   § Talking  out  loud  with  someone  as  you  study     • Preoperational  stage  of  cognitive  development:  Piaget   o Spans  from  age  2-­‐7   § Begins  a  little  earlier  than  early  childhood  and  extends  a  little  past  early   childhood     o Thinking  in  a  qualitatively  different  way     § Can  represent  things  with  words  and  images     § Big  milestone:  acquisition  of  symbolic  function     o Skills:   § Symbolic  Function   ú Child  who  can  now  learn  by  using  symbols     • Symbols:  mental  representations  that  people  have   attached  meaning  too   • Something  that  stands  for  something  else     • Ex:  word,  picture   ú Symbols  allow  us  to  think  about  objects  and  events  that  we  have   experienced  even  when  it  is  not  directly  in  front  of  us     • b/c  we’ve  stored  them  in  our  memory  system   ú When  the  child  starts  using  words  can  recognize  they  are  using   symbolic  function     ú Differed  imitation:  when  a  child  imitates  in  observed  action  after   some  time  has  passed     § Cause  &  Effect   ú Have  a  greater  understanding  of  causality     § Numbers   ú Ability  to  understand  quantities     ú Known  understand  the  1  to  1  principle   • Only  one  number  name  applies  to  each  item  being   counted     ú Stable  order  principle:  say  number  names  in  a  set  order     ú Children  understanding  words  that  compare  quantities     • Relatively  universal     § Classification     ú Proficiency  in  classifying  or  grouping  items     • Putting  them  into  categories     ú Color  &  shape  categories     § Empathy:  ability  to  consider  how  other  people  feel   ú Beginning  to  develop     ú Jerone  Kagin-­‐  famous  developmental  psychologist   • Put  children  in  playroom  with  their  moms   • Young  children  are  manifesting  some  empathy   • Doll  in  room  had  no  head,  child  brought  to  mom  with   concern     § Theory  of  Mind   ú Can  imagine  what  someone  is  thinking  and  make  a  prediction   about  their  behavior     ú Understanding  that  mom  and  dad  sometimes  act  differently     § Concept  of  Identity     ú Ex:  Mom  gets  her  hair  done  but  the  child  knows  its  still  mom     ú Recognizes  that  he  looked  different  as  a  baby   § Animism   ú Children  have  difficult  distinguishes  reality  versus  fantasy     ú We  believe  that  children  are  less  subject  to  animism  then  we   once  thought     § Lack  Reversibility   ú Ex:  adding  and  subtracting  are  opposite  operations   § Transductive  Reasoning   ú Can’t  think  logically  yet     ú The  tendency  to  see  a  connection  b/w  unrelated  occurrences     ú Children  think  in  a  qualitatively  different  way  than  we  do     • Ex:  mom  &  dad  getting  a  divorce;   dad  moving  out   because  he  was  a  bad  boy  in  the  morning   § Egocentrism   ú See  the  world  from  their  own  perspective


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