Psych Notes PSYC 202
Popular in Intro to Psychology as a Social Science
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hana Liebman on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 202 at The College of William & Mary taught by Constance Pilkington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology as a Social Science in Psychology (PSYC) at The College of William & Mary.
Reviews for Psych Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/10/16
Psychology202 with ProfessorPilkington Notes for Exam II Social Psychology Definition Study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual are influenced by the real or imaged presence of others o Humans are social animals and need to be included o Explains why normal adults act the way they do Person Perception How we view and create a coherent understanding of others Impression formation o Person schema: organizing information about an individual based on past experiences with people o Information comes from observation, the situation/context, and the social groups the person is a part of Social groups: role schemas (metal categories describing broad social groups—stereotyping) Can be based on gender, ethnicity, profession, etc. Very influential Leads to assumptions and assigning characteristics Simpler because it uses less cognitive energy o Ambiguity: an ambiguous situation or action requires us to interpret specific behaviors and the reasons behind them Physical appearance o First thing you encounter when you meet someone new o Physical attractiveness positively correlates with positive evaluations Exceptions Very beautiful women are viewed as vain and egotistical Very beautiful men are viewed as unintelligent o Reasons “What is beautiful is good” stereotype: one good quality means a person most likely has other good qualities Evolution Beautiful women are healthy and can better carry children Beautiful men are strong and can provide protection and food Power of first impressions o First impressions are used to interpret subsequent behavior If our first impression of Jim is that he is a nice guy and he opens a door for a woman, we are confirmed in our belief that he is considerate If our first impression of Jim is that he is a jerk and he opens a door for a woman, we are confirmed in our belief that he is sexist o Confirmation bias: tendency to look for information that validates our beliefs and proves us right o Behavioral confirmation (aka self-fulfilling bias): Person A has a belief about Person B; Person A will unconsciously act in a way that elicits the expected behavior from Person B, therefore confirming that belief Attribution Basics o Explains how an average person infers the reasons or causes behind certain behaviors o Two factors Internal: due to a person’s personality and disposition External: due to the situation or environment Kelley’s covariation model o When deciding the reasons for behavior, we look at factors that vary with that behavior o Three types of factors Consistency: regularity in a person’s behavior toward the same stimulus on different occasions Distinctiveness: extent to which a person reacts in the same way to different but related stimulus Consensus: extent to which others react in the same way toward the same stimulus o Combining info leads to appropriate attribution Low consensus, low distinctiveness, and high consistency an internal attribution High consensus, high distinctiveness, and high consistency an external attribution Low consensus, high distinctiveness, and high consistency a mixed attribution Problems with Kelley’s theory o People tend to neglect consensus information It’s important that the people making attributions understand that the people receiving them are similar to them o Cognitive misers: humans have limited cognitive resources, which is why we jump to conclusions based on schemas (past experiences) When are the above attributions made? o Explicit question is asked evokes a thoughtful response o Unexpected event occurs prompts questioning o Failure leads to a search to understand why o Reliance on another for a desired outcome tendency to pay attention to that person’s behavior Biases in attribution o Kelley assumes that people make attributions objectively o Fundamental attribution error (aka correspondence bias): assumption that a person’s behavior is a result of their internal reasons and not due to external factors Stronger in Western cultures, which emphasize independence Non-Western cultures, which emphasize interdependence, are the opposite—they tend to jump to external factors o Actor-observer difference: actors favor external factors, while observers favor internal factors o Divergent perspective hypothesis: the person making attributions picks the salient (most striking) option Research is supportive o Self-serving bias: tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal factors but to attribute one’s failure to external factors Most likely to occur when the task at hand is relevant to our self-concept Interpersonal Attraction How do we decide who we like and why? Proximity: physical distance of separation o Less distance leads to more attraction o Westgate West study: apartment housing Majority of a person’s friends lived in the same building Confirms the factor of proximity o Explanations Availability: more opportunities to spend time with someone Functional distance: physical situation that brings a person into contact with others more often Mere exposure: the more exposed to something you are, the more likely you are to like it and prefer it to something else This is because you know what to expect and how to react o Environmental spoiling: more exposure to a disliked thing causes you to dislike it even more Physical attractiveness o Positive correlation with positive attributions o Matching effect: tendency to form relationships with people of similar attractiveness o Predicts relationship continuation (at least initially) Poorly matched couples are more likely to break up within their first year of dating