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Psych Notes

by: Hana Liebman

Psych Notes PSYC 202

Hana Liebman

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About this Document

Detailed and organized notes taken in class on Thursday, 10/13, on social psychology.
Intro to Psychology as a Social Science
Constance Pilkington
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Psychology as a Social Science

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hana Liebman on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 202 at The College of William & Mary taught by Constance Pilkington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology as a Social Science in Psychology (PSYC) at The College of William & Mary.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Psychology202 with ProfessorPilkington Notes for Exam II Social Psychology Definition  Study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual are influenced by the real or imaged presence of others o Humans are social animals and need to be included o Explains why normal adults act the way they do Person Perception  How we view and create a coherent understanding of others  Impression formation o Person schema: organizing information about an individual based on past experiences with people o Information comes from observation, the situation/context, and the social groups the person is a part of  Social groups: role schemas (metal categories describing broad social groups—stereotyping)  Can be based on gender, ethnicity, profession, etc.  Very influential  Leads to assumptions and assigning characteristics  Simpler because it uses less cognitive energy o Ambiguity: an ambiguous situation or action requires us to interpret specific behaviors and the reasons behind them  Physical appearance o First thing you encounter when you meet someone new o Physical attractiveness positively correlates with positive evaluations  Exceptions  Very beautiful women are viewed as vain and egotistical  Very beautiful men are viewed as unintelligent o Reasons  “What is beautiful is good” stereotype: one good quality means a person most likely has other good qualities  Evolution  Beautiful women are healthy and can better carry children  Beautiful men are strong and can provide protection and food  Power of first impressions o First impressions are used to interpret subsequent behavior  If our first impression of Jim is that he is a nice guy and he opens a door for a woman, we are confirmed in our belief that he is considerate  If our first impression of Jim is that he is a jerk and he opens a door for a woman, we are confirmed in our belief that he is sexist o Confirmation bias: tendency to look for information that validates our beliefs and proves us right o Behavioral confirmation (aka self-fulfilling bias): Person A has a belief about Person B; Person A will unconsciously act in a way that elicits the expected behavior from Person B, therefore confirming that belief Attribution  Basics o Explains how an average person infers the reasons or causes behind certain behaviors o Two factors  Internal: due to a person’s personality and disposition  External: due to the situation or environment  Kelley’s covariation model o When deciding the reasons for behavior, we look at factors that vary with that behavior o Three types of factors  Consistency: regularity in a person’s behavior toward the same stimulus on different occasions  Distinctiveness: extent to which a person reacts in the same way to different but related stimulus  Consensus: extent to which others react in the same way toward the same stimulus o Combining info leads to appropriate attribution  Low consensus, low distinctiveness, and high consistency  an internal attribution  High consensus, high distinctiveness, and high consistency  an external attribution  Low consensus, high distinctiveness, and high consistency  a mixed attribution  Problems with Kelley’s theory o People tend to neglect consensus information  It’s important that the people making attributions understand that the people receiving them are similar to them o Cognitive misers: humans have limited cognitive resources, which is why we jump to conclusions based on schemas (past experiences)  When are the above attributions made? o Explicit question is asked  evokes a thoughtful response o Unexpected event occurs  prompts questioning o Failure  leads to a search to understand why o Reliance on another for a desired outcome  tendency to pay attention to that person’s behavior  Biases in attribution o Kelley assumes that people make attributions objectively o Fundamental attribution error (aka correspondence bias): assumption that a person’s behavior is a result of their internal reasons and not due to external factors  Stronger in Western cultures, which emphasize independence  Non-Western cultures, which emphasize interdependence, are the opposite—they tend to jump to external factors o Actor-observer difference: actors favor external factors, while observers favor internal factors o Divergent perspective hypothesis: the person making attributions picks the salient (most striking) option  Research is supportive o Self-serving bias: tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal factors but to attribute one’s failure to external factors  Most likely to occur when the task at hand is relevant to our self-concept Interpersonal Attraction  How do we decide who we like and why?  Proximity: physical distance of separation o Less distance leads to more attraction o Westgate West study: apartment housing  Majority of a person’s friends lived in the same building  Confirms the factor of proximity o Explanations  Availability: more opportunities to spend time with someone  Functional distance: physical situation that brings a person into contact with others more often  Mere exposure: the more exposed to something you are, the more likely you are to like it and prefer it to something else  This is because you know what to expect and how to react o Environmental spoiling: more exposure to a disliked thing causes you to dislike it even more  Physical attractiveness o Positive correlation with positive attributions o Matching effect: tendency to form relationships with people of similar attractiveness o Predicts relationship continuation (at least initially)  Poorly matched couples are more likely to break up within their first year of dating


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