Socc 1000 Molly Bukky notes
Socc 1000 Molly Bukky notes Soc 1000
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nikolas Wright on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 1000 at Ohio University taught by Molly Bukky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Intro to Soc: Family Family is a sociological universal First definition: o Traditional view of family is based on the US census o Based on blood and law First definition can be too restrictive; many people consider close people their family. The Family: Changing functions Reproduction = decreased Socialization (especially child rearing) = decreased Regulation of sexual behavior = decreased Affection and Companionship = Increased Ascriptive status – family determines life chances = neutral Economic production = decreased Economic Consumption = increased Defining the Family Any group that fulfills these functions is family o Care and affection o Guidance on how to think and act o Dating advice o Material support Second definition: o Any group who’s members love and care for each other Important Concepts Nuclear family: a married couple and their unmarried children living together o Came with industrial revolution and the movement away from agriculture Extended Family: two or more generations in the same household (uncles, aunts, cousins, grandparents) o Can provide emotional support (illness, divorce, death) and or economic support (survival of farm, small business, provide child care etc.) Monogamy: committed relationship Serial Monogamy: a form of relationship where partners move from one committed relationship to the next o Becoming increasingly popular practice in the united states Polygamy: a form of marriage where an individual is allowed to have several husbands or wives simultaneously. This type of marriage was preferred up until the 20th century throughout many cultures o Two forms: o Polygyny: 1 man several women, still alive in some portions of the us o polyandry 1 woman several men; most common in places where sufficient laborers in tough farming environments and limited offspring. 2 Intro to Soc: Family (2), Wednesday October th 5 Distribution of Power in Societies Who rules the house? o Varies, but gender almost always plays an important rule. Patriarchy: society in which men dominate in family decision making Matriarchy: society in which women dominate the decision making o Much less common, emerged among native Americans, where men were gone for long periods of time where men were gone for long periods of time (hunting, war) Egalitarian Family: spouses are regarded as equal. o Shift driven in part by increased occupational and financial opportunities for women o While this force of family has become more common in the US, male dominance over the family remains Rate of marriage o 90% of Americans eventually get married o in 2014 the marriage rate was 6.9 per 1000 population changes o age of first marriage is increasing 28.7 years for men 26.5 years for women o increase in interracial/ethnic marriages 2010 1 in 6 marriages were inter ethnic this is more than double in 1980 o increase in lgbt 3.4% of population reports being lgbt june 26, 2015 supreme court passes same sex marriage increasingly acceptable to the US public o divorce rate has declined increase that peaked in the 80’s aging if baby boomers and thus decline in the proportion of people merritable wage increase in marital stability in recent years marrying later increasing education economy delay of first child chance of divorce drop some college affiliated with religion parents not divorced ≥ 25 years at first marriage first child born at 7 months after the marriage income ≥ $50,000 successful marriage spouse as a person belief that marriage is a long term commitment share goals 2 can argue- deal with difficult situations cooperatively share leisure activities like in laws o marriage rates in 2014 there were 2,140,272 marrigages 813,862 divorces there are 5 million co-operating couples 1.6 million include a child under 15 years of age o How important is marriage? Still considered important Generational changes o Remain single Increasingly common Remaining single goes against traditional social expectations o Reasons: Don’t want to limit sexual intimacy to one person Don’t want any one person depending heavily on them Stereotypes of people remaining single 3 Intro to Soc: Week 8: Systems of Stratification and Inequality Stratification leads to Inequality Social differentiation: always involves a process of “making people different” o Social characteristics are used to enhance the power of one group over another Social differentiation can lead to social inequality and stratification Stratification: system in which large groups of people are divided into layers according to their property, prestige, and power. o Stratification helps perpetuate unequal economic rewards and power in society Ascribed Status and Achieved Status Ascribed Status: social position assigned to a person by society (typically at birth) without regard to the persons unique talents or characteristics Achieved status: social position a person attains, largely through his/her own efforts Systems of social stratification Slavery: most severe for of legalized social inequality. Form o stratification in which some people are owned by others. Caste: Stratification system based on status, typically hereditary and immobile. Le. Americas racial caste system after slavery Class: class systems are fluid (allows status to be achieved), positions are partially ascribed, economically based, large and impersonal. Social Inequality The condition under which members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige and power The amount of social inequality in each given society varies, but al societies have some degree of inequality (thus, it is a universal) Social Stratification is Universal Society must make sure all positions are filled Some positions are more important than others More important positons filled by more qualified people To motivate qualified people, they must be rewarded Conflict Perspective: o No society can exist if unless organized o Leadership means inequalities of power o Human nature is self-centered o Therefore, we will act to maximize benefits How do elites maintain stratification? Ideology vs. Force o Controlling ideas: easier to convince people to do what you want if they believe in it o Controlling information and using technology Global Stratification High Income Counties (West Europe, US, Canada, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong) o First to Industrialize o 18 % of world population, 68% of annual output o High GNI ($38,000) 2 o High life expectancy (79) o Low Birth rate (1.7) o Low infant mortality (5/1000) Upper-Middle Income Countries ( Mexico, most of south America, middle east, north Africa) o GNI ($7000) o Life expectancy (74) o Birth rate (1.9) o Infant mortality (16/1000) Lower middle income countries (Pakistan, India, pacific Islands) o GNI ($1,913) o Life expectancy (66) o Birth rate (2.9) o Infant mortality (46/1000) Low Income Countries (North Korea, Cambodia, Sub- Saharan Africa) o Transitioning from agricultural to industrial o GNI ($588) o High Birth rate (4.1) o Higher infant mortality rate (56/1000) How did the world become stratified? Modernization Theory (structural-functionalist, market oriented) o WWII ended, powers pulled out of colonies they had. Gave money and knowledge to undeveloped countries. Didn’t work, so we made them agricultural so they could feed their families and export food. Our farming techniques didn’t work. Dependency Theory (conflict, exploitation) o Colonialism. Started in Brazil, relationship was based of colonialism and therefor even after the relationship continues that way even after the power left. Because 3 the colony wasn’t able to economically develop on their own. World System Theory (refocus level of analysis) o Core, semi-peripheral, peripheral. The core were the power countries, semi peripheral were the lesser powerful, peripheral had no power. 4
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