Chapter 8 Book Notes
Chapter 8 Book Notes Soci 101
Popular in Intro to Sociology 101
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Liberal Arts and Sciences
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Smjonesy11 Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soci 101 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Gibbs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology 101 in Liberal Arts and Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
Reviews for Chapter 8 Book Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/10/16
Deviance and Control 8.1 What is Deviance? ● Deviance- any violation of norms ○ As minor as speeding to as major as murder ○ What is deviant to some is not deviant to others ○ Used non-judgmentally ■ Not saying an act is bad ■ But people judge it negatively ● Crime- the violation of rules written into law ● Stigma- characteristics that discredit people ○ Include violations of norms of appearance and norms of ability ■ Facial birthmarks, large noses, blindness, deafness, mental handicaps ● No human group can exist without norms ○ Norms make social life possible by making behavior predictable ○ No norms = social chaos ● Norms bring s ocial order- a group’s customary social arrangements ● Social control- formal and informal means of enforcing norms ○ The center of social control → Sanctions ● Sanctions- expressions of approval/disapproval for conforming/breaking norms ○ Negative sanctions- disapproval for breaking a norm showing deviance ■ From frowns to gossip, imprisonment or death, etc ■ Most are informal ■ The level of a negative sanction you might give a person will depend on the norm that is being broken and your perspective ○ Positive sanctions- approval for conforming to norms ■ From smiles to formal awards, raises, etc ● Competing Explanations of Deviance: Sociobiology, Psychology, and Sociology ○ Biosocial Explanations ■ Sociobiologists ex plain deviance as l ooking for answers within the individual ■ Assume genetic predispositions lead people to deviance ● Inborn tendencies ■ Street crime- mugging, rape, burglary, etc ● Men commit more violent crimes than women ○ Psychological Explanations ■ Psychologists focus on abnormalities within the individual ■ Examine personality disorders ● The view that a personality disturbance of some kind causes an individual to violate social norms ● Deviating persons have deviating personalities ○ Subconscious motives drive people to deviance ○ Sociological Explanations ■ Sociologists search for f actors outside the individual ■ Search for social influences that “recruit” people to break norms ● Why people commit crimes → sociologists study external influences: ○ Socialization ○ Membership in subcultures ○ Social class 8.2 The Symbolic INteractionist Perspective ● Differential Association Theory- Sutherland ○ From the d ifferent groups we a ssociate with, we learn to deviate from or conform to society’s norms ○ People who associate with some groups learn an “excess of definitions” of deviance ■ Increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant ○ The “different groups” we associate with- differential association ■ Gives us messages about deviance and conformity ● Learn to either deviate or conform ○ Families ■ Forms views towards life ■ Big area in learning deviance and conformity ■ Studies showed that of all prison inmates, about half have a direct family member who has served time in prison ● Families that are involved in crime tend to set their children on a law breaking path ○ Friends, neighbors, subcultures ■ If kids have delinquent friends → they will become delinquent ● Reason why parents move away from “bad neighborhoods” ■ Violence is woven into some subcultures ● Anything can bring violence ● Some killings are seen as honorable ○ mafia/gang killings ○ “The more awesome and potent the victim, the more worthy and meritorious the killer” (Arlacchi 1980) ○ Differential Association in the Cyber Age ■ Modern society’s prime focus is in technology ● Terrorist groups can use media to motivate people to do violence ● Media can make people conform to new trends, styles, obey norms ○ Are we prisoners of socialization? ■ We help to produce our own orientations of life ● Joining one group vs another (differential association) → we help to shape the self ● Control Theory ○ Ever feel the urge to do something that you know you shouldn’t? ○ Walter Reckless ○ Control Theory- the idea that 2 control systems work against our tendencies to deviate. ■ Control systems (2) ● Inner controls ○ Internalized morality- conscious, religious principles, ideas of right and wrong ○ Fears of punishment/desire to be a “good person” ● Outer controls ○ Consists of people ■ Family, friends, police ■ Stronger bonds with society = more effective the inner controls are ■ Bonds are based on attachments, commitments, involvements, and beliefs ■ Control Theory is about self-control ○ Applying Control Theory ■ You go to a party where people are taking ecstasy. ■ What makes you want to try the drug: friends, the setting, curiosity ■ Inner controls- conscious, internal voices of your parents and teachers, fears of arrest and the danger of illegal drugs ■ Outer controls- a policeman looking in the direction of the party ● Labeling Theory ○ Labeling Theory- view that labels people are given affect their own and others’ perceptions of them ■ Leads one’s behavior into either deviance or conformity ■ Focuses on: ● The significance of reputations ● How reputations/labels help set us on paths of deviance or conformity ○ Rejecting labels: how people neutralize them ■ 5 Techniques of Neutralization ● Denial of Responsibility ○ “I am not responsible because…” ● Denial of Injury ○ Nobody got hurt, I didn’t do anything wrong.” ● Denial of a Victim ○ Some see themselves as avengers. ○ “They deserved what they got.” ● Condemnation of the Condemners ○ Denying others’ right to judge them ○ “Who are they to accuse me of something?” ● Appeal to Higher Loyalties ○ Loyalty to a gang vs loyalty to the society as a whole ○ “I had to help my friends!” ■ Applying Neutralization ● 1. “I was so mad I couldn’t help myself.” ● 2. “Who really got hurt?” ● 3. “Don’t you think that person deserved that? After what they did?” ● 4. “Who are you to talk?” ● 5. “I had to help my friends!” 8.3 The Functionalist Perspective ● Deviance is functional for society- Durkheim ● Deviance contributes to social order by clarifying moral boundaries and affirms norms ○ Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms ■ Refers to a group’s ideas about how people should think and act ■ Deviant acts challenge these boundaries ○ Deviance encourages social unity ■ Punishing deviants to affirm the group’s moral boundaries ■ Creates a feeling of “we” ○ Deviance promotes social change ■ Deviance can force a group to rethink and redefine its moral boundaries ■ Helps groups adapt to changing circumstances ● Strain Theory: How Mainstream Values Produce Deviance ○ Cultural goals- the objectives held out as legitimate or desirable for the members of a society to achieve. ■ Success ■ Wealth, prestige ○ Institutionalized means- approved ways of reaching cultural goals ■ Legitimate ways to success ■ Working hard ■ Pursuing higher education ○ Strain Theory ■ Merton ■ When a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (i.e. success) but withholds from some the approved means of reaching that goal. ■ The most common reaction to means and goals is conformity ■ People who are not able to reach their goals experience ○ 4 Deviant Paths ■ Adapts through innovation ● Innovators- people who accept the goals of society but use illegitimate means to reach them ■ Adapts through ritualism ● Start out wanting the cultural goals, but become discouraged and give up on achieving them ● Ritualists have given up on getting ahead of their work, but survive by following the rules of their jobs ■ Adapts though retreatism ● Reject both cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them ● Stop pursuing success and retreat to alcohol and drugs ■ Adapts through rebellion ● Convinced that society is corrupt ● Also reject both cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them ● Want to give society new goals and new ways of reaching them ● Revolutionaries ○ Strain Theory in sum ■ Strain theory says deviants are the product of society ■ Mainstream social values can produce strain (frustration/dissatisfaction ■ People who feel more strain are more likely to take deviant paths ● Illegitimate Opportunity Structures: Social Class and Crime ○ Illegitimate Opportunity- opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life ○ White Collar Crime- crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in their occupations ■ Security violations, embezzlement, false advertising ○ Corporate Crime- executives breaking the law to benefit their corporations ■ Fraud 8.4 The Conflict Perspective ● Criminal Justice System- the system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime ● Conflict theorists say power and social inequality as the main characteristics of society ● The criminal justice system is a tool designed by “the powerful” to maintain their power and privilege ○ Meant to stabilize the social order ○ Conflict theories say the criminal justice system as a means to oppress the poor ○ Majority of prison inmates are from the poor and working class 8.5 Reactions to Deviance ● Recidivism- the percentage of released convicts who are rearrested ○ Prisons do not teach people to stray from crime ● Within 3 years of release, ⅔ (68%) are rearrested ○ Half are back in prison ● Death Penalty and Bias ○ Capital punishment is the most extreme measure the state takes ■ The death penalty is not administered evenly across the states ○ Social Class ■ Half of the prisoners (52%) on death row haven’t finished high school ○ Gender ■ Almost unheard of to see a woman on death row ● 9.6% of murders ● 1.8% of prisoners on death row ○ Race-Ethnicity ■ Between 1908-1963 ● 2798 men were convicted for rape and attempted rape ● 56% whites and 44% blacks ● Rape- 41 men executed ● Attempted rape- 13 executed ○ Not one was white, all executed were black ● Official Statistics Issues ○ “Working class boys are more delinquent than middle class boys” ○ Ideas of “typical criminals” and “typical good citizens” ○ Police Direction- the decision to either arrest someone or ignore the situation ○ Crime statistics do not have an objective, independent existence ● Medicalization of Deviance: Mental Illness ○
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'