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BIO121 Week 7 Lecture Notes

by: BenWilliams

BIO121 Week 7 Lecture Notes Bio 121

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Summary of the rest of the integument unit Disclaimer: These materials are the interpretation of lecture. The materials are not direct products of Professor Erbach.
Anatomy and Physiology
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Biology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by BenWilliams on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 121 at Parkland College taught by Erbach in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Natural Sciences at Parkland College.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
Week 7 Lecture Notes 10/2-10/7 I. Components of Integument A. Epidermis 1. Stratified squamous epithelia B. Dermis 1. Papillary layer 2. Reticular layer C. Hypodermis 1. Not technically a part of integument D. Accessory Structures 1. Hair, nails, exocrine glands, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nerves, muscles, blood vessels II. Nerves A. Tactile corpuscles 1. Detect light touch B. Free nerve endings 1. Detect touch and pressure 2. Between epidermal cells C. Tactile disks 1. Detect texture and steady pressure 2. In deepest epidermal layer D. Meissner’s corpuscles 1. Detect light touch, pressure, and vibration 2. In papillary layer E. Lamellated corpuscles 1. Detect deep pressure and vibration 2. In epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis F. Ruffini corpuscles 1. Detect pressure and skin stretching 2. In reticular layer III. Epidermal Layers A. Stratum basale 1. Deepest layer 2. Contains basal stem cells B. Stratum spinosum 1. Contains dendritic cells (immune cells) C. Stratum granulosum 1. Cells stop dividing and only produce keratin D. Stratum lucidum 1. Only found in thick skin 2. Dead cells filled with keratin E. Stratum corneum 1. Outermost layer of skin 2. Water resistant IV. Skin Color Factors A. Pigments 1. Carotene- orange/yellow pigment that bunches in epidermis 2. Melanin- yellow/brown/black pigment produced from melanocytes in stratum basale a) Melanosomes- vesicles that transport melanin b) Color of melanin shades nuclei from UV radiation B. UV Radiation Exposure 1. Increased exposure will increase production of melanin C. Subpapillary Plexus 1. Blood vessels in epidermis 2. Amount of circulation can affect skin tone D. Cutaneous Plexus 1. Blood vessels in hypodermis 2. Amount of circulation can affect skin tone V. Dermal Layers A. Papillary layer 1. Areolar tissue 2. Contains capillaries, lymphatic vessels, sensory neurons B. Reticular layer 1. Dense irregular connective tissue 2. Contains collagen and elastic fibers VI. Hypodermis A. Separates skin from deep structures B. Composed of adipose tissue for energy storage C. Allows for independent movement VII. Hair A. Formation 1. Hair bulb- expanded base of follicle 2. Hair papilla- connective tissue in bulb with blood vessels and nerves 3. Matrix- actively dividing basal cells in contact with papilla 4. Medulla- daughter cells in center of matrix 5. Cortex- intermediate deep layer 6. Cuticle- outermost layer B. Regions 1. Shaft- surface (what we see) 2. Root- anchors hair so skin 3. Root plexus- collection of sensory nerves C. Growth 1. Active phase a) When hair is growing 2. Resting phase a) When hair is not growing b) Hair loses attachment to follicle c) Becomes a club hair that is shed when follicle is reactivated VIII. Glands A. Sebaceous glands 1. Secreted from hair 2. Holocrine (lipid) secretions 3. Contraction of arrector pili causes sebum (hair shaft lubricant) release B. Sweat glands 1. Apocrine a) Secreted from hair b) Become active during puberty c) Heavily influenced by hormones 2. Merocrine a) Secreted directly onto skin b) Most numerous type IX. Nails A. Nail body- main, visible part of nail B. Free edge- white part of the end of the nail that is trimmed C. Lunula- white part at the base of nail D. Lateral nail fold- folds over sides of the body E. Eponychium- skin growing over top of body (cuticle) F. Hyponychium- skin underneath free edge X. Skin Aging A. Less melanocytes B. Drier and thinning epidermis 1. Fewer elastic fibers cause wrinkling C. Reduced vitamin D production D. Diminished dendritic cells E. Decreased perspiration F. Reduced blood flow to dermis 1. Why old people are always cold 2. Slows skin repair G. Fewer active follicles XI. Vitamin D3 Production A. UV radiation → Stratum basale produce cholecalciferol → Kidneys produce calcitriol from cholecalciferol → Calcitriol causes absorption of calcium and phosphate ions XII. Skin Regeneration A. Inflammatory phase 1. Mast cells secrete histamine that causes redness, swelling, heat, and pain B. Migratory phase 1. Blood clots and scabs on surface of wound 2. Macrophages remove debris and pathogens that entered the body C. Proliferation phase 1. Granulation tissue forms from scab 2. Fibroblasts secrete collagen fibers around wound opening D. Scarring phase 1. Fibroblasts create scar tissue XIII. Burns A. Result from exposure to heat, friction, radiation, electric shock, or chemicals B. Degrees 1. 1st Degree a) Surface of epidermis affected b) Reddened skin 2. 2nd Degree a) Entire epidermis is damaged b) Blistering and swelling occurs 3. 3rd Degree a) Destruction of epidermis, dermis, and sometimes hypodermis b) Less painful that 1st and 2nd because nerves are destroyed c) Cannot be naturally repaired by body C. Negative Effects of Burns 1. Fluid loss rate increases a) Body cannot thermoregulate efficiently 2. Infection can occur in blistering or any open parts of burn a) Sepsis (skin rotting) can occur D. Grafting repair 1. Autograft- patients own skin used to graft 2. Allograft- cadaver skin used to graft 3. Xenograft- animal skin used to graft


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