Chapter 8 notes
Chapter 8 notes History 1302
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1302 at Southwest Texas Junior College taught by J. Overfelt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see History 1301 in United states history at Southwest Texas Junior College.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 8 Securing the Republic 1780-1815 Politics in an Age of Passion A. Hamilton’s Program No parties. No president/vice president. Ticket system. Most electoral votes becomes president, second most becomes vice president. George Washington vs. John Adams. George Washington was sworn in on April 30, 1789. Washington won all the electoral votes. John Adams became the Vice President. (“So help me God.” Was added to the oath because of Washington.) 3 cabinet members Jefferson- Sec. of Hamilton- Sec. of Treasury Nox- Sec. of War a) Wanted to make the U.S. a major commercial & military power b) Would do this by: 1. Creating a bank of the U.S. Print money, hold finances of the U.S., private bank. (Bought out the national debt, issued bonds, rich people hoped to cash out later. Thomas Jefferson didn’t believe it was constitutional) 2. Tax producers of Whiskey 3. Creation of a national Army c) Emergence of Opposition All hinged on Britain as a trade partner 1. Thomas Jefferson & James Madison opposed, they believed farmers should be the main income. d) Political Parties 1. Federalists Party supported Washington & Hamilton’s economic plan with its close ties to Great Britain. French Revolution was in direct effect of the American Revolution. The French executed important people. George Washington declared America to be Neutral. 2. The Republican Party was sympathetic to the French Revolution & believed in democratic self-government. Whiskey Rebellion; upset Hamilton was taxing whiskey, liberty poles, Washington sent led 13,000 militias to dispatch the rebellion. They gave up immediately. 3. Political Lndguage After his 2 term he was done. People started to blame Washington. Washington’s Farewell 1. Don’t make political alliances 2. Don’t align with political parties The Adams Presidency A. Election of 1796 Federalists don’t give all their votes to Pignie, Adam’s Vice President. So Jefferson who is republican becomes the Vice President. a) Adams wins with 71 electoral votes to Jefferson’s 68 B. Censorship a) Alien & Sedition Acts limited civil liberties If you talked bad about the Federalist Party you could get kicked out of the country; it now took 14 years to become Americanized. b) Main Target was the Republican Press So they wouldn’t talk bad about the Federalist Party. C. The “Revolution of 1800” a) Jefferson defeats Adams in the 1800 presidential election b) Results in the 12 amendment a. Separate votes for president/vice president Regular Americans can play a role in politics c) Adam’s acceptance of defeat established the peaceful transition of power between parties Jefferson became the 1 president to reside in Washington D.C. Jefferson in Power A. Judicial Review Abolished all taxes, not tariffs. Reduced army/navy. James Madison- Sec. of State. a) Marbury v. Madison (1803) – established the power of judicial review relative to federal laws. B. Louisiana Purchase a) Greatest irony of his presidency is also his greatest achievement. Goes to France to buy New Orleans: bought Louisiana Purchase for 15million. b) Purchased from France In 1803, doubles the size of the U.S. overnight. C. Lewis & Clark Expedition Went across the plains; met the Shoshone Indians; Sacagawea became their guide with her new born on her back. a) Objection was both exploration & commercial. b) 1 white people to see buffalo and prairie dogs; and Indians saw white people for the first time. c) Expedition paved the way for a transcontinental country; thought it would take 300+ years, only took 80. D. The Barbary Wars a) Jefferson had hoped to stay out of foreign problems, but found it impossible to avoid being drawn into wars with Europe. b) Barbary pirates along the North African coast demanded tributes from all governments including America. Jefferson refuses to pay; they declare war; naval conflict along North African coast. c) Jefferson refused, the U.S. & Tripoli engaged in a naval conflict that America won in 1804. The Second War for Independence A. The War of 1812 a) Madison asks for war more out of national pride than actual want. b) War wasn’t in Americas favor in the beginning British navy blocked trade routes 1813- Defeated British naval forces in Lake Erie 1814- Britain send over a larger force; Britain invades the U.S. August 24, 1814 Britain loots Washington D.C. then burns it to the ground. c) American did have a few military successes 1. Battle of Lake Erie 2. Battle of Fort McHenry Scott Key wrote a poem called “The Star Spangles Banner” 3. Battle of New Orleans- Jan 1815 (no one knew the war had already ended 6 weeks prior) d) Treaty of Ghent December 1814 e) Era of Good Feeling Proud the beat Britain again Didn’t last long
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