ANSC 2000 set 10
ANSC 2000 set 10 ANSC 2000 - 001
Popular in Companion Animal Management
Popular in Animal Science
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Elliott on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 2000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Carolyn E Huntington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Companion Animal Management in Animal Science at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Animals in Service to Mankind Part II ANSC 2000 set 10 Key Terms: 1) PVT TIM HALL: essential amino acid acronym 2) LD :50toxicity of chemical) dose necessary to kill 50% of population of test species 3) CAT: computerassisted tomography 4) MRI: magneticresonance imaging 5) Prions: Proteins that disrupt the central nervous system 6) PETA: People for Ethical Treatment of Animals 7) ALF: Animal Liberation Front ______________________________________________________________________________ Lists to know: Animals help with 3 areas of biomedical science: 1) Biomedical & behavioral research 2) Teaching 3) Drug toxicity & product testing Broader range of attitudes based on 3 books from 70s: 1) Animals, Men & Morals relationship between human & animals, animals have rights 2) Victims of Sciencespeciesism introduced 3) Animal Liberation: A New Ethic for Our Treatment of AnimalsSinger questions using animals for food & clothing Concept of 3 R’s: 1) Refinement…of techniques to reduce suffering 2) Reduction…in numbers of animals needed 3) Replacement…of animals by nonanimal techniques, when possible ______________________________________________________________________________ Important information: Animals used in scientific experimentation for 2,000 yrs. First used them to study body functions - Prove that veins carry blood, not air - Demonstrate the circulation of blood - Effect of anesthesia on the body - Relationship between bacteria & disease Of the nearly 100 Nobel Prizes awarded in Medicine & Physiology during 20 century, more than 2/3 involved the use of animals Discoveries Insulinremoval of dog pancreas Diagnosis, treatment & prevention of: - Heart disease, Poliomyelitis - Measles, Smallpox - Massive burns Open heart surgery Blood transfusions Organ transplants Laser surgery Determining safety & efficacy of new drugs, vaccines Nutritional Considerations Ex: Ivan Pavlov Digestive glands - Extensive use of fistulas rather than vivisection - Food stimuli at a distance from the animal - Paired unconditioned stimulussalivation at sight of food with a neutral stimulus sound of bell - Rejected “psychic” salivary secretion theory & concluded a conditioned reflex was involved Joseph Goldberger - Relationship between black tongue in dogs to pellagra - Lack of niacin (B3) & tryptophan Schaumann - Value of heating foods G.R. Cowgill - Role of vitamin B6 in nutrition of dogs E. Mellanby - Canine rickets & osteomalacia Animal Models for Human Research Why? - Allows increased control over genetics - Increased control over environment - Improved protocol compliance - Availability of invasive techniques During 20 century, rats, mic, birds, & fish were ~90% of the animals used in biomedical research - Represent unregulated species in US: #’s hard to estimate - Prior to this, early research was primarily on dogs Is the use of companion animals increasing or decreasing? - Decreasing! - First report 1973, 1.6 mill. animals used - In 2014, 834,000 animals used Rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, primates, dogs, cats, farm animals Unregulated animals are not reported, but their numbers are also thought to have decreased significantly - Rats, mice, birds or fish Preferred Animal Models Dogs used to study human nutrition for nearly 2 centuries Canine colons are proportionate in length to human colons Dogs & humans have colonic bacteria that contribute significantly to colonic fermentation - Bacteroides, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli Similar dietary habits - Dogs evolved from carnivores; adapted to omnivorous diet - Generally require same essential nutrients as humans Exception: vitamin C, which dogs can synthesize Cats are less desirable research model for human nutrition - Strictly carnivorous Cats require amino acid taurine for conjugation of bile acid - Also require same 10 essential amino acids needed by mammals PVT TIM HALL - Sensitive to deficiency in essential amino acid arginine Unable to convert beta carotene to vitamin A - Preformed vitamin A & niacin essential to their diet Cats require omega6 fatty acid arachidonic acid Small bodies of cats make it difficult to obtain adequate amounts of blood, fecal, tissue or urine samples Dogs & cats develop spontaneous tumors - Good for studying certain forms of cancer in humans Exchange of information in nutritionrelated findings - Apply human insights towards animals - Ex: How to feed properly under certain disease states Experimental Categories Supported by Companion Animals Basic or applied - Basic: to increase knowledge base & understanding of chemical, physical, & functional mechanisms - Applied: application of that applied basic knowledge Biomedical & Behavioral Research Biomedical: Advances our understanding of how biological systems function Based on 2 basic requirements: 1) Control of variables that might affect the response 2) Replication of results confirmed by other laboratories Behavioral: determines factors affecting animal behavior & response to stimuli - Via physical stimuli or manipulation of brain or CNS (central nervous system) Begun to move away from demos with live animals - Plastic replicas, computer simulations, & videos Drug Testing Efficacy & safety of new medicine; possible toxicity - Cosmetics & bath soaps Fulfill requirements of FDA LD 50 Use of Animals in Biomedical Research Basic assumption: develop ways of relieving & minimizing human & animal suffering Animals serve as surrogates for humans - Animal rights advocates argue people should serve as experimental subjects if test benefit them - Ex: limitations of aging human vs. rat - Ex: difficult to obtain similar weights & genetic makeup to standardize Body systems & functions react with stimuli similar to those of humans First successful kidney transplant done in dog Techniques used to save lives of “blue babies”heart Openheart surgery, coronary bypass, heart transplantation - Developed with dogs, ponies, & calves Amount of information available about animals - Pool of data from experiments & selective breeding - Rate of breeding also factor; humans can’t be forced to mate Necessary to reduce disease & suffering for all Nobel PrizeWinning Research CAT scans pigs MRIrats Transplantation of organsdog Discovery of prionshamsters & mice Nitric oxide as signaling molecule in cardiovascularrabbits Signal transduction in nervous systemguinea pigs & mice Info on PGs & leukotrienessheep, rabbits, & guinea pigs Animal welfare & animal rights Animal welfare - Goal is to pass legislation to ban experimentation with animals obtained from shelters - Improve care & housing of animals Animal rights - Broader range of attitude based on 3 books from the 70s Rene’ Descartes (15961650) French mathematician & philosopher Defended use of animals in experiments Insisted animals could respond to stimuli in only one way - According to the arrangement of their organs - Lacked ability to think & reason - Similar to machines, in his opinion Humans, however, have ability to think & talk - Can respond to stimuli in a variety of ways - Make animals inferior to humans Response to Singer’s book Deplored the attitude of humans towards nonhumans as a “form of prejudice no less objectionable than racism & sexism” Urged liberation of animals to become next great cause Gave animal rights cause the same commitment, zeal, & tactics as was seen in civil rights, antiwar, & women’s movements Thousands of new members were recruited - Demonstrations, lobbying, petitioning, raising funds People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) Most active & visible organization nationally Philosophy: all mammals were created equal - A rat is a pig is a dog is a boy Advocate release of all animals back to nature - Including companion animals Involved in raids on research laboratories Distribution of edited videotapes stolen by terrorist organizations Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Identified by Scotland Yard as an international underground terrorist organization - Active in UK, France, Canada, & US Destroyed records, equipment & facilities - Burned an animal disease diagnostic lab at UCDavis in ‘87 Efforts of these organizations are of great concern to scientists - Harassment & death threats made - “Raids of liberation” caused millions in damages - Slowed & hindered efforts to prevent & treat diseases Validity & Conduct of Animal Research Scientists argue it provides info necessary to advance health Argue no alternative scientific methods for obtaining the same quality of info as that from animals Global life expectancy of humans doubled (from 3065) during the 20 century - Fruits of animal research contributed significantly - Decrease infant mortality, effect treatments for disease, elimination of some diseases Nearly every medical advancement in 20 century were achieved directly or indirectly via use of animals Overall, means a longer, healthier, betterquality life for humans, or life itself - Animal rights activists attribute it to improved nutrition Had scientific research in first two decades of 20 century been restrained, as antivivisectionists & other activists wanted, millions of people would not have been born or suffered an early death - Died of diphtheria, scarlet fever, TB, diabetes, appendicitis Medical Advances using Animals Pre1900: Treatment of anthrax, beriberi (thiamine deficiency), rabies, smallpox Early 1900s: Treatment of pellagra (niacin deficiency), rickets (vitamin D deficiency), ECG, & cardiac catheterization 1920s: Blood transfusions & IV feeding; discovery of insulin 1930s: Prevention of tetanus; develop anticoagulants, anesthesia 1940s: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; therapeutic uses of antibiotics; discovery of Rh factor; treatment of leprosy 1950s: Prevention of polio; development of cancer chemo; open heart surgery; influenza vaccine; pacemakers 1960s: Prevention of rubella; corneal transplants 1970s: Prevention of measles; Heart transplants; development of nonaddictive painkillers 1980s: Use of antirejection drugs to facilitate organ transplant; development of monoclonal antibodies 1990s: Application of MRIs & CT scans Veterinary Medical Advances Immunization against anthrax, distemper, parvo, rabies, tetanus, hepatitis Surgery to correct hip dysplasia Immunotherapy for cancer in dogs ID & prevention of brucellosis & TB in cattle Treatment of feline leukemia Improved nutrition in pets Improved adhesives for surgical use & damaged hooves Vaccines against West Nile for horses Unexpected Dividends of Research Research serendipity - Experiments produce findings that have no apparent relevance to their original purpose but which contribute to another line of inquiry or lead to important discoveries Discovery of penicillin Natural antibiotic from skin of frogs - During removal of eggs through incision in frog’s skin - Scientists observed skin not infected with bacteria Alternatives to Using Animals in Research & Testing Introduced in 1959 by Russell & Burch from Britain - The Principles of Humane Experimental Techniques Concept of 3 R’s Animal rights make the word “alternative” synonymous with “substitutes” They advocate: 1) In vitro research (cell, tissue, organ cultures) 2) Computer simulation of biological systems in the form of mathematical models, videos, & films Both methods play important roles in research Both have avoided the need to use animals in some stages - Cannot serve as total replacement of live animals though Computer Simulations Have aided in developing new mechanisms & techniques for scientific discovery Sufficient limitations though - Unlikely they will ever totally replace animal experiments - Validity of model depends on how closely it resembles the original Ex: how does body metabolize chemicals or drugs - Requires knowledge of biological systems via study of live animals - Otherwise, impossible to construct an accurate simulation Legislation First was enacted in UK in 1876 via Cruelty to Animals Act Animal Care laws - Scientists support high standards for proper care & treatment - Research community was first to develop concept of humane treatment in early th 20 century - First formal guidelines: through NIH in 1963 - NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) - Association for Assessment & Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) Established specific & stricter requirements for care & treatment of all animals used in federal research Require appropriate use of painrelieving drugs, vet care, & euthanasia on all animals Requirements for cage sizes, feeding & watering, lighting, & sanitation Research institutions are required to establish an oversight committee (Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee) - One vet, one nonscientist, & one person not affiliated with the institution Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (AWA) of 1966 Regulates dealers who handle dogs & cats Regulates labs that use dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits or nonhuman primates Required individuals to be licensed & held to certain standards by USDA who enforces 1970 amended to change the name to AWA & broaden definition of animal to include any warmblooded 1972 horses, farm animals (not used for research), birds, rats & mice were unregulated Animal Welfare Act of 1985 Addressed psychological wellbeing of nonhuman primates & the exercising of dogs Addresses social & physical needs of all species - Social & environmental enrichment employed - Pair or group housing in research & zoo arenas - Physical structures like PVC tubing, molded plastics to give animals choice & add complexity to their environment - Animal must be able to display normal behaviors Grooming, exploration, foraging, burrowing Health Research Act Passed by Congress in 1985 Requires National Institute of Health (NIH) to establish a plan for conducting, evaluating, & disseminating research to train scientists in methods of experimentation which: 1) Do not require use of live animals 2) Reduce the number of animals 3) Produces less pain & distress than those currently Food Security Act of 1985 Contained an amendment called Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act Along with Health Research Extension Act of 1985 codified NIH voluntary guidelines - Establish a plan not to use animals, reduce numbers of animals, minimize animal pain Pound Laws Most states, cities & communities Require seizure, detection, & humane destruction of stray or unclaimed animals Protect human health & safety Scientists used to obtain these animals after a specified period - Gave owners opportunity to claim their pets - Reduced the expense of conducting experiments - Homeless animals could contribute to science rather than directly euthanized ______________________________________________________________________________ Review: C:\Users\KMElliott5\Documents\ANSC 2000 set 10 notecards.flashquiz
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