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ANSC 2000 set 10

by: Kaitlyn Elliott

ANSC 2000 set 10 ANSC 2000 - 001

Kaitlyn Elliott

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These notes cover animals used in research. This is the second part to Animals in Service to Mankind. There is a review clip that will lead you to a notecard quiz set.
Companion Animal Management
Carolyn E Huntington
Class Notes
animal, Science
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Elliott on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 2000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Carolyn E Huntington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Companion Animal Management in Animal Science at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
Animals in Service to Mankind Part II ANSC 2000 set 10 Key Terms: 1) PVT TIM HALL: essential amino acid acronym 2) LD :50toxicity of chemical) dose necessary to kill 50% of population of test species 3) CAT: computer­assisted tomography 4) MRI: magnetic­resonance imaging 5) Prions: Proteins that disrupt the central nervous system 6) PETA: People for Ethical Treatment of Animals 7) ALF: Animal Liberation Front ______________________________________________________________________________ Lists to know:  Animals help with 3 areas of biomedical science: 1) Biomedical & behavioral research 2) Teaching  3) Drug toxicity & product testing  Broader range of attitudes based on 3 books from 70s: 1) Animals, Men & Morals ­relationship between human & animals, animals  have rights 2) Victims of Science­speciesism introduced 3) Animal Liberation: A New Ethic for Our Treatment of Animals­Singer  questions using animals for food & clothing  Concept of 3 R’s: 1) Refinement…of techniques to reduce suffering 2) Reduction…in numbers of animals needed 3) Replacement…of animals by nonanimal techniques, when possible ______________________________________________________________________________ Important information:  Animals used in scientific experimentation for 2,000 yrs.  First used them to study body functions - Prove that veins carry blood, not air - Demonstrate the circulation of blood - Effect of anesthesia on the body - Relationship between bacteria & disease  Of the nearly 100 Nobel Prizes awarded in Medicine & Physiology during 20  century,  more than 2/3 involved the use of animals Discoveries  Insulin­removal of dog pancreas  Diagnosis, treatment & prevention of: - Heart disease, Poliomyelitis - Measles, Smallpox - Massive burns  Open heart surgery  Blood transfusions  Organ transplants  Laser surgery  Determining safety & efficacy of new drugs, vaccines Nutritional Considerations  Ex: Ivan Pavlov­ Digestive glands - Extensive use of fistulas rather than vivisection - Food stimuli at a distance from the animal  - Paired unconditioned stimulus­salivation at sight of food with a neutral stimulus­  sound of bell - Rejected “psychic” salivary secretion theory & concluded a conditioned reflex  was involved  Joseph Goldberger - Relationship between black tongue in dogs to pellagra - Lack of niacin (B3) & tryptophan  Schaumann - Value of heating foods  G.R. Cowgill - Role of vitamin B6 in nutrition of dogs  E. Mellanby - Canine rickets & osteomalacia Animal Models for Human Research  Why? - Allows increased control over genetics - Increased control over environment - Improved protocol compliance - Availability of invasive techniques  During 20  century, rats, mic, birds, & fish were ~90% of the animals used in biomedical research - Represent unregulated species in US: #’s hard to estimate - Prior to this, early research was primarily on dogs  Is the use of companion animals increasing or decreasing? - Decreasing! - First report 1973, 1.6 mill. animals used - In 2014, 834,000 animals used  Rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, primates, dogs, cats, farm animals  Unregulated animals are not reported, but their numbers are also thought to have  decreased significantly - Rats, mice, birds or fish Preferred Animal Models  Dogs used to study human nutrition for nearly 2 centuries  Canine colons are proportionate in length to human colons  Dogs & humans have colonic bacteria that contribute significantly to colonic  fermentation - Bacteroides, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli  Similar dietary habits - Dogs evolved from carnivores; adapted to omnivorous diet - Generally require same essential nutrients as humans  Exception: vitamin C, which dogs can synthesize  Cats are less desirable research model for human nutrition - Strictly carnivorous  Cats require amino acid taurine for conjugation of bile acid - Also require same 10 essential amino acids needed by mammals  PVT TIM HALL - Sensitive to deficiency in essential amino acid arginine  Unable to convert beta carotene to vitamin A - Preformed vitamin A & niacin essential to their diet  Cats require omega­6 fatty acid arachidonic acid  Small bodies of cats make it difficult to obtain adequate amounts of blood, fecal, tissue or urine samples  Dogs & cats develop spontaneous tumors - Good for studying certain forms of cancer in humans  Exchange of information in nutrition­related findings - Apply human insights towards animals - Ex: How to feed properly under certain disease states Experimental Categories Supported by Companion Animals  Basic or applied - Basic: to increase knowledge base & understanding of chemical, physical, &  functional mechanisms - Applied: application of that applied basic knowledge Biomedical & Behavioral Research  Biomedical: Advances our understanding of how biological systems function  Based on 2 basic requirements: 1) Control of variables that might affect the response 2) Replication of results confirmed by other laboratories  Behavioral: determines factors affecting animal behavior & response to stimuli - Via physical stimuli or manipulation of brain or CNS (central nervous system)  Begun to move away from demos with live animals - Plastic replicas, computer simulations, & videos Drug Testing  Efficacy & safety of new medicine; possible toxicity - Cosmetics & bath soaps  Fulfill requirements of FDA  LD 50 Use of Animals in Biomedical Research  Basic assumption: develop ways of relieving & minimizing human & animal suffering   Animals serve as surrogates for humans - Animal rights advocates argue people should serve as experimental subjects if test benefit them - Ex: limitations of aging human vs. rat - Ex: difficult to obtain similar weights & genetic makeup to standardize  Body systems & functions react with stimuli similar to those of humans  First successful kidney transplant done in dog  Techniques used to save lives of “blue babies”­heart  Open­heart surgery, coronary bypass, heart transplantation - Developed with dogs, ponies, & calves  Amount of information available about animals - Pool of data from experiments & selective breeding - Rate of breeding also factor; humans can’t be forced to mate  Necessary to reduce disease & suffering for all Nobel Prize­Winning Research  CAT scans­ pigs  MRI­rats  Transplantation of organs­dog  Discovery of prions­hamsters & mice  Nitric oxide as signaling molecule in cardiovascular­rabbits  Signal transduction in nervous system­guinea pigs & mice  Info on PGs & leukotrienes­sheep, rabbits, & guinea pigs Animal welfare & animal rights  Animal welfare - Goal is to pass legislation to ban experimentation with animals obtained from  shelters - Improve care & housing of animals  Animal rights - Broader range of attitude based on 3 books from the 70s Rene’ Descartes (1596­1650)  French mathematician & philosopher  Defended use of animals in experiments  Insisted animals could respond to stimuli in only one way - According to the arrangement of their organs - Lacked ability to think & reason - Similar to machines, in his opinion  Humans, however, have ability to think & talk - Can respond to stimuli in a variety of ways - Make animals inferior to humans Response to Singer’s book  Deplored the attitude of humans towards nonhumans as a “form of prejudice no less  objectionable than racism & sexism”  Urged liberation of animals to become next great cause  Gave animal rights cause the same commitment, zeal, & tactics as was seen in civil  rights, antiwar, & women’s movements  Thousands of new members were recruited - Demonstrations, lobbying, petitioning, raising funds People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)  Most active & visible organization nationally  Philosophy: all mammals were created equal - A rat is a pig is a dog is a boy  Advocate release of all animals back to nature - Including companion animals  Involved in raids on research laboratories  Distribution of edited videotapes stolen by terrorist organizations Animal Liberation Front (ALF)  Identified by Scotland Yard as an international underground terrorist organization - Active in UK, France, Canada, & US  Destroyed records, equipment & facilities - Burned an animal disease diagnostic lab at UC­Davis in ‘87  Efforts of these organizations are of great concern to scientists - Harassment & death threats made - “Raids of liberation” caused millions in damages - Slowed & hindered efforts to prevent & treat diseases Validity & Conduct of Animal Research  Scientists argue it provides info necessary to advance health  Argue no alternative scientific methods for obtaining the same quality of info as that from animals  Global life expectancy of humans doubled (from 30­65) during the 20  century - Fruits of animal research contributed significantly - Decrease infant mortality, effect treatments for disease, elimination of some  diseases  Nearly every medical advancement in 20  century were achieved directly or indirectly  via use of animals   Overall, means a longer, healthier, better­quality life for humans, or life itself - Animal rights activists attribute it to improved nutrition  Had scientific research in first two decades of 20  century been restrained, as  antivivisectionists & other activists wanted, millions of people would not have been born  or suffered an early death - Died of diphtheria, scarlet fever, TB, diabetes, appendicitis Medical Advances using Animals  Pre­1900: Treatment of anthrax, beriberi (thiamine deficiency), rabies, smallpox  Early 1900s: Treatment of pellagra (niacin deficiency), rickets (vitamin D deficiency),  ECG, & cardiac catheterization  1920s: Blood transfusions & IV feeding; discovery of insulin  1930s: Prevention of tetanus; develop anticoagulants, anesthesia  1940s: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; therapeutic uses of antibiotics; discovery of Rh  factor; treatment of leprosy  1950s: Prevention of polio; development of cancer chemo; open heart surgery; influenza  vaccine; pacemakers  1960s: Prevention of rubella; corneal transplants  1970s: Prevention of measles; Heart transplants; development of nonaddictive painkillers  1980s: Use of antirejection drugs to facilitate organ transplant; development of  monoclonal antibodies  1990s: Application of MRIs & CT scans Veterinary Medical Advances  Immunization against anthrax, distemper, parvo, rabies, tetanus, hepatitis  Surgery to correct hip dysplasia  Immunotherapy for cancer in dogs  ID & prevention of brucellosis & TB in cattle  Treatment of feline leukemia  Improved nutrition in pets  Improved adhesives for surgical use & damaged hooves  Vaccines against West Nile for horses Unexpected Dividends of Research  Research serendipity - Experiments produce findings that have no apparent relevance to their original  purpose but which contribute to another line of inquiry or lead to important  discoveries  Discovery of penicillin  Natural antibiotic from skin of frogs - During removal of eggs through incision in frog’s skin - Scientists observed skin not infected with bacteria Alternatives to Using Animals in Research & Testing  Introduced in 1959 by Russell & Burch from Britain - The Principles of Humane Experimental Techniques  Concept of 3 R’s  Animal rights make the word “alternative” synonymous with “substitutes”  They advocate: 1) In vitro research (cell, tissue, organ cultures) 2) Computer simulation of biological systems in the form of mathematical  models, videos, & films  Both methods play important roles in research  Both have avoided the need to use animals in some stages - Cannot serve as total replacement of live animals though Computer Simulations  Have aided in developing new mechanisms & techniques for scientific discovery  Sufficient limitations though - Unlikely they will ever totally replace animal experiments - Validity of model depends on how closely it resembles the original  Ex: how does body metabolize chemicals or drugs - Requires knowledge of biological systems via study of live animals - Otherwise, impossible to construct an accurate simulation Legislation  First was enacted in UK in 1876 via Cruelty to Animals Act  Animal Care laws - Scientists support high standards for proper care & treatment - Research community was first to develop concept of humane treatment in early  th 20  century - First formal guidelines: through NIH in 1963 - NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) - Association for Assessment & Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care  International (AAALAC)  Established specific & stricter requirements for care & treatment of all animals used in  federal research  Require appropriate use of pain­relieving drugs, vet care, & euthanasia on all animals  Requirements for cage sizes, feeding & watering, lighting, & sanitation  Research institutions are required to establish an oversight committee (Institutional  Animal Care & Use Committee) - One vet, one nonscientist, & one person not affiliated with the institution  Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (AWA) of 1966  Regulates dealers who handle dogs & cats  Regulates labs that use dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits or nonhuman primates  Required individuals to be licensed & held to certain standards by USDA who enforces  1970­ amended to change the name to AWA & broaden definition of animal to include  any warm­blooded  1972­ horses, farm animals (not used for research), birds, rats & mice were unregulated Animal Welfare Act of 1985  Addressed psychological well­being of nonhuman primates & the exercising of dogs  Addresses social & physical needs of all species - Social & environmental enrichment employed - Pair or group housing in research & zoo arenas - Physical structures like PVC tubing, molded plastics to give animals choice & add complexity to their environment - Animal must be able to display normal behaviors  Grooming, exploration, foraging, burrowing Health Research Act  Passed by Congress in 1985  Requires National Institute of Health (NIH) to establish a plan for conducting, evaluating, & disseminating research to train scientists in methods of experimentation which: 1) Do not require use of live animals 2) Reduce the number of animals 3) Produces less pain & distress than those currently Food Security Act of 1985  Contained an amendment called Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act  Along with Health Research Extension Act of 1985 codified NIH voluntary guidelines - Establish a plan not to use animals, reduce numbers of animals, minimize animal  pain Pound Laws  Most states, cities & communities  Require seizure, detection, & humane destruction of stray or unclaimed animals  Protect human health & safety  Scientists used to obtain these animals after a specified period - Gave owners opportunity to claim their pets - Reduced the expense of conducting experiments - Homeless animals could contribute to science rather than directly euthanized ______________________________________________________________________________ Review: C:\Users\KMElliott5\Documents\ANSC 2000 set 10 notecards.flashquiz


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