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Syntax Continued; English219

by: Brittany Sholl

Syntax Continued; English219 Ling 219

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Linguistics > Ling 219 > Syntax Continued English219
Brittany Sholl
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes cover more on Syntax! Will become very useful to our midterm exam coming up! :)
Intro Linguistics
Dr. Evg Chukharev-Khudilaynen
Class Notes
syntax, english, 219, Lingustics, Adverbs, nouns, Pronouns
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Sholl on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ling 219 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Evg Chukharev-Khudilaynen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro Linguistics in Linguistics at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Syntax Continued Tuesday, September 20, 2016 5:25 PM Clause Word Trees  Largest syntactic unit  The clause is made up of NP + VP  The NP is the subject and the VP is the predicate Phrase: smallest syntactic unit  Any constituent of a clause o One word o String of words Constituents: the natural grouping or parts of a sentence  NP's  VP's  PP's  Adj P's  Adv P's {Can use movement tests, substitutions tests, & coordination tests} **Examples from lecture Is this a constituent? What phrase? Vampires frighten him. o Yes, it is a verb phrase. The skies deluged the earth with water. o Yes, prepositional phrase. A ghost has the spirit of a dead person. o Nope! Phrase Structures **Noun Phrases Example N: dogs Det + N: the dogs Det + AP + N: the very cute dogs Det + AP + N + XP: the very cute dogs in the park XP: a phrase of any category  NP ---> (det) (AP) N (XP) **Verb Phrases Example V: sleeps Aux. + V: is sleeping Aux: + V + XP: is sleeping on a couch Aux: + V + XP + XP: is sleeping on a couch in the living room XP: a phrase of any category  VP ---> Aux + (Adv.) V + (XP) **Adjective Phrases Example A: sad Deg + A: very sad Deg + A + PP: very sad about the upcoming test XP: a phrase of any category  AP ---> (Deg) + A + (PP) ** Prepositional Phrase Example P: over Deg + P: nearly over Deg + P + NP: nearly over the hill P: PP: out under the tree P + VP: before going on a walk XP: a phrase of any category  PP ---> (Deg) + P (XP) **Adverb Phrase Example: Adv: brightly Deg + Adv: more brightly Deg + Adv + PP: more brightly than his smile XP: a phrase of any category  AdvP: ---> (Deg) + Adv + (PP) Dummy Auxiliary Verb: DO Do Insertion: to perform subject-auxiliary inversion, negation, and tag question formation, insert do in auxiliary if aux is otherwise empty.  The aux position in VP is there, even is it isn't that can be inserted in aux to do the work for an aux verb under certain condition.  English has a dummy (pleonastic) auxiliary verb under certain conditions. Emphatic and Main Verb Do EX: But I DID feed the dogs! {Do is also used as the main verb of a sentences.} Subordinate Conjunction Subordinate clauses: cannot stand alone as a sentence because it does not provide a complete thought. The reader is left wondering, "what is next?"  Giving the meaning of the relationship; a dependent sentence  Consists of a subject and predicate and they are contained inside some larger constituent  Also called adverb subordinators {relative clauses are SC that attach to noun phrases. Because they ass information to a noun phrase, some grammarians call them adjectival clauses.} Adjective clause: follows the word that it describes EX: (from lecture) o The dean defended the prof who flunked me. o I like strawberries that are fresh. o How, when, where, and why?


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