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Week 2 Notes

by: Yasmine Gohar

Week 2 Notes AHS 172

Yasmine Gohar

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About this Document

No class first week, covered the beginnings of rome
Baroque Rome
Kristoffer Neville
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yasmine Gohar on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AHS 172 at University of California Riverside taught by Kristoffer Neville in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Baroque Rome in Art History at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
3 via del colloseo She Wolf- Etruscan, with Renaissance Figures added below - Romulus and Remus—mother claimed that they had be fathered by Mars, father of war o She could not care for them, abandoned them in a basket o They were found by a wolf who then took care of them until they were found by a shepherd o As they grew they became increasingly competitive—arguing about two of the 7 hills of rome—Romulus killed remus and named the city after him 750BC Gianlorenzo Bernini, Aeneas and Anchises, Rome, 1618-19 - Third book (Iliad and odyssey) about the good Trojan o Alternative story to the founding of rome o Rome is the new troy - Anchises is carrying a talisman, a physical emblem of the city (heart of the city of troy that is physically being carried to rome) - Aeneas’s mother was venus—rome had devine ancestry Julius Caesar, 44BC - First of the roman emperors - Markings of Venus rings on his neck (way to show his supposed direct decent from Venus) Augustus of Prima Porta, Rome, Early first century AD - Julius Caesars adopted son—octavious - Reigned from 27BC-14AD o Bragged that he turned rome from brick to marble Pompeii, Street and Frescos in Villa of the Mysteries, First century AD Pantheon, begun 117 AD - Created for ALL OF THE GODS - No more stairs—used to be raised up as all temples were—ground level has risen up - In 609 AD it was transformed from a roman temple dedicated to all of the gods into a roman church—with an alter dedicated to Mary Basilica of Maxentius, Rome, Early 4 th century AD Constantine, early 4 thcentury AD - Emperor who decriminalized Christianity—later converted himself - Created many basilicas in support to the religion - Moved and made Constantinople the new capital of Italy creating a west and east of the empire—no emperor in Rome o Due to his move, the bishop of rome (St. Peter) grew in power and became not only the head of the church, but head of all the churches—The POPE Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Begun 319-322, finished 329 AD - Originally intended to be a covered cemetery (more specifically st. peter) - None of the original functions had anything to do with the church - Church lasted for over 1000 years 3 via del colloseo - Mostly changed for maintenance (updating) - Between 1308-1378 popes moved to france—Rome was in danger of falling apart o 1378-1417 there was two sometimes 3 popes—different supporters  in 1417 the many pope situation was resolved—when the pope returned, they concentrated on repairing the damage rather than creating new. th Palazzo Capranica, Rome, Earlier 15 Century Balassare, Peruzzi, section of the pantheon, rome, 1540s - pantheon sketch has an outline—measurements of the pantheon - Also drew st. peters—from a sort of birds eye view – no measurements Andrea Palladio, reconstruction of baths of Agrippa, 1554 Donato Bramante, Belvedere, Vatican Palace, Rome, Begun 1505 - Where popes kept their sculptures - Commissioned by Pope Julius II, built by Bramante - Inspiration came from ancient ruins (stacked columns from the colloseo) Bramante, Plan of St. Peter’s Basilica “parchment plan”, Rome, CA 1506 - Issues: o Bramante was not a good engineer o No idea from this what the church was going to look like—did Bramante? Maarten Ban Heemskerk, View of St. Peter’s under construction, Rome, 1536 Francesco di Giorgio Martini, Anthropomorphic Architectural Drawings, 4 thquarter of 15 thcentury - Believed architecture was the same as the human body (an image of god) - Expert of the human body was by default an expert in architecture Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Project for St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, 1520-1546 - Used stacked columns—same stacking as in the collleseum Michelangelo, Project for St. Peter’s Rome, 1546,1564 - Removed all the previous work (Sangallo, Martini, Bramante and Raphael) and simplified it - Broke the rules by creating the changing around everything—allowed due to his experience - St. peter exceeded all expectations and scale of previous works - Commissioned by pope Julius II - Vreated a papal Christian structure using two great structures (basilica and maxentius) (St) Ignatius of Loyola, 1491-1566, Founder of Jesuit Order Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, 1520-1589 Theatine Order th Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther, Mid 16 Century - 95 theses o offered to dispute publicly for anyone who would take up the challenge o ranged across the theological issues of the church - his protests spread—chain reaction that many rulers found truth in his words and broke away from the church - devout monk from Germany - spiritual state of the city bothered him - wearing his scholar hat Indulgence, 1516 - paying CASH to save your soul from hell/ purgatory o no theological justification Albrecht Durer, Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1519 and 1523 - want to be one of the seven electors of the emperor to become a secular ruler with a lot of power—prince bishop o but to get the position he had to pay to get the office—the new pope (leo X) had to find money to pay for the continuation of st. peters  profits from the indulgences would be split in half, Albrecht would pay for his position, and Leo would pay for the continuation of St. Peters Raphael, Pope Leo X (de medici) with cardinals Giulio de Medici (later Pope Clement VII) and de Rossi, 1518-19 - not fit to be pope Titian, Paul III (Farnese), Rome, 1543 - wealthy, well read, earthly life - when he became pope he made his palace the biggest and largest in rome (finished my mikha) Antonio da Sangallo the younger and Michelangelo, Farnese Palace, Enlarged from an earlier structure after 1534 Meeting of the council of Trent - council recognized the problem and demanded to reign in most of the problems the protestants complained about o got rid of most but not all indulgences o did not allow bishiops (higher ups) to have multiple positions Pontormo, Christ in Limbo, Florence, 1532 - lots of unnecessary nudes for an altarpiece that has been commissioned by a cardinal church and secular state were two equal hierarchies—parallel and fundamentally similar Ignatius of Loyola - young Spaniard—wounded soldier - developed his spiritual life by removing himself from the world (living in seclusion and in caves) - him and his followers called themselves the _____ of jesus (jesuits) - Paul III approved the order of Jesuits - Developed another intellectual theological method - Jesuits o Focused on  Schools- intellect made them stronger (educate to get students in high places that will spread the word)  Convert- the non-Christians to catholic  Stop Protestantism from spreading  Wanted to beat them on strong theological intellectual grounds Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and Giacomo della Porta, il Gesu, begun 1568 Titan, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, 1545 - Had his own vision for st. peters and continuously overruled the Jesuits plans - Had his own personal architect to build the church The Circumcision of Christ 19 th century high altarpiece of II Gesu - Not common for a high altar - Picked because the gospel of luke states that 8 days after the day came for him to be circumcised and the day he got his name Jesus o Beginning of his role Agostino Ciampelli, St. Andrew Altarpiece, II Gesu, 1600-03 - Seen as idolatry - Lutherans did not mind the images as long as everyone knew there was nothing spiritual about the picture that should be worshiped - Calvinists did not approve of images at all


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