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Chapter 5 Notes Central Asia

by: Sarah Morse

Chapter 5 Notes Central Asia GEOG 32102-02

Sarah Morse
Northwest Missouri State University

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Chapter 5 Notes In Class Central Asia USSR World War II and Cold War Russia Asian Shatterbelt Middle East
People and Cultures of the World
Kevin Romig
Class Notes
Chapter, 5, five, notes, people, and, Cultures, Of, The, world, geography, history, central, Asia, USSR, Russia, Asian, shatterbelt, middle, east
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Morse on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 32102-02 at Northwest Missouri State University taught by Kevin Romig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see People and Cultures of the World in Geography at Northwest Missouri State University.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
CHAPTER 5 CENTRAL ASIA: USSR BLOODLINES WORLD WAR II AND COLD WAR IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS 1. History is subjective and influenced by different perspectives and sources. a. Much of the Cold War was a battle of ideology and belief system influence. 2. Some of the cold war narrative was socially constructed by those who had political and economic gain from such a duality. 3. The “Cold War” officially ended in 1991, but Cold War ideology permeates culture and thought around the globe. BLOODLINES 1. 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia a. Russia was surrounded by a, “hostile capitalist encirclement.” i. – Vladimir Lenin 2. to heighten the geographic identity of the Soviet Union, the capitalist Western Europe enterprises was set up as the “alternative” world. a. US vs. Them i. Can’t spell USA or USSR without US. 3. Enter Hitler a. Adolph Hitler applied basic Geopolitical theories and concepts of the Heartland Theory to extend the Nazi German Empire. i. US and Them vs. Him 4. Nazi forces spread across Europe in all directions. a. Most violent and brutal battles of WWII European Theater were in Soviet Union. i. Estimated losses 20-40 million military and civilians. b. Them vs. Him 5. Siege of Leningrad (1941-1944) a. Largest destruction and loss of life of any modern city. i. The 872-day siege caused unparalleled famine in the Leningrad region through disruption of utilities, water, energy and food supplies. ii. 1.5 million soldiers and civilians deaths. iii. Evacuation of 1.4 million women and children, many of whom died during evacuation due to starvation and bombardment. b. Stalin pleads with the United Kingdom and United States for assistance: i. Military and humanitarian. 6. Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt felt this siege was mutually beneficial as the Soviets and Nazis were destroying each other. 7. Western world priorities a. Progress on the European mainland. i. France b. Italy and crushing Mussolini. POST WORLD WAR II 1. Distrust and ill-feelings between the Soviets and “The West” grew significantly after World War II. a. NATO vs. Warsaw Pact i. North Atlantic Treaty Organization COLD WAR EXTENDS 1. Domino Theory a. A Cold War Model of how countries become communist. i. Once one country falls, it precipitates further communist takeovers among its neighbors. 2. Korean Conflict 3. Southeast Asia 4. Cuba and Latin America 5. Outer Space SOVIET UNION COLLAPSES 1. Resource shortages, production inefficiencies, and lack of investment in broad technology hastened the end of the USSR and Warsaw Pact. MODERN RUSSIA 1. Extremely rapid political and economic change since 1990. a. From centrally planned economy to capitalism. b. From authoritarianism dictatorship to “democracy” c. Commitment to democracy uncertain. 2. The Post-Soviet Economy: Problems a. The Russian Mafia i. Russian mafia controls: 1. 40% of the private economy. 2. 80% of banks in Russia may be under mafia influence. 3. Russia’s Petroleum Economy a. Russia has 35% of the world’s natural gas reserves. b. World’s largest gas exporter. c. Primary destination for Russian petroleum products: i. Western Europe. CENTRAL ASIA’S ENVIRONMENT 1. Air pollution a. Clustered factories b. Few environmental controls c. Low quality coal 2. Water pollution a. Industrial waste b. Raw sewage c. Oil spills d. Pulp/Paper factories polluted Lake Baikal. RUSSIA’S FUTURE 2 1. The demographic crisis a. General population decline: i. Low birth rates ii. Rising death rates 1. Specially among middle-aged males b. Causes i. Economic uncertainty ii. Stress-related diseases iii. Toxic environments CONCLUSIONS 1. The history of the Soviet Union and the Iron Curtain still resonate in this region. 2. Cold, industrial landscapes that are struggling with emerging free market ideology. 3. Population decline in region. THE ASIAN SHATTERBELT OUTLINE 1. Define the term shatterbelt. 2. Physical landscape of Central Asia. 3. Culture and ethnic groups in the region. 4. The legacy of political instability. 5. Modernization. SHATTERBELT 1. An area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values. a. Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan. 2. Physical Landscape a. This region is generally very arid or dry. b. Few river valleys for population and agriculture. 3. Cultural Landscape 1. Very isolated, sparse population. 2. Significant differences between urban and rural. URBAN SETTLEMENTS 1. Almaty a. Groundwater-based settlement in Kazakhstan. b. Russification i. Soviet policy of encouraging ethnic Russians to settle in non- Russian areas as a way to assert political control. 2. Ankara, Turkey a. Central Turkey known for trading and animal production. 3. Tashkent, Uzbekistan a. Settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik River. 3 4. Human rights rankings a. #204: Afghanistan b. #159: Uzbekistan c. #149: Kyrgyzstan i. poor educational attainment ii. poor treatment of women iii. ethnic conflict between groups 5. Ethnic groups a. Sunni Arab, Shi’ite Arab, Kurd, Turkomen, Pashtun, Tajik, Russian, Hazara, Uzbek, Ukrainian. b. Afghanistan i. Pashtun 42% ii. Tajik 27% iii. Hazara 9% iv. Uzbek 9% v. Aimaq 4% vi. Other 9% 6. Political instability a. Recently, a group to try to bring order to this region were the soviets. b. Soviets attempted to bring stability to Afghanistan during the 1980s. i. US sent aid and weapons to the Taliban who fought the spread of the USSR into Central Asia. ii. Mujahadeen led by Osama Bin Laden c. Osama Bin Laden, along with a small group of Islamic militants became the “reliable” partners of the CIA in its war against Moscow. i. Reductionist and simplistic thinking. d. Taliban rebuffed Soviet aggression, but instilled a barbaric form of Sharia Law. i. Brutal treatment of women. 1. Create secure environment where the chasteness and dignity of women may once again be sacrosanct. 7. Taliban treatment of women a. Women should not appear in the streets without a blood relative and without wearing a burqa. b. Women must not speak loudly in public as no stranger should hear a women’s voice. c. All ground and first floor residential windows should be painted over or screened to prevent women being visible from the street. d. No female education after grade 8. 8. Modernization a. The process of modernization is slow because of isolation and localized power of tribes and conservative Imams who are unwilling to relinquish Sharia Law. CONCLUSIONS 1. This region has been politically volatile for many years and is known as a Shatterbelt. 2. Sharia Law is based on certain passages in the Qur’an and often interpreted in a way to keep women down. 3. Variable US/Western foreign policy hurts our credibility in the Region. 4


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