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Remote Sensing week 7

by: Ivana Szwejkowski

Remote Sensing week 7 GEOG 2107

Ivana Szwejkowski
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes cover MSS
Intro to Remote Sensing
Engstrom, R
Class Notes
GIS, Remote Sensing
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivana Szwejkowski on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 2107 at George Washington University taught by Engstrom, R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Intro to Remote Sensing in Geography at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Remote Sensing Week 7 Chapter 8 Color theory: Red, Blue, Theory Color Characteristics: Hue, Saturation, Lightness Additive Process; based on light; TV and computer monitor Subtractive Process: based on pigments and dyes; cyan, magenta, and yellow Filters  Most aerial photography is collected with filters on the camera lens  Block certain wavelengths of light from reaching film plane & exposing film  Subtracts some of the light reflected from the scene  Yellow filter: absorbs blue (haze) passes green and red. Image Contrast Enhancement  Many materials both natural and man-made, have similar reflectance through the electromagnetic spectrum  Sensors; detectors must be able to sense a wide range of values- snow to dark volcanic basalt-without becoming saturated ; For sensors with high radiometric resolution, a decrease in contrast may be required if the image DN range exceeds that of the display  Utilize full range of video display capabilities ; imagine 8 bit display- 256 grey scale layer ; contrast enhancement is done for display purposes only. (Does not affect actual pixel or DN values)  Selection of a contrast enhancement Linear Contrast enhancement  Min-Max contrast stretch formula  Makes full use of range of output device  Quant is the range of brightness values that can be displayed (255)  Works best with data that have Gaussian (normal) distribution Min-Max stretch expands the image DN range to fill the dynamic range of the display advance (o-255) Percentage Linear stretch  Uses specified Min and Max values that lie in a certain % of pixels from the mean of the histogram  A standard deviation from the histogram mean is often used- Standard Deviation stretch. Non-Linear Contrast Enhancement  Histogram equalization- assigns an approximately equal number of pixels to each of user-specified gray-scale classes  Greatest contrast is applied to most populated range of DN’s. Nonlinear Contrast Enhancement  Gaussian- Transforms histogram to bell shaped distribution  Log stretch- maximize contrast in dark part of the histogram  Inverse Log stretch – maximize contrast in brightest part of the histogram. Multi-Spectral Systems- Chapter 7  Satellite Systems-Overview  Sensor system  Remote Sensing Raster (Matrix) Data format Terminology - One array of numbers per band - Pixel (abbreviation of “picture element”, smallest 2-D unit of an image, value (brightness value (BV), Digital number (DN), location (x,y)) - Quantization ( conversion of electrical signal to digital number) - Radiometric resolution of signal ( typically in range of 8-12 bits) ASPRS Guide to Land Imaging Systems Civil Land imaging satellites – resolution >= 59 meters - Optical large number in orbit, over 50 countries - Optical large number in orbit, over 50 countries; two major resolution groups o 20 high resolution systems (.5-1.8 meter) o 24 bid resolution systems (2.0-39 meter) - Radar= 10 in orbit, 18 countries Coverage capabilities - Hi-resolution swaths- 8 to 28 km - Mid-resolution swaths-


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