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Intro to Geology, Week 6 Notes

by: Kayla Mathias

Intro to Geology, Week 6 Notes GEL020

Marketplace > Kutztown University of Pennsylvania > Geology > GEL020 > Intro to Geology Week 6 Notes
Kayla Mathias
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures about earthquakes from chapter 5.
Introduction to Geology
Dr. Tindall
Class Notes
Geology, Earthquakes, magnitude, fault, Hypocenter, epicenter, Seismic Waves, seismology, Triangulation, Bodywaves, Surfacewaves
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEL020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Tindall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
Intro to Geology—Week 5 Notes Chapter 5—Earthquakes Earthquake: Vibrations that travel through the Earth. Generally associated with movement on faults, but can also be caused by a heard of elephants or something similar Magnitude: A quantitative measure of the energy released at the source of an earthquake. Each step up (ex: from 7 to 8) is TEN times more powerful than the last. A magnitude of 9 is 1000x bigger than a magnitude of 6. There is 30 times more energy with each step up. Fault: A crack in the Earth’s crust or lithosphere that allows rocks to slide and move Fault Scarp: Cliff on one side of the fault Hypocenter/Focus: Point along a fault, usually beneath the surface where the fault actually breaks and slips. Epicenter: Point on Earth’s surface directly above the hypocenter Seismic Waves: Travel outwards in all directions from the focus of an earthquake. It’s the vibrations that are felt at locations close and far away as the ground shakes Body Waves: P-waves (primary or compressional waves; travel the fastest (6km/sec); cause the ground to compress and extend) and S-waves (secondary of shear waves; slower (3km/sec); the ground moves in a perpendicular direction to the wave) Surface Waves: Sometimes called L-waves; travel slowest (1500m/sec), but do the most damage Earthquake Triangulation: Data from three seismic stations can be used to find the epicenter of an earthquake by finding the point at which all 3 circles touch. Largest earthquake ever recorded was in Chile in 1960 with a magnitude of 9.5. It resulted in a tsunami that sent waves all the way to Asia. The waves were still 35 feet high when they reached Japan. Worst earthquake disaster ever was in the Shaanxi Province of China in 1556. Approximately 830,000 people were killed. They lived in caves carved into soft rock which collapsed when the earthquake (magnitude of ~7.9) hit. Seismologists use seismographs to measure seismic waves. The readout is called a seismogram. We know how fast seismic waves travel. The farther the waves have to travel, the longer it will take to get there. Distance/time=speed (velocity) Travel time vs. distance for finding epicenter distance from where the waves were recorded. Seismic records can tell how far away the earthquake was Magnitude is usually based on seismic records (Richter scale). The maximum amplitude is the tallest blip on the seismogram. Maximum shaking depends of the surface materials (in the crust). Damage depends on the distance from the epicenter, the earthquake’s magnitude, building construction, and ground composition. It is not really possible to accurately predict earthquakes because faults are ragged, crooked, and messy (those characteristics are summed up in the word asperities). Also, fault zones are incredibly complex, but we are able to recognize broad trends in earthquake frequency and major patterns with plate tectonics. Enormous earthquakes can be felt all the way on the other side of the Earth. This is how we know about the Earth’s composition.


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