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Week 6 Notes HSC

by: Tara

Week 6 Notes HSC HSC 4711


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About this Document

These notes cover the material from week 6.
Mark Kasper
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tara on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 4711 at Florida State University taught by Mark Kasper in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
▯ Cancer  Cancer is a neoplasm or tumor  Uncontrolled growth of aberrant cells­ with local tissue invasion ▯ ▯ Malignant­ tumor = cancerous ▯ ▯ Metastasis­ the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a  primary site of cancer ▯ ▯ Physiology and Pathophysiology   Believed that tumors arise from carcinogenic­causing events within stem cells o Carcinogenic­ having the potential to cause cancer  Stem Cells­ can (1) divide and make copies of themselves or (2) differentiate  into a wide range of mature cell types ▯ ▯ Five categories of Carcinogenic Events:   1. Environmental Factors o Implicated in 60% to 90% of cancers o Lung Cancer  Miners being exposed to cigarette smoke  Workers being exposed Asbestos, chromate, or uranium  o Skin Cancer  Excessive exposure to sunlight   Radiation o Leukemia  Exposure to certain solvents   Cleaners, painters  2. Hereditary Factors o Support comes primarily from animal studies  o Maybe 5­1­% of all cancers are genetic o Family members might have similar behavioral risk factors  Smoking, diet, air they breath o Large genetic role might be at play if:  Rare cancer types   Kidney Cancer  Young Age   Multiple Cancers in a single person  Both organs o “Genes load the gun. Behavior pulls the trigger.”   3. Oncogenes­ Gene that has potential to cause cancer o Mutation in DNA of gene o Genes that act at the cellular level causing uncontrolled proliferation of previously normal cells o Produce defect in normal stem cell function o Evidence to suggest tumor tissue contains stem­like cells   4. Hormonal Factors o Believed to posses carcinogenic potential  o Estrogen may play a role in female organ cancers o Sufficient or Convincing:   Oestrogen­Progestogen contraceptives  Oestrogen­Progestogen menopause therapy o Probably or likely:   Oestrogen menopausal therapy  o Levels of endogenous sex hormones are strongly associates with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal woman   5. Microbes (About 20% of all cancers)  o Viruses, bacteria, parasites o Human Papillomavirus (HPV) o Hepatitis B and C  o Prevention:   HPV vaccination  Anti­biotic  Anti­Oxidants  Physical Activity  ▯ ▯ Immune System:   Tumors are recognized by the immune system  Tumors can be stopped or controlled long term—Immunosurveillance  Currently o Infuse antibodies that enhance the immune system to recognize cancer  cells ▯ ▯ Cancer Detection:   Self Monitoring Warning signs o 1.  Changes in bowel or bladder habits o 2. A sore that does not heal o 3. Unusual bleeding or discharge o 4. Thickening or a lump in your breast or elsewhere in you body o 5. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing o 6. Changes in a warm or mole o 7. Nagging cough or hoarseness  ▯  “ABCDE” of Skin Cancer: o Asymmetry o Border o Color o Diameter o Evolving  ▯  Self Exams:  o Testicular o Breast o Oral o Skin   Screenings o Mammogram  Breast   Age 40/50 o Pap Test   Cervical   Age 21 o Colo­Rectal   Colon  Fecal occult blood testing  Age 40  Colonoscopy  Age 50 o Low does CT  Lung  Age 55 o Ovarian  Exams, ultrasound, blood test o PSA (Prostate specific antigen)   Digital rectal exam o Skin Cancer ▯ ▯ Diagnostic and Lab Evaluations:   Biopsy o Process of obtaining a sample of tissue o Requires to establish diagnosis  High tech o MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)  o CT (Computer technology) o Ultrasound ▯ ▯ Cancer Staging:   What  o Describes severity of cancer o Based on size and or/extent (reach) of the original (primary) tumor o Has it spread to other parts of the body   Why  o Plan appropriate treatment o Estimate Prognosis o Clinical Trials   Stage 0 o Situ (In place)  o Remove Surgery   Stage 1 o Small size, spread to lymph or nearby tissue  Stage 2 and 3 o Large size, grown deeply or other organs/ body parts  Stage 4 o Metastatic Cancer  o Advanced / Terminal ▯ ▯ Classifications:   Carcinoma o Organs and internal passages  Skin cancer  Sarcoma o Bones, muscle, fat, tendons  Myeloma o Immune system  Leukemia o Blood  Blood cancer  Lymphoma o Lymph System  ▯ ▯ Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation, Biotherapy   Surgery o Oldest and most definitive treatment  Curative Surgery  o Primary treatment for one­third of cancers o If tumor is removed with small amount of surrounding normal tissue,  chance of survival is good  Palliative Surgery  o Large tumor mass is removed for patient o Chance of Survival is not as good  Chemotherapy  o Uses chemical agents that kill rapidly growing cells o Frequently can result in a cure  Radiation o Believed to stop growth of malignant cells by damaging DNA within  cells o Radiation can be applies internally or externally with machine o Can be used alone or with surgery or chemotherapy   Biotherapy  o Targets specific mutations o Eliminate, regulate, or suppress conditions that allow uncontrollable  cell growth ▯


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