Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes Psyc 287
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Choma on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 287 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Pearce in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Psychology of Personality PSYC 287 Week Seven Notes 10/4 Chapter 12 Reading Assignment Experience, Existence, and the Meaning of Life: Humanistic and Positive Psychology The goal of humanistic psychology is to overcome this paradox by acknowledging and addressing the ways in which psychology is unique Phenomenology: awareness is everything o One’s conscious experience of the world o From a phenomenological viewpoint, the only place and time in which you exist is in your consciousness, right here, right now o Construal: your particular experience of the world o Introspection: research assistants tried to observe their own perceptions and though processes Existentialism o A broad philosophical movement that began in Europe in the mid-1800s o The Three Parts of Experience Biological experience (Umwelt) – pleasure, pain, heat, cold, and all the bodily sensations Social experience (Mitwelt) – what you think and feel as a social being Inner, psychological experience (Eigenwelt) – how you feel and think when you try to understand yourself, your own mind, and your own existence o “Thrown-ness” and Angst thrown-ness: refers to the time, place, and circumstances into which you happened to be born angst: the unpleasant feelings caused by contemplating concerns o Bad Faith Although ignoring existential issues is very common, the existentialists point out that it has three problems To ignore these troubling facts of existence is to live a cowardly lie Even if you manage to ignore troubling existential issues by surrounding yourself with material comforts, you still will not be happy It is impossible, b/c choosing not to worry about the meaning of life and surrendering your choices to external authorities is still a choice o Authentic Existence The existentialists’ preferred alternative to bad faith is to courageously come to terms with the facts” you are mortal, your life is short, and you are a master of your own destiny o The Eastern Alternative The fundamental reality is your own experience at this moment – the past, the future and the experience of other people are forever closed of Anatta – the idea that the independent, singular self you sense inside your mind is merely an illusion Anicca – all things must pass and it is best to accept this fact instead of fighting it Optimistic Humanism: Rogers and Maslow o Self-Actualization: Rogers A person can be understood only from the perspective of her phenomenal field, which is the entire panorama of conscious experience Actualize – the maintain and enhance life o The Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow A person’s ultimate need/motive is to self-actualize – this motive becomes active only if the person’s more basic needs are met first A hierarchy of needs sel f- act ual iza tio status, esteem belonging, social activity safety, security, comfort, sex basic physiological needs, food, water, etc. o The Fully Functioning Person You are this if, you can perceive the world accurately and without neurotic distortion, and if you take responsibility for your choices Conditions of worth limit your freedom to act and think o Psychotherapy The goal is to help the client become a fully functioning person To achieve this goal, the therapist develops a genuine and caring relationship with the client and provides unconditional positive regard Therapist’s job is To help the client perceive his own thoughts and feelings without the therapist seeking to change them in any way To make the client feel appreciated no matter what he thinks, says, or does Personal Constructs: Kelly o Sources of constructs Kelly viewed constructs as bipolar dimensions along which people or objects can be arranged o Constructs and Reality Constructive alternativism: you choose the construal you use; they are not forced on you, since others are equally possible Flow: Csikszentmihalyi o Flow: the subjective experience of an activity – the enjoyment itself Self-Determination Theory: Deci and Ryan o Hedonia and Eudaimonia Positive Psychology o The aim of this growing field of theorizing and research is to correct what its proponents see as long-standing over emphasis within psychology on psychopathology and malfunction o Improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is a barren and meaningless The Implications of Phenomenology o The moment-to-moment experience of every aware person 10/4 in class notes Behavioral Genetics – Chapter 9 Continued Eugenics o Sir Francis Galton o Positive eugenics: improve genetic composition of the population by encouraging healthy, smart people to reproduce o Founded psychometrics o Negative eugenics: improve genetics of population by discouraging the poor and unintelligent from reproducing Negative Eugenics o 1907 – Indiana became first state to legalize sterilization o 1922 – Harry H. Laughlin published model sterilization act subject for sterilization: “the feeble minded,” insane, criminals, epileptics, alcoholics, blind and deaf people, deformed people, indigent people o 1930s – more than 30 stats had sterilization laws Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927) o Carrie Buck was committed to the Virginia State colony for Epileptics and the Feeble Minded by her adoptive family after she gave birth to a child out of wedlock at approximately age 18 o Said to have a mental age of 9 o Biological mom, mental age of 8, prostitution – all feeble minded o First to be sterilized at the colony o Although said to have mental age of 9 – attended school for 5 years o Her daughter was never legitimately examined – was a bright student before dying at a young age o Carrie had been raped by a family member – was sterilized instead of her family being there for her o Virginia’s sterilization law was repealed in 1974, but Buck v. Bell has never been overruled o Laughlin received honorary doctorate from Heidelberg University in 1936, Buck v. Bell was cited in defense at Nuremberg trials Eugenics o Foundations of clinical psychology, intelligence testing, and research methods can be linked to eugenics movement o Approximately 65,000 Americans were involuntarily sterilized since Carrie Buck, continuing into the 1970s Evolutionary Personality Psychology o Attempt to explain human behavior or personality by theorizing about how it might have been adaptive for the human species thousands of years ago o Aggression, altruism, self-esteem, depression, mate selection and mating strategies Chapter 12 – humanistic and positive psychology Origins of Humanistic Psychology o Emerged in the 1950s o Response to psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism Psychoanalysis focuses on understanding unconscious motivations that drive behavior Behaviorism focuses on the conditioning processes that produce behavior Basics of Humanistic Psychology o Humanistic psychology focuses on each individual’s potential to be good Basic belief is that people are innately good and that psychological problems are deviations from the natural tendency to be good o Assumes that people have an “actualizing tendency” Origins of Humanistic Psychology o Existential philosophy Ludwig Binswanger: three components of conscious experience (umwelt, mitwelt, eigenwelt) Human beings are free to (or are obligated to) determine the meaning of their lives Existential angst: anguish, forlornness, despair o Phenomenology An individual’s experience of the world is key Other places, times, and people only meaningfully exist in your mind Central Tenets of humanistic psychology o Human beings are greater than the sum of their parts; they cannot be reduced to components (Holistic) o Human beings are unique; diferent from all other life (humanistic) o Human beings are conscious; self-awareness o Human beings have free will Strengths of humanistic psychology o Emphasizes the role of the individual: people can control and determine their mental health o Accounts for environmental influences; does not focus solely on internal thoughts and desires o Therapeutic techniques can be used to benefit normal, healthy people Helped reduce negative stigma of seeking help/therapy Weaknesses of Humanistic Psychology o Very subjective Focus on individual experience makes it difficult to apply scientific methods o Observations are unverifiable Humanistic psychology is concerned with things that are difficult to measure – creativity, free will, potential