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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Fu on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 160 at University of California Berkeley taught by Serena Chen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of California Berkeley.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Lecture Notes Lecture 10 Examples of content of the self-concept - Traits - Likes/dislikes - wishes/hopes - social identities Sources of Self Knowledge - Introspection (Who am I?) - Attributions - Inferences from observations of own behavior o When we are uncertain about our attitudes and feelings, we infer them by observing our own behaviors (only when we are uncertain) o Self-perception theory (Chaiken & Baldwin, 1981) § Ps had strong or weak attitudes about environment § Manipulated Ps’ perceptions of their environment-related behaviors • Have you ever recycled? (lead to perceive pro-environment) • Do you always recycle? (lead to perceive anti-environment) § Ask Ps to indicate attitudes on environment § Only Ps with weak attitudes engaged in self-perception processes § Ex. Rachel’s perception of her liking Ethiopian food after she tried it for the first time (iCliker) (weak attitude since it’s her first time trying Ethiopian food) - Feedback and reactions from others o Socialization o Looking-glass self - Social comparisons o Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954) § Socially compare when no objective standards § Most informative to compare with similar others - Social group memberships - Context o Focus on self-aspects that are distinctive in a given context o Focus on self-aspects that are relevant in a given context o Working self-concept: refers to the subset of knowledge about the self that is active at a given moment in a given context Lecture 11 Cultural differences in the self-concept (Markus & Kitayama) - Independent view of the self: defining oneself in terms of own internal feelings, thoughts, and actions - Interdependent view of the self: defining oneself in terms of relationship with others Self-Complexity Theory (Linville) - Self is cognitively represented in terms of multiple aspects - Self-aspects vary in the affect associated with them - Degree of complexity in the self-varies Self-complexity is defined by - # of different self-aspects - degree of overlap of self-aspects - high self-complexity = large # of distinct self-aspects - low self-complexity = small # of non-distinct self-aspects / more extreme swings in affect & self-evaluation Central-Hypothesis - degree of self-complexity related to how people feel in response to + & - events related to the self Self-Discrepancy Theory (Higgins) - similar to self-complexity theory o multiple self-aspects o affective consequences associated with how self-aspects are related - different from self-complexity theory o discrepancies between self-aspects (not focusing on overlap) o actual selves and hypothetical selves - actual self, ideal self, ought self - actual-ideal discrepancy à dejection - actual-ought discrepancy à agitation Discussion Notes Discussion 5 Self-esteem - An important component of the self - The positivity or negativity of our self-views Trait self-esteem: our enduring level of self-regard across time - Relatively stable but may change with development, and as a function of chronic experiences - What we typically think of when we describe someone’s self-esteem State self-esteem: momentary, fluctuating self-evaluations or feelings about the self - Reflects current mood and momentary experiences Acceptance vs rejection Sociometer Theory - Self-esteem is an internal, subjective marker of the extent to which we are included or looked on favorably by others - Self-esteem developed to monitor the social environment for clues as to whether the individual is being accepted or rejected - If rejection is detected, the individual is motivated to take corrective action - Based on the assumption that humans possess a pervasive desire to maintain interpersonal relationship Low self-esteem is associated with psychological problems although the link is often overstated Psychological problems are not caused directly low self-esteem but by a history of relational devaluation. Self-esteem is concomitant Contingencies of self-worth scale - Based on the assumption that self-esteem is contingent on successes and failures in domains on which a person has based his/her self-worth – domains that are important to you 7 domains - Other’s approval - Physical appearance - Outdoing others in competition - Academic competence - Family love and support - Being a virtuous or moral person - God’s love
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