KIN 200, Chapter 4 Notes: The Importance of Subjective Experiences in Physical Activity
KIN 200, Chapter 4 Notes: The Importance of Subjective Experiences in Physical Activity Intro to Kinesiology 200
Popular in Introduction to Kinesiology
CH 2010 (Hickman, Survey of Organic Chemistry)
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Kinesiology
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Fricke on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Intro to Kinesiology 200 at Crafton Hills College taught by Prof. Ralph J. Rabago in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Kinesiology in Kinesiology at Crafton Hills College.
Reviews for KIN 200, Chapter 4 Notes: The Importance of Subjective Experiences in Physical Activity
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/10/16
CHAPTER FOUR: THE IMPORTANCE OF SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCES IN PHYSIAL ACTIVITY 10/10/2016 ▯ So here’s how my notes work: ▯ ▯ All my notes are in an outline form. The titles in red signify the main sections within each chapter. The VOCABULARY WORDS are in all caps and are highlighted in pink. Additionally, words that aren’t considered “vocabulary” (aren’t defined in the glossary), but are probably important to know, are bolded and in pink text. Names and organizations (the “who”) are bolded and put into orange text. Important information is in yellow highlighter, and examples, data, and quotes are highlighted in blue. Sometimes, while reading the textbook, these two options (important info/data) can be a little difficult to differentiate between, so I apologize if you think it should be a different color category. Next, dates can be found in green highlighter. Concepts/steps/theories and things or the like are in white text with purple highlighter. Underlined or bold text basically just means, “Hey, in this super long excerpt of something that’s important, this section is extra important and vital to know”. ▯ ▯ I know the plethora of color can be intimidating at first, but trust me, it works in the long run. When going back to study notes for an exam, it makes it a heck of a lot easier. For example, if you know that the exam is going to be strongly vocabulary based, all you have to search your notes for are the pink terms. In the long run, it helps save you time; your precious time that should be saved for cramming, not searching! ▯ ▯ I hope these notes successfully help you reach your academic goal for this course! Happy studying! ▯ ▯ -Han ▯ ▯ ▯ Four Truths About Sport & Exercise I. Physical activity is always accompanied by subjective experiences A. External Signals 1. Raising a fist in the air 2. Laughing 3. Jumping B. Reasons we tend to believe in solely the objective 1. P.A./Kinesiology are associated with Biology & Medicine a. 2 VERY objective areas i. focuses on anatomical, physiological, biomedical C. Subjective aspects 1. Values, cognitions, feelings 2. A complete understanding of p.a. must take into account the response of the entire person – intellectual, emotional, and spiritual as well as physiological aspects 3. George Sheehan a. “The first half of my run is for my body, the last half hour is for my soul. In the beginning the road is a miracle of solitude and escape. In the end it is a miracle of discovery and joy.” II. Subjective experiences of physical activity are unique A. Not all p.a. stimulates the same subjective experiences 1. One may feel one emotion when sky diving and feel an entirely different emotion while running III. We may not pay attention to the subjective experiences of physical activity A. Subjective experiences are easily overlooked 1. Subjective experience may be underlying reason for our participation in p.a., but we can often get caught up in the competition and forget why we started IV. Physical activity should be meaningful A. We are highly unlikely to begin a specific p.a. if we don’t enjoy it, even if we are good at it ▯ Why Subjective Experiences Are Important I. Subjective experiences can help clarify your career choice A. Athletic trainer because you want others to have the same subjective experience you did when you where in rehab for your injury II. Subjective experience helps develop your skills as a physical activity professional A. Can help better devise a program or plan for clients III. The Nature of Subjective Experiences A. Two general kinds of experience 1. Immediate subjective experiences a. When we engage in p.a., our movements create immediate emotional & cognitive impressions i. Proprioceptors: sensory devices in tendons, ligaments, muscles, and inner ear that are stimulated by physical actions Transformed into perceptions and feelings 2. Replayed subjective experiences a. SELF-REFLECTION: a process whereby one experiences the subjective experiences of an activity performed in the past i. Replaying a video that includes visual, kinesthetic, and auditory impressions ii. Sport psychologists use this method to relieve anxiety or to give a confidence boost Mental focus ▯ Components of Subjective Experience I. Sensations and Perceptions A. SENSATIONS: Raw, uninterrupted information collected through sensory organs 1. Physical & emotional 2. PERCEPTIONS: meaningful constructs or messages based on the interpretations of sensations from past subjective experiences a. Perception of fatigue tell us when to stop an exercise II. Emotions and Emotional Response A. P.a. can increase our excitement as well as decrease it 1. Subjective reactions to p.a. are called emotions a. Differ depending on person & situation III. Knowledge and Subjective Experience A. RATIONAL KNOWLEDGE: knowledge about facts, concepts, and theories gained through reason, logic, and analysis 1. Book knowledge B. INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE: knowledge gained through physical activity that doesn’t depend on rational or conscious processes 1. More knowledge about ourselves than the actual activity itself 2. Drew Hyland – Philosopher a. 3 types of intuitive knowledge i. PSYCHOANALYTIC SELF-KNOWLEDGE: knowledge about one’s deep-seated desires, motivation, and behavior gained through participation in sport and exercise ii. MYSTICAL KNOWLEDGE: knowledge about another dimension of reality apprehended through participation in sport and exercise Aka Zen self knowledge Some call it transcendent because the experiences took them “out of this world” PEAK EXPERIENCES: special type of mystical experience that runners and other engaged in strenuous sports and exercises can experience o Involuntary and unexpectedly o Time slows down, specific features stand out o “being in the zone” iii. SOCRATIC SELF-KNOWLEDGE: knowledge about our capacities and limitations that enables us to perform physical activity safely within the range of our abilities Ignoring personal limits often leads to disastrous performances and injury C. Talking about subjective experiences 1. Subjective experiences = private experiences 2. Talking to others about our own subjective experiences is important because it helps us understand our emotions better ▯ Intrinsic & Extrinsic Approaches to Physical Activity I. Practical Approach to Physical Activity A. EXTRINSIC APPROACHES TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: approach whereby physical activity is valued because of the benefits that come from participating 1. Someone who partakes in it other than for subjective reasons a. Working out with your boss to boost your chances of getting a promotion II. Subjective Approach to Exercise for Health A. “We play sports for fun & enjoyment, we exercise for health.” B. For some, pain means gain; it is a sign of satisfaction and well-being C. Why are subjective experiences important to us 1. We may start activity primarily for physiological benefits (weight loss), but end up continuing it because of intrinsic feelings a. You lose weight from running, but continue doing it because you’re seeing results & start to feel more confident and feel a sense of achievement 2. We make qualitative decisions between subjective experiences of strenuous work and strenuous exercise a. We tend to want to exercise, but not want to work i. Manager who hires people to do yard work, but pays dues to a local gym to exercise regularly III. Internalization of Physical Activity A. INTERNALIZATION: the process by which an activity gradually comes to be valued for it’s intrinsic qualities 1. There are five stages You are aware You respond positively You go out of your way to do the physical activity It becomes part of your value system Its been internalized Factors Affecting Our Enjoyment of Physical Activity I. Factors Related to the Activity A. Evenly matched challenges 1. “enjoyment appears at the boundary between boredom and anxiety” a. we need a delicate balance between the challenge of the activity and the skills required for it B. Clear Goals & Feedback 1. The enjoyment of attaining goals is greatest when the goals are difficult to attain 2. It’s necessary that we know what the “goal” of the sport we’re playing or exercise equipment we’re using is. a. With that, it’s important for teachers, trainers, and coaches to give feedback on the participants’ activity i. Constructive criticism AND positivity C. Competition 1. Competition usually heightens enjoyment a. COMPETITION: a principle or framework for organizing physical activity in which participants compare their performances w/ each other, or with a standard for the purpose of increasing enjoyment 2. Cons a. When coaches and players value winning over enjoyment II. Factors Related to the Performer A. DISPOSITIONS: short term, highly variable psychological states that may affect our enjoyment of physical activity 1. Perceived Competency: a. We enjoy activities that we succeed in and are competent at i. Self-efficacy: how adequate we feel to perform a task 2. Absorption: a. When you lose a sense of yourself while performing an activity, feelings of enjoyment increase i. When we aren’t self-conscious, we’re less likely to judge ourselves and our performance 3. Perceived control: a. Experiencing a sense of mastery or control over our environment i. Knowing you can handle a tough cross country course 4. SENSATION SEEKING ACTIVITIES: physical activities that involve high speed, danger, or disorientation of the body in space a. Hang gliding, parachute jumping, rock climbing 5. A degree of risk & uncertainty is fundamental to our enjoyment B. ATTITUDES: relatively stable mindsets toward physical activity 1. Gerald Kenyon (1968) a. Scale for assessing attitudes toward P.A. i. P.A. as a Social Experience Team sports Social aspects = positive experience o Develops friendships ii. P.A. for Health & Fitness Knowing you can meet any physical demand that you may meet in a day Enjoy because it leads to development of fitness iii. P.A. as the Pursuit of Vertigo Element of risk or thrill o VERTIGO: the sensation that comes from disorientation of the body in space, often experienced in conjunction with dangerous activities Why do some seek out such activities while others deliberately avoid them? o Petrie (1967) Basically, people who seek out thrill mentally understate the activity so that they don’t get as scared iv. P.A. as an Aesthetic Experience AESTHETIC EXPERIENCES: a subjective experience in which sensations appeal to our senses of beauty, grace, and artistic appreciation o Gymnastics, diving, skating v. P.A. as a Cathartic Experience Catharsis: a purging or venting of pent-up hostilities either through attacking an enemy or some inanimate object in an aggressive fashion or though watching an aggressive sport A vigorous bout of P.A. can decrease anxiety vi. P.A. as an Ascetic Experience ASCETIC EXPEREINCES: physical activity experiences that involve either discomfort or pain, or suffering o For these people, the pain is attractive rather than unappealing III. Factors Related to the Social Context A. Nature of the context in which the activity occurs 1. How you feel working out at the gym vs how you feel working out at home alone 2. Fox & Colleagues (2000) a. Test effects of leadership style & group environment on enjoyment experienced by participants of steps aerobics class i. Instructor had “enriched style” or “bland style” ii. Undergrad student dispersed within the session Established a “rich” or “bland” style as well, by their interaction throughout the class with the other participant iii. Found that enjoyment was higher in enriched setting, but was also VERY high for enriched leadership AND participants (undergrad students) Watching Sports as a Subjective Experience I. Jesse Feiring Williams A. M.D. professor B. Devoted his life to helping prepare P.E. teachers, coaches, and trainers C. Skeptical of sports watching II. SPORT SPECTACLES: staged competitions designed and promoted for audiences and intended to evoke an entire range of human emotions by virtue of their grandeur, scale, and drama A. Primarily entertainment B. Usually professional, collegiate, or international events III. Ways of Watching a Sport A. Vicarious Participation 1. While watching an event, you tense your muscles, adjust your body position with athlete’s movements 2. Fans who identify with a certain player or team B. Disinterested Sport Spectating 1. DISINTERESTED SPECTATING: a form of watching sports contests in which the observer is non partisan in his or her feelings about the outcome a. Those who watch sports as a part of their employment i. Like refs or sports announcers b. Can still enjoy the game and skillful actions of the performers IV. Factors Affecting Enjoyment of Watching Sports A. Game Knowledge 1. Scott Kretchmar a. GAME SPECTATOR KNOWLEDGE: knowledge about the game one is watching, including the players, strategies, and competitive tactics B. Feelings Toward Competing Teams and Players 1. Dispositional theory of enjoyment a. Spectators applaud failed plays of opposing team almost as much as they did for good plays of own team 2. Wins of a favored team can boost a fan’s self confidence and self-esteem C. Human Drama of Sport Competition 1. Competing teams be equally matched with each other a. Like the Super Bowl game 2. Rough and Aggressive play boosts excitement a. Hockey ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯