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BIOL 1107: Photosynthesis

by: Brittany Ariana Borzillo

BIOL 1107: Photosynthesis BIOL 1107

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Biology > BIOL 1107 > BIOL 1107 Photosynthesis
Brittany Ariana Borzillo
GPA 3.7

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all photosynthesis information FOR TEST 3
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Armstrong in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see /class/202289/biol-1107-university-of-georgia in Biology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Photosynthesis Light Energy  Sun emits electromagnetic radiation in the form of solar energy  Wavelength o Distance between consecutive points of a wave  Crest to crest  Trough to trough  Only one form of electromagnetic radiation  Electromagnetic spectrum o Different radiation travels at different wavelengths  Longer wavelengths carry less energy o Visible light  A fraction of energy that can be seen to the human eye  Violet and blue have short wavelengths  Red has long wavelengths Absorption of Light  Light energy initiates photosynthesis when pigments absorb lights o Organic pigments include the human retina and a plant’s chloroplast thylakoid  Have narrow range of absorbance energy levels  About 700nm to 400 nm  Visible light shows the rainbow of colors o The beginning of the rainbow is long and the end is short  Pigments o Evolve to absorb only certain wavelengths of visible light o Pigments reflect or transmit the wavelengths that they cannot absorb o Chlorophylls and carotenoids are the major classes of photosynthetic pigment in plants and algae  Each class has multiple types of pigment  Chlorophyll A, B, C, D, and a related molecule bacteriophyll (prokaryotes) o Chlorophyll a and b are found in higher plant chloroplasts  Carotenoids are much larger pigments that function as photosynthetic pigments which are efficient in disposal of energy o Lycopene  Red in tomato   -- carotene in orange peel o when exposed to full sun, light dependent reactions are necessary to process the amount of energy o pigments can be identified by the specific wavelengths that it absorbs How Light Dependent Reactions Work  function to convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of NADPH and ATP o energy fuels the assembly of sugar  photosystems o multi-protein complex o embedded in thylakoid membrane o photosystems differ in what they oxidize and reduce o both photosystems have antenna proteins  chlorophyll molecules are bound to them which surrounds the reaction center  reaction center  where photochemistry takes place o each photosystem is serviced by a light-harvesting complex  passes energy from sunlight to reaction center  consists of multiple antenna proteins that contain 300-400 chlorophyll a, b, and other pigments  absorption of a single photon of light by any chlorophylls pushes that molecule into an excited state o transferred from chlorophyll to chlorophyll until reaching the reaction center  reaction center contains a pair of chlorophyll molecules with capability to undergo oxidation  will give electrons when excited in the process photoact  all steps after the electron is excited involve ensuring that the electron is transported to the Calvin cycle  photosynthetic electron transport chain o photocomplex 1, 2, and cytochrome complex o cytochrome complex  enzyme composed of 2 proteins  transfers electrons from the carrier molecule plastoquinone (Pq) to plastocyanin (Pc)  enables both the transfer of protons across the thylakoid membrane and the transfer of electrons from PSII to PSI  reaction center of PSII (P680) deivers electrons one at a time to the primary electron acceptor and through the electron transport chain to PSI o PSII is reduced after every photoact  Electron is regained by a weak one from H 2 o As hydrogen move from the stromal side of the membrane to the thylakoid lumen energy goes into the process and is lost by the hydrogen  Accumulate in lumen will be used for ATP synthesis o PSI reaction center (P700) is oxidized and sends high-energy electron to NADP+ o Production of NADPH roughly equals production of ATP Generating ATP  Buildup of H+ ions inside the thylakoid lumen creates a concentration gradient o Passive diffusion of H+ ions is used to produce ATP o Passage is though ATP synthase  Energy released by H+ ions allows ATP synthase to attach a 3 rd phosphate group  Chemiosmosis Calvin Cycle  CO 2nters leaves through the stroma o Diffuses overshot distances until reaching mesophyll cells o CO 2iffuses into the chloroplast once in the mesophyll cells Carbon Fixation  CO 2 ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and 3 ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) initiate the light-independent reactions  Rubisco catalyzes a reaction between CO a2d RuBP o For each CO 2hat reacts with RuBP, two molecules of 3-PGA are formed  CO 2s “fixed” from inorganic form into organic molecules Reduction  ATP and NADPH are used to convert 6 molecules of G3P o 3-PGA gains electrons  6 molecules of ATP and NADPH Regeneration  only one G3P molecule leaves the Calvin Cycle and is sent to the cytoplasm to contribute to the formation of other compounds  takes 3 turns of the Calvin Cycle to fix enough Carbon to export one G3P but each turn produces 2 G3P  remaining 5 G3P molecules remain in the cycle and are used to regenerate RuBP o enables the system to prepare for more CO t2 be fixed Energy Cycle  all living things access energy by breakdown carbohydrate molecules  heterotrophs release needed energy and produce waste in the form of CO 2 gas o autotrophs produce oxygen as waste  photosynthesis absorbs light energy to build carbohydrates in chloroplasts, and aerobic cellular respiration releases energy by using oxygen to metabolize carbohydrates in the cytoplasm and mitochondria  both cell respiration and photosynthesis use electron transport chains to capture the energy necessary to drive other reaction


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