Herbal Preparations and Herb Cabinet
Herbal Preparations and Herb Cabinet PBIO 3440
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Different Preparations and Herb Cabinet Infusions and Decoctions Herbal teas o Water extracts o Easy to prepare but relatively short lived infusions should be used the same day decoctions should be used within 48 hours o if using fresh herbs, use twice the mass as dried herbs to get the same potency infusions o work best for leaf and flower materials that yield their chemicals fairly readily o start with boiling water and steep the dried or fresh herbs until the liquid is cool enough to drink decoctions o used to extract chemicals from more stout materials like roots and twigs o place the materials in water and simmer for 20-30 minutes until liquid is reduced by about one-third materials are relatively chopped up Tinctures and Elixirs made by steeping herbs in drinkable alcohol (ethanol) o vodka o rum o wine can make nonalcoholic versions using glycerin or vinegar alcohol is a stronger solvent that water o gives tinctures a stronger action than infusions or decoctions shelf life of about two years o elixirs are shorter elixirs simply have a lower alcohol content process o let herbs stand in alcohol for 10-14 days o shake occasionally o Strain out the plant material o Store in dark-colored bottles in a cool, dark place o often diluted in water or fruit juice for consumption o Elixirs are prepared in a similar fashion, then refrigerated; less alcohol is used so the extraction is less powerful; elixirs are typically sweet tasting and don’t need to be diluted Capsules convenient and useful for herbs that taste bad contain dried herbs that have been ground to a dine powder or liquid extract commercial preparations are best because of the head of grinding o can denature properties o can degrade the chemicals in the herbs Poultices and Compresses external use best when wet poultice o a wad of chopped-up plant material applied directly to a wound or infection on the skin o Used to ease nerve or muscle pains, sprains; draws pus from infected wounds o Usually held in place by a bandage o Herb is softened (by boiling, steaming, chewing, pounding) to help release the chemicals Compress o clean cloths that have been dipped in an herbal solution (e.g., infusion, decoction, tincture) o can be placed directly on the skin, or can be used to hold a poultice in place o medicinal use Treat swelling, bruising, headaches; used to soothe fevers Ointments and Creams Ointment o contain oils or fats heated with herbs o Contain no water so they form a separate layer on the surface of the skin o Useful where protection from moisture is needed Creams o combine oils or fats and water in an emulsion o Unlike ointments, creams blend with the skin use fats to extract chemicals to herbs o Feel cooling and soothing while allowing skin to breathe and sweat naturally Tonics and Adaptogens tonic o substance with a nourishing or restorative effect on the body o revitalizer o people value them for their ability to promote longevity, convalescence, and a general sense of wellbeing adaptogen o helps the body respond to physical and emotional stress o performance enhancer could increase endurance to certain stimuli o whichever way you may be out of balance, it’ll restabilize you ginseng o herbaceous perennial o native to East Asia and eastern North America o part used root more valuable if root is bigger and looks human o Panax quinquefolius collected so much that it’s beginning to become extinct Warming Speedy o Medicinal purposes Fatigue Tonic Athletic Performance o Caution High blood pressure Heart palpitations o Panax ginseng (American) is milder and should be used differently Considered cold o Wild-collected roots command a much higher price than commercially produced o Siberian ginseng Eleutherococcus senticosus Shrub grows to 2 meters Native to eastern Asia Part used Root Medicinal purpose Helps aid with cold winters Fatigue Stress Increase stamina Tonic Memory Caution High blood pressure Ashwagandha o Withania somnifera o Potato family o Native to India and Mediterranean region o Shrub o Part used Leaves Roots Berries o Important to Ayurvedic (Indian) traditional medicine o Adaptogen o Medicinal uses Used to counter effects of long term stress [fill in] schisandra o schisandra chinenis o schisandra family o woody vine o native to China, Japan, and Korea o part used berries and leaves o important herb in traditional Chinese medicine o adaptogen o [fill in] Essential Oils concentrated distilled oils aromatherapy will be absorbed into skin Herb Cabinet Gingko, Gingko biloba gingko family tree native to China o gymnosperm fossils 200 million years old o species was around before mammalians during the dinosaur age part used o leaf extract o seeds originally used to improve respiratory function waxy looking soft fruits on female trees odorous medicinal use o improves circulation o improves memory and cognitive function cautions o many interactions with MAO inhibitors o may interact with anticoagulants research performed in Germany o was once the most prescribed “drug” Gotu Kola, Centella asiatica carrot family herbaceous creeping perennial native to India part used o whole plant medicinal use o improving memory o reducing stress o wound healing o cellulite helps formation of healthy collagen o skin rejuvenation o leprosy cautions o no known risks elephants eat a lot of it so it became associated with long life and wisdom CASE STUDY: KUDZU FOR ALCOHOLISMA 52-year-old man with alcohol dependence has been sober for three weeks. He had decided to quit drinking when he began having difficulty with memory, job attendance, wife, and finances. He began attending Alcoholics Anonymous at the recommend-ation of a friend and gradually decreased his alcohol intake to zero. He was currently having tremendous urges to drink, however, especially while watching sports on television.He consulted his family physician, who recommended naltrexone as an effective medication both to decrease alcohol craving and to decrease the mood-elevating aspects of alcohol intake. The patient decided instead to try a kudzu preparation from the health food store that a friend in one of his Alcoholics Anonymous groups had recommended. The folk medicine worked well. While watching a football game he could not resist having a beer, but drank no more than one before he began having flushing, sweating, nausea, vomiting, and headache. The reaction lasted several hours. After this experience, he has remained sober for three years. Why hangovers hurt o Alcohol relaxes blood vessels and they dilate if blood vessels in brain open too wide they trigger pain nerves o Alcohol is a diuretic fluid loss can also trigger head pain o Fatigue and lousy-all-over feeling are a result of alcohol’s depressant effect and build-up of acids in blood o Additives and impurities contribute to hangovers the darker the alcohol, the worse the hangover o Alcohol metabolism metabolism of alcohol occurs mainly in the liver and occurs in two steps Acetaldehyde is a big contributor to hangovers Kudzu, Pueraria lobate Pea family Trailing or climbing perennial vine Native to eastern Asia Part used o Root Treatment for alcoholism o causes acetaldehyde to accumulate more rapidly in blood Milk Thistle, Silybum maranium sunflower family Herbaceous annual or biennial Native to Mediterranean, widely naturalized in the US Part used o Seeds Active ingredient is silymarin (a mixture) prompts manufacture of new, healthy liver cells Extracts neutralize toxins from Death Cap mushroom (Amanita) by displacing mushroom toxins from membrane receptors Target therapies include liver problems (cirrhosis and hepatitis) and mushroom poisoning Caution o occasional loose stools due to excess bile secretion Herb Cabinet: Urinary Bearberry blueberry family evergreen shrub cool temperate regions in northern hemisphere arctostaphylos uva-ursi part used o leaf medicinal purposes o used to treat mild urinary tract infections o often treats infections resulting from E. coli infection o antiseptic destroys or inhibits microorganisms that cause infection o astringent tightens mucous membranes and skin reduces secretions and bleeding from abrasions primary active compound o arbutin o broken down in GI tract to hydroquinone a substance with proven bactericidal and astringent properties caution o don’t take for more than 7-10 days at [fill in] Cranberry vaccinium macrocarpon blueberry family trailing evergreen shrub cool temperate bogs in eastern north America part used o fruit medicinal use o prevents and treats urinary tract infections cultivation o very mechanized o often grows in quaking bogs small lakes where glaciers used to form that are now water o vegetation forms a layer over the lake o contain a lot of tannins o also grow in very sandy soils o pine barons Saw Palmetto serenoa repens palm family shrubby palm native to southeast USA coastal plain part used o fruit medicinal use o extract (lipid based) treats benign enlargement of the prostate gland (BPH) o blocks production of dihydrotestosterone o “plant catheter” grow like weeds hard to eradicate production is central to Ocala FL o important food and cover plant for Florida black bear and panther fruits are wild-harvested o fruit production caries greatly from year to year o price varies with production research o determining what factors trigger fruit production Herb Cabinet: Sleep and Anxiety Hops humulus lupulus hemp family perennial vine native to Europe and Asia part used o bracts of female flowers structures derived from leaves medicinal use o sedative o sleep-aid concentration of volatile oils increases with drying o post-harvest treatment caution o avoid during pregnancy o contains estrogenic substances plants are dioecious Skullcap scutellaria lateriflora mint family perennial herb native to north America part used o dried aerial parts o anything above soil medicinal purpose o sedative o tranquilizer o nerve tonic o “feel like it’s wrapping its arms around you” o evens energy level, so you don’t hit a midafternoon snag o relieves irritability associated with PMS and menstrual cramping antispasmodic Hawthorn crategus spp rose family shrub or small tree o many hybrids in nature o species hard to identify north temperate regions part used o fruit o leaf o flower medicinal use o targeted therapy for angina, high blood pressure, and improving heart function opens up blood vessel that feed the heart increases he muscle’s energy supply and pumping o frequently prescribed heart remedy in Europe caution o take with medical supervision ornamental use o produces very long, sharp thorns o used as hedge/barrier o popular for bird nesting protection and eat fruits