Unit 3 Lecture Notes
Unit 3 Lecture Notes MUS 15
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Popular in Music
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esmeralda Winland on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 15 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Matthew Roy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Music Appreciation in Music at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Unit 3: The Accomplished Woman: Jane Austen, Amy Beach, and Gender Roles in Music Setting: Europe, specifically England and Germany, the U.S, 19th century Domesticity ● A prime focus on the home ● Leisure time is associated with the middle and upper class because they did not work so they had free-time while their husbands worked/made the money ● Home music making → evening entertainment with friends ● Music publishing is growing ○ 1794 - 30 music stores ○ 1824 - 150 music stores ○ 1770s - publishing catalogs with thousands of options ○ 1820s - catalogs with tens of thousands of options Rise of piano in the home ● Piano was invented in the 1700s and was seen as an expensive luxury item not for average people ● The Industrial Revolution led to better manufacturing and lowered the price for a piano ● The piano became an essential instrument for the middle & upper class home → expected to have one What did they play the piano? ● Songs, transcriptions, music made for the piano ● One person would play the piano and another person would sing → allowed more people to get involved ● Transcriptions: originally for different instrument/style played on a different type of instrument i.e a song for a violin played on the piano ● Allowed people to be familiar with & learn well-known popular music that could be for a different genre, instrument, location etc. The Accomplished Woman ● Is educated (not book smart but art smart) ● Paints, draws, plays the piano, dances, sings ● Has good etiquette/manners/posture/appropriate attire for a lady ● Speaks many languages like German/French Accomplishments/Acceptable Hobbies ● Learn how to behave within society’s gender roles and norms Q: Why be “accomplished?” ● To display your family's social status and make them look of high status/value ● Reserve social order by abiding to social norms and marrying within your social class Women and the Piano ● Piano is delicate, not much movement, sitting down, good posture when playing ● Why not the violin/viola? ○ Too much aggressive motion ○ Why not the cello? → too big, requires legs to be opened and that’s not ladylike ○ Wind instruments? Too much blowing, , puffing ○ Physicality of string instruments was not appropriate for females Two Case Studies 1. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel ● 1805-1847 ● Born in Hamburg, Germany ● Father was a wealthy banker → upper class ● Highly educated (traditional book smart sense) ● Family owned a salon → gathering of people to eat, drink, listen, and talk about music or philosphy etc. ● She was a child prodigy & gifted pianist ● Played/wrote/composed music for family salon → played in private settings like her family’s salon not in front of people at an event or in the public ● She was discouraged to travel the world and make a living with her talent because she was a woman. She did not publish any music she only played to make her family look good 2. Clara Wieck Schumann ● 1819-1896 ● Born in Leipzig ● Father was a music teacher → lower class ● Child prodigy and gifted piano player ● Unlike Hensel, she was able to tour the world and play music for a living in Europe because it did not threaten her already low social status ● Professional musician/composer ● Published under her own name, played music publicly Connect the Dots * The idea of an accomplished female was a key part of the middle and upper class * Music and specifically playing the piano was an important aspect of females being accomplished ● Societal enforced gender roles limited the participation of women in music fields at this time Lecture 10/11/16 The Accomplished Woman: Jane Austen, Amy Beach, & Gender Roles in Music RECAP: Music was expected to be part of an accomplished woman’s life as a hobby not as a profession Terms and people: Amy Beach, George Upton, canon Woman in Music ● Originally published in 1880 → it was widely available ● Written by American music critic & author George Upton ○ He advocates music appreciation and supports the arts ○ His question: No great composers are women. Why? ○ His opinions ■ Women have not created/contributed to music ■ Women are important to music because men write about heartbreak (women are necessary to music because then men would not have anything to write songs about) His reasons → Women are too emotional and cant express or control it in music. They are too emotional to be rational or logical about music ● Women can’t handle rejection/hardships/struggle/adversity ● Women either are too poor/busy being domestic so they do not have time to be a composer or they have a lot of time and no struggles to write music about ** Ironic → Women were dealing with adversity and oppression based on their gender and class ** Upton speaks from a perspective of a privileged male in the 19th century Dead White Males ● There was a shift in repertoire in the 19th century ● Music performed by the Leipzig Gewandhaus ○ 1780s: 85% of music performed by l iving composers ○ 1820s: 75% of music performed by l iving composers ○ 1870s: 25% of music performed by l iving composers Vienna Philharmonic Repertoire 1842-1850 ● 60% Beethoven → dead composer at the time Fueled by → the rise of Public instrumental concerts, the development of professional orchestras in almost every city, and the continued growth of middle class audiences SHIFT → Symphony/orchestra move from Aristocratic nobility to public middle class support Movement of music of moment → movement of musical monuments (something worth preserving) Development of the Musical Canon Overall theme: Women are not given the same opportunity as men to compose music due to societal expectations that women are to be domestic and not compose music as a profession Amy Beach Beach as a composer Connect the dots
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