Biology and Behavior Week 7 Notes
Biology and Behavior Week 7 Notes PSY150A1
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by zoebitsie Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Julie Feldman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Biology & Behavior The Nervous System The neuron o Cells of the nervous system o Three primary parts: dendrites, axon, nucleus o Dendrites: responsible for receiving information o Axon: responsible for sending information o Nucleus: contains DNA of the cell o Myelin sheath: surrounds axon, acts a protectant o Multiple sclerosis: deterioration of the myelin sheath, information is not sent smoothly o Sensory neurons: specialized to receive and send information about sensory input o Motor neurons: sends information to muscles, causes movement o Interneurons: transmit information between cells in the central nervous system Communication between neurons o Electrical: A resting neuron is negatively charged If a portion is stimulated beyond its threshold, it briefly reverses polarity This polarity reversal travels down the axon Resting potential is restored (refractory period) o Chemical: Occurs at the synapse: junction where the axon and another neuron communicate Firing neurons release neurotransmitters that cross the synapse Synaptic vesicles: hold the neurotransmitter, neural firing drives them to the synapse where they release their chemicals The neurotransmitter binds to the receptor site on the postsynaptic neuron Ion channels open Causes change in electrical potential of postsynaptic neuron Neurotransmitters o After crossing the synapse, unused neurotransmitter is either degraded or reuptaken o 40+ known types o Different neurotransmitters have different effects Acetycholine: responsible for movement, learning, memory (Alzheimer’s associated with dysfunction) Norepinephrine: responsible for alertness and arousal (depression associated with dysfunction) Serotonin: responsible for mood, sleep, impulsivity, and emotional arousal (depression, insomnia, and eating disorders associated with dysfunction) Dopamine: responsible for movement, learning, pleasure, and memory (Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia associated with dysfunction) GABA: responsible for anxiety (severe anxiety, Huntington’s disease, and epilepsy associated with dysfunction) Endorphin: responsible for modulation of pain (no disorder associated with dysfunction) Central Nervous System Brain & spinal cord o Spinal cord is responsible for transmitting messages from the peripheral nervous system to the brain The Hindbrain o Brainstem: pons (responsible for transmitting motor messages), reticular formation (responsible for alertness and attention), medulla (critical functioning) o Cerebellum (regulates skilled movement, posture and muscle tone, is affected significantly by consumption of alcohol) The Midbrain o Substantia nigra: deteriorated in patients with Parkinson’s Forebrain o Thalamus: relay station between all incoming information and cerebral cortex o Hypothalamus: emotion, sexual behavior, hunger (stimulated by cocaine, ecstasy, etc.) o Limbic system: amygdala (linked very closely to emotions, damage to that area makes it difficult for people to relate to others, causes disconnection), hippocampus (short term memory) o Cerebrum: cerebral cortex (gray matter, covers outside of the cerebrum), corpus callosum (connects two hemispheres of the brain) Cerebral Cortex o Brain hemispheres The Left Brain: language functions controlled by leftbrain regions, damage to Broca’s area prevents patients from producing speech, damage to Wernicke’s area prevents patient’s speech from making any sense Left hemisphere is dominant for language, math, and logic The Right Brain: more involved in visualspatial relationships (damage to that hemisphere might have difficulty finding their way around a familiar place) also process music, metaphors, and emotional qualities of speech o Lobes of the brain Temporal lobes: contain auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area Occipital lobes: contain visual cortex Parietal lobes: contain the somatosensory cortex Frontal lobes: contain control for speech production (Broca’s area), thinking, planning, reasoning, impulse control, contains motor cortex Corpus Callosum o Split brain: each side of the brain performs different functions that contribute to personal performance Right side is concerned with spatial construction and facial recognition Left side is concerned with speaking, reading, writing, primary language context, and calculating Peripheral Nervous System Somatic division (voluntary muscle activation) Autonomic division o Sympathetic: prepares body for stress or action and triggers fight/flight reactions o Parasympathetic system: returns body systems to normal, lowers heart and breathing rates, promotes digestion (rest & digest system)
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