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Biology and Behavior Week 7 Notes

by: zoebitsie Notetaker

Biology and Behavior Week 7 Notes PSY150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY150A1 > Biology and Behavior Week 7 Notes
zoebitsie Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover the nervous system and it's functions.
Julie Feldman
Class Notes
nervous system, Psychology, neurons, Biology




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by zoebitsie Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Julie Feldman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Biology & Behavior The Nervous System   The neuron  o Cells of the nervous system  o Three primary parts: dendrites, axon, nucleus o Dendrites: responsible for receiving information o Axon: responsible for sending information  o Nucleus: contains DNA of the cell o Myelin sheath: surrounds axon, acts a protectant  o Multiple sclerosis: deterioration of the myelin sheath, information is not sent  smoothly  o Sensory neurons: specialized to receive and send information about sensory  input  o Motor neurons: sends information to muscles, causes movement  o Interneurons: transmit information between cells in the central nervous  system   Communication between neurons  o Electrical:   A resting neuron is negatively charged    If a portion is stimulated beyond its threshold, it briefly reverses  polarity   This polarity reversal travels down the axon   Resting potential is restored (refractory period)  o Chemical:  Occurs at the synapse: junction where the axon and another neuron  communicate   Firing neurons release neurotransmitters that cross the synapse   Synaptic vesicles: hold the neurotransmitter, neural firing drives them  to the synapse where they release their chemicals   The neurotransmitter binds to the receptor site on the postsynaptic  neuron   Ion channels open   Causes change in electrical potential of postsynaptic neuron   Neurotransmitters  o After crossing the synapse, unused neurotransmitter is either degraded or  reuptaken o 40+ known types  o Different neurotransmitters have different effects   Acetycholine: responsible for movement, learning, memory  (Alzheimer’s associated with dysfunction)  Norepinephrine: responsible for alertness and arousal (depression  associated with dysfunction)  Serotonin: responsible for mood, sleep, impulsivity, and emotional  arousal (depression, insomnia, and eating disorders associated with  dysfunction)  Dopamine: responsible for movement, learning, pleasure, and memory (Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia associated with dysfunction)  GABA: responsible for anxiety (severe anxiety, Huntington’s disease,  and epilepsy associated with dysfunction)  Endorphin: responsible for modulation of pain (no disorder associated  with dysfunction) Central Nervous System   Brain & spinal cord  o Spinal cord is responsible for transmitting messages from the peripheral  nervous system to the brain   The Hindbrain o Brainstem: pons (responsible for transmitting motor messages), reticular  formation (responsible for alertness and attention), medulla (critical  functioning) o Cerebellum (regulates skilled movement, posture and muscle tone, is  affected significantly by consumption of alcohol)  The Midbrain  o Substantia nigra: deteriorated in patients with Parkinson’s  Forebrain  o Thalamus: relay station between all incoming information and cerebral cortex o Hypothalamus: emotion, sexual behavior, hunger (stimulated by cocaine,  ecstasy, etc.)  o Limbic system: amygdala (linked very closely to emotions, damage to that  area makes it difficult for people to relate to others, causes disconnection),  hippocampus (short term memory) o Cerebrum: cerebral cortex (gray matter, covers outside of the cerebrum),  corpus callosum (connects two hemispheres of the brain)  Cerebral Cortex o Brain hemispheres   The Left Brain: language functions controlled by left­brain regions,  damage to Broca’s area prevents patients from producing speech,  damage to Wernicke’s area prevents patient’s speech from making any sense   Left hemisphere is dominant for language, math, and logic  The Right Brain: more involved in visual­spatial relationships  (damage to that hemisphere might have difficulty finding their way  around a familiar place) also process music, metaphors, and emotional  qualities of speech o Lobes of the brain   Temporal lobes: contain auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area   Occipital lobes: contain visual cortex   Parietal lobes: contain the somatosensory cortex   Frontal lobes: contain control for speech production (Broca’s area),  thinking, planning, reasoning, impulse control, contains motor cortex  Corpus Callosum  o Split brain: each side of the brain performs different functions that contribute  to personal performance   Right side is concerned with spatial construction and facial recognition  Left side is concerned with speaking, reading, writing, primary  language context, and calculating Peripheral Nervous System Somatic division (voluntary muscle activation)  Autonomic division  o Sympathetic: prepares body for stress or action and triggers fight/flight  reactions  o Parasympathetic system: returns body systems to normal, lowers heart and  breathing rates, promotes digestion (rest & digest system)


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