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by: Monique Theriot


Monique Theriot

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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monique Theriot on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 3: Cells Wednesday, September 14, 2016 12:58 PM Cell Theory: -1) All living things are made up of at least one cell -2) Cells are the basic unit of life -3) Cells come from other cells Common Features of Cells: -1) Structural Components: -all cells have a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes -2) Molecular Components: -All cells have proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids -3) Functioning Components: -All cells have the ability to survive and reproduce on its own Cell Membrane: -Plasma Membrane: Thin membrane around the cell. (skin of the cell) Composed of: 1)Phospholipids bilayer: Phospholipids are arranged such that the hydrophobic(don't like water) "tails" are hidden between the hydrophilic(like water) "heads" 2)Proteins: there are many proteins in association with the plasma membrane -Transport Protein: move material in and out of the cell -Receptor Protein: Trigger a cellular response based on information outside of the cell -Recognition Protein: serve as a 'name tag' for the cell Cell Types: 1 Prokaryotic Cell- a Do not have a true membrane-bound nucleus b Simple in their structure c Bacteria and Archaea are examples of prokaryotic cells 2 Eukaryotic Cell- a Will have a membrane-bound nucleus b Very complex in their structure c All kingdoms of the Eukarya Domain (fungi, protist, plants and animals) 2 Parts of Cells a Prokaryotic Cell 1 Cell Wall: a Located outside of the plasma membrane b Provides the cell with protection and support 2 Flagella: a Extension of the plasma membrane b Provides the cell with movement 2 Plasma Membrane: a Thin membrane around the cell b 3 Basic Functions of the plasma membrane i SEPERATION of the cells internal content from the external enviroment ii REGULATE the movement of material in/out of cell. It is SELECTIVE PERMIABLE: pick and choose which molecules can move in/out of cell iii COMMUNICATE with other cells 2 Cytoplasm: a Inner space between the plasma membrane and the genetic material 2 Nucleoid/ nuclear region: a Location of the genetic material 2 Ribosomes: a Small structure that makes proteins b Eukaryotic (Plant and Animal) Cells: 1 Plasma Membrane 2 Cilia and Flagella a Celia: short and numerous b Flagella: long and singular 2 Cytoplasm a Inner space between the plasma membrane and the nucleus b Location of organelles (mini organs) 2 Nucleus a Membrane-bound location of genetic material b Nuclear membrane (membrane around nucleus) 2 Endoplasmic reticulum(ER) a Extension on nuclear membrane i Smooth ER: no ribosomes attached; make lipids and carbohydrates ii Rough ER: ribosomes attached; make protein that are excreted out of the cell 2 Golgi Body a Flattened sacs that will package, modify, and secrete materials going in/out of cell 2 Lysosome a Enzyme filled sac that participates in the intracellular digestion "floating stomach" 2 Mitochondria a Double membrane organelle (two plasma membranes) b Provides energy for the cell 2 Cytoskeleton a Protein filaments (long and thing) that provide internal structure and support b Eukaryotic Cells (PLANTS ONLY) 1 Cell Wall 2 Chloroplast a Double membrane organelle b Location of photosynthesis 2 Central Vacuole a Take up to 50-90% of internal space b Stores: water, toxins, minerals, and pigments 2 Movement across membrane a Concentration gradient: difference in concentration( amount between two regions) b Active Transport: 1 Movement of material in/out cell with the use of energy (ATP) 2 Movement of material from an area of low concentration to high concentration (up/against the conc. Gradient) a ENDOCYTOSIS: net movement of material from outside to inside i Phagocytosis: movement of large material from outside to inside ii Receptor Mediated: movement of specific material to inside of cell b EXOCYTOSIS: net movement of material from inside to outside b Passive Transport: 1 Membrane movement a Facilitated diffusion: the passive movement of materials in/out cell using the transport proteins b Osmosis: the natural movement of water in/out the cell without the use of energy (ATP). There are 3 environments that will dictate the direction of waters movement i Hypertonic Solution: solution containing a high amount of solute and a low amount of solvent. Results in water moving from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell. ii Hypotonic solution: A solution that has a low amount of solute and a high amount of solvent. Results in water moving from the outside of the cell to the inside of the cell. iii Isotonic: The solute and Solvent concentrations will be equal . . Chapter 4: Wednesday, September 28, 2016 12:57 PM A Laws of Thermodynamics: defined properties and behavior of energy a Energy- the capacity/ability to do work i Potential Energy: stored energy ii Kinetic energy: energy of movement b First Law of Thermodynamics: energy can't be created or destroyed c Second Law of Thermodynamics: as energy changes forms the amount of usable energy decreases (lose amount of energy available to do work) d Chemical Reactions: building and breaking of chemical bonds i Reactants; starting material that used up/ consumed in a chemical reaction ii Products: final material that is formed/ produced in a chemical reaction iii Synthesis/ Anabolic: chemical reaction that builds molecules iv Hydrolysis/ Catabolic: Chemical reaction that destroys molecules B Bioenergetics a Endergonic Reaction: i Reaction in which the products have more energy than the reactants (end products require more ingredients than you have, so you have to add energy to your reactants to get to the product) ii Energy must be put into the reaction system b Exergonic Reaction: i Reaction in which the reactants have more energy than the products ii Energy is released from the reaction system b Coupled Reaction: i Using an exergonic reaction to start an endergonic reaction B Enzymes: biological catalyst (biological-made by the body and used by the body/ catalyst-speed up chemical reactions) a Enzymes are proteins in their Tertiary or 3-D structure b Enzymes will only speed up chemical reactions that occur naturally or spontaneously c Ex. People who are lactose intolerant d Enzymes are not used up in a chemical reaction e Enzymes bind specific molecules called SUBSTRATES to speed up chemical reactions i Enzyme-substrate binding is specific ii Enzyme- substrate speeds up specific chemical reaction b Enzymes will decrease ACTIVATION ENERGY(energy needed to activate/start every chemical reaction) c ACTIVE SITE- pocket on enzymes where substrates bind to speed up chemical reactions A Cellular Regulation of Enzyme Activity a Only make enzymes when they are needed (Cells control the synthesis of enzymes to meet needs) b Produce enzymes in a needed environment (cells make certain enzymes in the inactive form and only activate when needed) c Products of a chemical reaction start to dictate the function of the enzyme (cells inhibit/stop the function of enzymes when adequate products are present) d ALLOSTERIC REGULATION- enzyme is enhanced or suppressed by a small organic molecule present instead of a substrate. Something different from a substrate is connecting with the enzyme. (will cause enzymes to work or not work) e COMPETITIVE INHIBITION- two different substrates competing for one enzyme (i.e. when a person overdses and gets their stomach pumpped. They have to drink charcoal so that the charcoal combines with the enzymes before the drugs do) f DENATURATION- permanent change in the enzyme shape i PRIMARY: A-A-A-A-A-A ii SECONDARY- iii QUATIARYi 1 pH: most enzymes function a 6-8 pH, a decrease in pH causes denaturization 2 Salt Concentration: high salt concentration could change the structure of enzymes and destroy their function 3 Temperature: extremely high temperature causes denaturization (Past 104 degrees) sit n sooooo Chapter 5: Photosynthesis Monday, October 3, 2016 1:03 PM A. INTRO a. PHOTOSYNTHESIS- metabolic pathway that will convert light enery into stored chemical energy b. CHEMICAL EQUATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS: i. ii. WATER--CARBON DIOXIDE-----> Glucose--Oxygen b Because light energy is a reactant, photosynthesis is an ENDERGONIC chemical reaction i. That says that water and air will never have enough energy to make sugar. We have to add energy to the two reactants b Chloroplasts i. Organelle of photosynthesis ii. Able to reproduce independently of the cell (reproduces all by itself) iii. Located in plant and protist cells only (except new animals) iv. Believed to have originated from photosynthetic bacterium v. STRUCTURE: 1. Composed of two outer membranes 2. Interconnected inner most membrane a. Thylakoid: flattened sacs that house the pigment molecules b. Grana/ granum: stack of thylakoid 2 Stroma: enzyme filled space of the chloroplast b Light Energy i Photons: discreet unit/packets of light energy (specific amounts of light energy) 1 Understand that light travels by waves and not a steady stream Photons A Electromagnetic spectrum a Division of visible light based on its wavelength i Wavelength- the distance between two back to back waves ii The longer the wavelength, the least amount of energy there is and the shorter the wavelength, the more energy there is iii B Properties/ characteristics of Light Energy a Absorption: i Light energy taken up by an object ii MOST IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTIC iii Photosynthesis will not occur unless light energy is absorbed b Transmission i Light energy passes through an object b Reflection i Light energy bounces off an object A Photosynthesis Reactions- a Terms You Should Kow: i Pigment molecules: absorb or take up light energy. Found in the thylakoid/ grana of the chloroplasts 1 Chlorophyll: major pigment molecule. Absorbs high energy light 2 Carotenoid: accessory/ backup pigment molecule. Absorbs medium energy light ii ATP: energy carrier molecules. Carries energy from place to place within the cell (rechargeable battery) iii NADPH: electron carrier molecules. Carry energized electrons from place to place within the cell iv Photosystem: a concentration of enzymes and pigments (chlorophyll/carotenoid) v Electron Transport System: series of electron carrier molecules (NADPA) b REACTIONS: i Light Dependent Reaction(light reaction)- 1 light energy is needed for the reaction to occur 2 Reactions occur in the thylakoid/ grana of the chloroplasts 3 Major function is to capture light energy as ATP and/or NADPH for the next reaction 4 Divided up into photosystems a. Photo System 2: produces energy carrier molecule ATP; also produces oxygen from the splitting of water b. Photo System 1: produces electron carrier molecule NADPH ii Light Independent Reaction (dark reaction) 1 Light energy is not needed for the reaction to occur 2 Reaction occur in the stroma of the Chloroplast 3 Major function of the reaction is the synthesis glucose using ATP and NADPH produced in the light reaction 4 CARBON FIXATION: conversion of gaseous carbon dioxide into an organic molecule, called Glucose, using ATP and NADPH. 5 GLUCOSE;-6 carbon, 6 oxygen, 12 hydrogen QUIZ 2 STUDY GUID Monday, October 10, 2016 4:58 PM a. CHAPTER 3: 1. ALL CELLS WILL HAVE: a. Cytoplasm: inside space of the cell b. Ribosomes: make proteins that the cell will use c. Plasma Membrane: thin membrane around the cell (Functions:1. isolation, 2. regulation, 3. communication) d. Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids 2 PROKARYOTIC/ BACTERIA CELLS WILL HAVE: a. Cell Wall: protection and support b. Flagella: an extension of the plasma membrane (function of the flagella is movement) c. Nucleoid/ nuclear region: the location of the genetic material 2 PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS/ EUKARYOTIC CELLS WILL HAVE: a. Nucleus: membrane bound location of the genetic material b. Smooth ER: NO ribosomes(function: make lipids and carbohydrates) c. Rough ER: HAS ribosomes (function: make proteins the cell will not use) d. Lysosome: For inside of the cell digestion e. Golgi Body: package, modify, and secrete anything moving in and out of the cell f. Cytoskeleton: Long, thin proteins(Function: act as an internal structure/ support) g. MITOCHONDRIA: power house of the cell (function: provides the cell with energy) 2 PLANT CELLS HAVE: a. Cell Wall b. Central Vacuole: takes up 50-90% of the inside space of the cell (function: storage) c. Chloroplasts: (function: photosynthesis) 2 ANIMAL CELLS HAVE: a. Cilia: Short and numerous b. Flagella: long and singular (FUNTION OF BOTH IS MOVEMENT)


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