Lecture 13 1134
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by courtney Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1134 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Christine E. Steer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Imperial Athens o Lots of changes in the 50 years after the civil war Greece divided into 2 parts Delian league - led by Athens Peloponnesian league - led by Sparta o 479-461 BC Expansion of Syracuse Gelon lead syracusian Greeks to victory over carthage Dedicated a tripod at Delphi to commemorate the victory Government in Syracuse Gelon died so his son Hiero took over He was a very firm ruler Depopulated cities and put mercenaries in them He beat the Etruscans He wanted to be seen as glorious so he had Pindar write poems Pindar exaggerated his accomplishments His people rebelled against him They signed a resolution to all live in peace Syracuse lost their iron grip on people o Segesta Native inhabitants of Sicily - Elymians Other Sicilian natives ally to fight Syracuse Defeated and sold into slavery o Economic growth in western Greece Built very pretty buildings Lots of trading o Eastern Greece 478 - Spartans send Pausanias to lead the Greek alliance against Persia Persians retreat Sparta is in charge But they're bad at decision making No city walls in Athens Sparta will protect them Athens rebuilds the walls anyway Pausanias removed from command He was starved to death in a temple Athens takes over the Delian League Athens and its allies met on delos Planned to protect all of Greece against the threat of Persia Everyone contributed either ships or money o Kimon of Athens Took command of the fleet and attacked Persian bases in Attica He also attacked any towns that refused to join the Delian league Naxos wants to leave the Delian League They were forced to stay in the league Defeated by Athens and forced to take down their defensive walls Lost its navy No longer had any say in the alliance Kimon returns the bones of Theseus to Athens He found the remains of Theseus when he visited Skyros to convince then to join the League He took the remains back to Athens as a symbolic gesture They were reburied in Athens Big ego boost to the Athenian people It was a symbol of their power over the Aegean The rest of Greece Those not in the Delian league Formed the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta Thasos tried to leave the Delian League Decided to completely withdraw themselves from the Delian League Decision resulted from an argument between them and Athens over control of goldmines in the area Athens besieged Thasos They finally surrendered to Athens in 463 BC Athens made them tear down their defensive walls and pay large fines Also forced to forfeit their entire navy o Earthquake in Laconia and helots revolt against Sparta The earthquake caused mass destruction in Sparta Helots used this opportunity to revolt Sparta reached out to Athens for aid They sent a force of hoplites to help They later sent a second force to help but they were rejected by the Spartans Kimon lost favor in Athens because of this blow to their ego He was ostracized Epilates and Pericles took over o Epilates' reforms lead to a more democratic Athens Broadened democracy Archons were soon chosen by lot, completing the democracy o Hostilities flare between Athens and Sparta (~460 BC) Some in Athens believed the only way to protect democracy was to destroy the Peloponnesian league (essentially destroying Sparta was the "answer") They attempted to ally with the dissatisfied members of the Peloponnesian league to defeat Sparta Tried to encircle Sparta with their alliance, cutting them off from their greatest ally; Corinth Cutting them off from Corinth would cripple Sparta o First Peloponnesian War More of a cold war, very few battles Allies of Athens v. allies of Sparta Prelude to the Peloponnesian league Battle at Tanagra in Boeotia Sparta won, but only gave them minimal advantage o Great Athenian losses in Egypt Aiding Egyptian revolt against Persia Athens was pursing both Persia and Sparta at once Sent ships to help Egypt against Persia Persia destroyed their almost 200 ships o The long walls Connected Athens with Piraeus at the coast (about 5 miles) Protected the route from Athens to the sea Portrayed Athens' insecurity o Transfer of the Delian League treasury from Delos to Athens Greeks wouldn’t violate the sacred island of Delos so it was safe there They transferred it after the defeat in Egypt They thought it was safer from the Persians Signified 2 things Athens' growing paranoia and arrogance The domination Athens had in commanding the Delian League o Citizenship laws of Pericles Introduced stipends for jurors Citizenship could be conferred only on those whose parents were Athenian o The end of overseas expeditions against Persia by the Delian league They signed the treaty of Callias Some think the treaty never actually existed o 450 BC - Death of Kimon Died on a campaign in Cyprus The fleet survived his death o The league continues Some rebelled because Persia was no longer a threat so they wanted to exit the league Athens looked weak so Sparta decided to invade o Pericles Reconquered Europe Before Sparta could get involved Negotiated peace with Sparta, ending the first Peloponnesian war He wanted to avoid entanglements o New role of Athens Capital city of the Greeks Athenian building program Pericles decided to rebuild The Parthenon came out of all of this o Samos tries to leave the Delian league Pericles led an expedition against them Samos surrendered o tensions between Athens and Sparta lead to the Peloponnesian war Athens was growing richer and stronger Sparta and the rest of Greece sinking under Athens Athens would soon swallow all of Greece if they didn’t do anything soon o Religion and Ritual When you die, you're not buried with your stuff Its given to the community or to the gods The Greeks didn’t have a word for religion Everything in their lives was about the gods No separation of church and state There were no "divine" people who were chosen by the gods Big difference between gods and people Behavior wasn’t really a part of their religion It was more of a social thing Gods were very human-like Humans but better Hesiod Tells us where everything came from Story and history of the gods Chaos was first then Gaea and Tartarus Mythological family tree Greek gods are a symbol of Greek civilization Symbolic of their triumph over savagery o The games Began 776 BC at Olympia Festival to honor the gods Every 4 years Lasted 5 days Religious and sporting events Arête- excellence Religion and athletics Sporting events at the funerals of heroes Skill of any kind was an offering to the gods Perfection was very important Sporting events Chariot racing Horse races Pentathlon Race in armor Prizes Olive garland Non athletic events Vendors selling food Souvenirs Entertainers No women were allowed to watch The Olympiad and the "circuit" The Olympiad was the primary method of dating (years)
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