Psych 201, Week 5 notes
Psych 201, Week 5 notes PY 201
Popular in Honors Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 201 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Boggiano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
I. Sensation and Perception a. Sensation- the psychological experience associated with a physical experience i. How do we measure sensation? 1. Psychophysics a. What is the absolute threshold? i. The intensity of the which we can detect a stimulus 50% of the time ii. Ex. We can perceive a candle flames 30 miles away; we can hear a watch ticking 20ft away, we can smell a drop of perfume in six room house b. Difference Threshold- just noticeable different (the minimum difference from 2 stimuli) i. Ernst Weber- the change needed to cause a just noticeable difference increases with the intensity of the stimulus ii. Ex. Suitcase packing, crunching on a jalapeno ii. Transduction 1. The brain has to make sense of stimuli by transforming the stimuli into something it can read a. Transformation of environmental energy into neurochemical activity i. Vision: light waves are interpreted by photo receptors ii. Hearing: sound waves are interpreted by hair cells iii. Touch: Pressure, heat, and pain is interpreted by sensory nerves that connect to touch neurons 1. Ex. Eyes cannot sense heat iv. Taste: dissolved molecules on the tongue are interpreted by taste cells in the taste buds (there are 200 cells in 1 bud) 1. Smell: molecules that dissolves in your nose are interpreted by olfactory neurons 2. Intensity of that perceived sense depends on how frequently the cells are stimulated iii. Vision 1. Most important for knowledge acquirement 2. We see because photons hit our eyes a. Photons are particles that behave like waves b. Like waves, light can have different energy depending on its frequency i. The sun is our main source of light 1. Light travels at the 186,000 mi/s or 8 minutes from the sun ii. Light travels at constant speed but can vary because of wavelengths 1. Humans can only see 700 nm – 400 nm of light called white light a. Some bees, butterflies, and birds can see UV rays 2. Visible light a. Frequency of the wave indicates the color b. The amplitude of the wave determines the intensity of the color c. Sir Isaac Newton i. He was first to explain rainbows through the use of a prism and white light c. Photons hit our cornea, then they go through our pupil, then travel through the lens and finally hitting the retina to be transduced from photons to neurological chemicals 3. Color a. It is really the reflection of light i. That’s why you can’t see color when it’s dark b. Whatever wavelength being reflected is what you see, all the other wavelengths are being absorbed i. Black is the absorption of all colors ii. White is all the colors being absorbed iii. The sky is blue because there are particles in the air and the light bounces off, scattering them to create colors 1. Blue happens to be the photon that scatters the easiest so that is the color we see 2. Sunsets/sunrises emit longer wavelengths and more stuff to get through a. Martian sunset- looks like our sky, because the molecules are finer, allowing shorter wavelengths to get through so the sunsets are blue and purple iv. Atmospheric perspective 1. When mountains look blue from far away because you’re only seeing the shorter wavelengths since they are the only ones that can be seen 4. Eye Anatomy a. Cornea i. Protects the eyes and detects pressure ii. Helps focus what you’re trying to focus on b. Pupil i. A hole that adjusts to light ii. Dilation and contraction c. Lens i. Transparent and adjusts to focus ii. As you look at something close, the lens thickens; looking at something far away, your lens thins out 1. Accommodation is when something moves closer d. Iris i. Colored muscle ii. Opens up e. Vitreous Humour i. Keeps it round f. Retina i. Photo receptors in the back of the eye 1. Rods and Cones a. Highly vascularized b. Rods- night vision i. not good at detecting details c. Cones- used for acuity and color i. reside in the fovea for the most part ii. are most sensitive in light 2. There are 125 million photon receptors ii. Light and dark adaptations 1. Photo pigments in our cones and rods must be regenerated 2. This photo pigment is called Rhodopsin a. This is the primary one we use b. Vitamin A is needed to be activated 3. Cats see better than us at night because they have more rods iii. Color vision 1. Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision a. Created by Young and Helmholtz b. They proposed that color is mediated by 3 types of cones each sensitive to a certain photon c. Every color we see is a unique ratio of activity between these 3 receptors d. Blue, Red, and Green i. This helped explain color blindness of which 1 in 13 men have e. This didn’t explain how those colors combined to create white or explained after images of complimentary colors 2. Opponent Process Theory of CV by Hering a. Colors occur as a result of excitatory and inhibitory connections between 3 colors b. There are mechanisms (Red- green, blue-yellow) that oppose each other i. You can’t think of a color that’s bluuish yellow 3. Both theories are correct and needed to explain vision iv. Color Blindness 1. Reduced pigment in one of the cones 2. Dichromates- missing a cone completely 3. Achromates- all or 2 cones are missing 4. Discovered by cherry picking farmers who took a lot of time to do their job g. Optic Nerve i. Where transduction occurs ii. Goes directly to the brain iii. This is where your blind spot is- this is called the scotoma where the optic nerve meets the eye h. Fovea i. A pit in the retina and contains only cones, no rods ii. Used only when really focusing on an object 5. Once the photon has been transduced into neurological chemicals the lateral geniculate nucleus helps in this and brings the visual info from both eyes together and transmits them to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe a. 2 projections that both originate in the primary visual cortex i. Ventral Stream 1. Also known as the “what” pathway 2. It is involved in recognizing objects ii. Dorsal Stream 1. Also known as the “where” pathway 2. Projects to the parietal lobe 3. Is associated with motion and location of objects iv. Hearing 1. Bats can hear 10x higher of a frequency than us a. Animals with the best long distance hearing have really large pinna which is the outer portion of the ear 2. Quality of Sound a. Loudness i. Amplitude which is measured in decibels 1. Higher the amplitude, the more pressure, the louder the sound ii. The decibels are log units of pressure on your ear 1. 0-80 decibels are the safe levels a. Dr. Boggiano’s lectures at are about 65 dB 2. 80-180 are dangerous and can cause pain and damage a. Space rockets are at 180 Db b. Jackhammers create waves at 120 Db c. The Who were in psych textbooks for the longest time because they held the record for having the loudest rock concerts at 126 dB b. Pitch i. This is the frequency of the wave and is measured in Hertz (Hz) ii. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch 1. James Earl Jones has a really low frequency voice 2. Bernadette from the big band theory c. Anatomy i. Outer 1. Pinna- majority of the outer ear a. you can still hear without this portion b. It is meant to funnel in the waves into the middle and inner ear ii. Middle- meant to magnify sound 1. Osicles are tiny bones in this portion 2. The eardrum will vibrate like a speaker once it gets to the oval window where transduction starts a. The ear drum has squeezed the sound waves down about to 1/30 of of the area of the ear, so there is 30 times the pressure in the ear iii. Inner- is for transduction 1. There is the cochlea 2. Sound waves go into the oval window and goes to the basilar membrane, the floor of the cochlea, and will move up and down and press the hair cells down on the tectorial membrane (the roof of the cochlea) 3. When this happens, action potential occurs and cause transduction a. The deflection of the hair cells opens up ion channels d. How do the receptors in the basilar membrane code for the different pitches? i. Resonance Theory by von Helmholtz 1. He paralleled the unrolled cochlea to a heart 2. When soundwaves hit the heart strings (hair cells), each string reacts differently to different frequencies 3. The cells that detect high frequency waves are right near the opening of the cochlea near the oval window a. It gets harder to hear higher frequencies because they suffer the most wear and tear ii. Bed Sheet wave 1. Fwef 2. v. Vision vs Hearing 1. Hearing is more important to development than vision 2. We still listen to the radio but there are no more silent movies 3. You can get information from hearing better than vision 4. People who are deaf are lonelier and more socially withdrawn than blind individuals 5. Language skills increase intelligence 6. Education is much more impaired in deaf individuals than in blind ones 7. Cross Modality a. Motion Bounce Illusion b. Perception- subjective interpretation of sensory stimuli i. Visual Perception 1. Involves the frontal cortex and what is stored in it 2. Perception is mostly learned a. Things that we see would look weird to us if they are incongruent with what we know i. Ex. Picasso Paintings; Body Piercings 3. Cues used to form perception a. Depth Cues i. Allows us to go from a 2D image from the retina and into a 3D interpretation the brain makes ii. Monocular cues- one eye; depth can still be seen 1. Overlap 2. Relative size 3. Familiar size- knowledge of an objects A B actual size influences our perception 4. Linear perspective a. Ponzo’s illusion 5. Shading a. Convex and Concave 6. Relative motion- object of greater distance appear to move slower iii. Binocular cues- two eyes 1. Convergence- eyes turned inward Horopte when looking that objects that are close 2. Binocular disparity a. When retinal images of an object fall on disparate points of the retina, you will see dimension b. Horopte c. Blurred lines and things out of B A B A focus in peripheral images b. Pattern Recognition i. “Gestalt” 1. We perceive things as an organized whole instead of a sum of its parts ii. Based on learning, beliefs, and real world experience iii. This allows us to recognize objects when only part of it is seen c. Disorders i. Visual Agnosia 1. Inability to recognize what things are by visual stimulus ii. Prosopagnosia 1. Inability to recognize faces 2. “Face blindness” 3. Was common when delivery with forceps was a common practice because it damaged the bilateral fusiform gyrus iii. Motion Blindness 1. Inability to perceive motion 2. Caused by damage to the dorsal stream 3. People can see when things are still but when things are in movement, they see those objects as if they are in stop motion 4. It is very dangerous for them to drive 5. They do not perceive movement as fluid II. Learning a. When sensory experience affects what we do b. Behaviorism i.
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