New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology Chapter 4

by: Alina Hasan

Biology Chapter 4 BSC 1010C

Marketplace > Valencia College > Science > BSC 1010C > Biology Chapter 4
Alina Hasan

GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

General Biology
General Biology
Professor Bouyahyaoui
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Biology

Popular in Science

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alina Hasan on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1010C at Valencia College taught by Professor Bouyahyaoui in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at Valencia College.


Reviews for Biology Chapter 4


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/10/16
Biology Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Carbon: The Backbone of life  Living organisms consist mostly of carbon­based compounds.  Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large, complex, and varied molecules.  Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon.  Organic compounds range from simple molecules to colossal ones.  Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms.  Vitalism was the belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical  laws.  It was thought that organic compounds could only be produced in living  organisms.  Vitalism was disproved when chemists were able to synthesize organic compounds.  Stanley Miller’s classic experiment demonstrated the abiotic synthesis of organic  compounds.  Organic molecule can be created in nature w/o living things. The Formation of Bonds with Carbons  Electron configuration is the key to an atom’s characteristics.  With four valence electrons, carbon can form four covalent bonds with a variety of  atoms. This ability makes large, complex molecules possible.  In molecules with multiple carbons, each carbon bonded to four other atoms has a  tetrahedral shape.  However, when two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, the atoms joined to the  carbons are in the same plane as the carbons.  Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules  Carbon chains vary in length and shape Hydrocarbons  Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen.  Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy. Isomers  Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and  properties 1 Biology Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life  Structural isomers have different covalent arrangements of their atoms  Cis­trans isomers have the same covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangements  Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other. Functional Groups  Functional groups are the components of organic molecules that are most commonly  involved in chemical reactions.  The number and arrangement of functional groups give each molecule its unique  properties.  The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life:  Hydroxyl group(­OH): Alcohol, Polar, Forms Hydrogen Bonds  Carbonyl group(>C=O): Sugars, Ketone, Aldehyde  Carboxyl group(­COOH): Acts as Acid, Carboxylic Acid or Organic Acid  Amino group(­NH ): Acts as Base, Amine 2  Sulfhydryl group(­SH): Forms Cross Links, Stabilize Proteins, Thiol.  Phosphate group(­OPO ): Rea3ts with water, Releases a lot energy, Organic Phosphate  Methyl group(­CH ): Ge3e Expression, Methylated Compound Source of Cellular Energy  An important organic phosphate is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP consists of an  organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of three phosphate groups.  ATP stores the potential to react with water, a reaction that releases energy to be used by the cell. 2


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.