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by: Sara Ali

NOTES FOR RAT 6 BIOL1302/10025

Sara Ali

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General Biology 2
Rachel Hudspeth
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Ali on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1302/10025 at University of Houston Downtown taught by Rachel Hudspeth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
RAT 6  Study Guide  • Difference between Apoplast and the Symplast  Apoplast i ­ s the uptake of soil solution by the hydrophilic walls of  root hairs that provides access to the apoplast. Water and minerals  can then diffuse into the cortex along this matrix of walls and  extracellular species.  ­ Symplast  route is  the minerals and water that cross the plasma  membrane of root hairs that can enter the symplast. Plants are able to move the water and dissolved minerals (xylem sap) along distances  with transpiration, because water enters the plant through the  epidermis of roots, cross the root cortex, and pass into the vascular  cylinder. From there the xylem sap, the water and dissolved minerals in thee xylem, gets transported along long distances by bulk flow to  the veins that branch out through leaves.  2)  Cohesion­tension hypothesis is almost universally accepted by  plant biologists as the mechanism underlying the ascent of xylem sap.  According to this theory, or hypothesis is almost universally accepted  by plant biologists as the mechanism, underlying the ascent of xylem  sap. According to this hypothesis, transpiration provides this pull along  the entire length of the xylem from roots to shoots  Figure 29.17 • In transpiration, water vapor diffuses from moist air spaces for the  leaf to the drier air outside via stomata.  • At first, the water vapor is lost by transpiration is replaced by the  evaporation from water, film that coats mesophyll cells.  • Negative pressure (tension) at air­water interface in the leaf is the  basis of transpirational pull, which draws water out of the xylem.  •   omponent 29.6 •   ) Comoponents of stomata: stoma and the guard cells  Stoma: •   is flanked by a pair of guard cells.  • uard cells:  control the diameter of stoma by changing shape, thereby  widening or narrowing the gap between the two guard cells.  •   ) How do the following regulate opening and closing of stomata. • role of Potassium):  stomata open when guard cells result in primarily  from reversible absorption and loss of potassium ions. Stomata open  when guard cells accumulate K+ from neighboring epidermal cells.  • arbon dioxide:  stomata also open in response to depletion of carbon  dioxide, with the leaf’s air spaces as a result of photosynthesis. As  carbon dioxide concentrations decrease during the day, the stomata  open if sufficient water is supplied to the leaf.  • nternal clock:  inside the guard cells, ensures that stomata continues  their daily rhytmns of opening and closing. The rhythm occurs even  if a plant is kept in a dark location. All eukaryotic organisms have  internal clocks that regulate cyclic processes.  Concept 29.7 • The transport of the products of photosynthesis is known as  translocation, is carried out by another tissue, the phloem.  • Phloem sap contains amino acids, hormones, and minerals.  • Sugar source is a plant organ that is a net producer of sugar, by  photosynthesis or by breakdown of starch. Sugar sink is an organ  that is a net consumer or depository of sugar.  • Mechanism that leads to transport of phloem sap is driven by  positive pressure or pressure flow.  • Time and distance are limits to diffusion as means of transporting for living organisms.  • In an open circulatory system, the circulatory fluid is called the  hemolymph is also called the interstitial fluid that bathes body cells;  arthopods; and some mollusks, such as clams, have open systems.  Heart contraction pumps the hemolymph through circulatory vessels  into sinuses, spaces surrounding the organs. There exchange occurs.  • In a closed circulatory system, a circulatory fluid is called blood is  confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid. This  type of circulatory system is found in annelids, most cephalopods  such as mollusks, and all vertebraes.  • The fact that open and closed circulatory system are widespread  suggests that each system offers evolutionary advantages.  •  Single circulation:   blood passes through the heart once in each  complete circuit.  •  Double circulation:   circulatory system of amphibians, reptiles, and  mammals that have two circuits.  •  Gas Exchange circuits:   called a pulmonary circuit if the capillary  beds involved are all in the lungs, as in reptiles and mammals. It is  called a pulmataneous circuit, it includes capillaries in both the lungs and the skin, as in many amphibians ; provides a vigrous flow of  blood to the brain.  •  1) The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs via •  2) The pulmonary arteries; as the blow flows through  •  3) Capillary beds in the left and right lungs, it loads oxygen and  unloads carbon dioxide. Oxygen rich blood returns from the lungs  via the pulmonary arteries to  •  4) the left atrium of the heart, oxygen rich blood flows into  •  5) the heart’s left ventricle which pumps the oxygen rich blood to  the body tissues through the systemic circuit. Blood leaves the  ventricles via  •  6) the aorta, which conveys blood to arteries, leading throughout the  body. The first branches leading from the aorta are the coronary  arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle itself. The branches  lead to  •   7) capillary beds in the head and arms (forelimbs) The aorta then  descends into the abdomen, supplying the oxygen­rich blood to the  arteries which leads to  •   8) capillary beds in the abdominal organs and legs( hind limbs).  With the capillaries there is a net diffusion of carbon dioxide from  the blood to the tissues and carbon dioxide produced by cellular  respiration, into the blood. Capillaries rejoin, forming venules,  which convey blood to veins. Oxygen poor blood comes from the  head, neck and forehead(limbs) is channeled into a larger vein.  •   9) the superior vena cava is another large vein  •   10) the inferior vena cava drains blood from the trunk and hind  limbs. The two vena cava empty from their blood into  •   11) The right atrium from which the oxygen­poor blood flows into  the right ventricle.  •   Systole :  contraction phase of the cycle  •   Diastole:   relaxation phase  •   Blood pressure:   is measured by the sino Atrial node or pacemaker,  which sets the rate and timing at which all other cardiac muscles  contract.  •   Endothelium :    blood vessels contain a central lumen lined with  this, a single layer of epithelial cells. The smooth surface of the  endothelium minimizes resistance to the flow of blood.  •  During systole   ­ the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle. The  pressure at the time the ventricles contract is called systolic pressure. Each spike in blood pressure is caused by the contraction of a  ventricle which stretches the arteries.  •  During the diastole ­    The relaxation phase of the the cardiac cycle,  the elastic walls of the arteries snap back. As a consequence there is  lower but still substantiantial arterial blood pressure when the  ventricles are relaxed.  •  Plasma   ­ vertebrae blood is a connective tissue consisting of cells  suspended in a liquid matrix, Plasma is 55 %  •  water ­ solvent for carrying other substances  •  ions (blood, sodium, potassium, calcium, electrolytes,  magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate) ­ regulates osmotic balance  ­  pH buffering ­ regulation of membrane permeability  Proteins( Albumin, Fibronogen, Immunoglobins) : ­    ­ osmotic  balance, clotting, Defense  ­  Substances transported by blood :  ­ Nutrients (such as glucose, fatty acids, vitamins)  ­ Waste products of metabolism respiratory gases ( oxygen and carbon dioxide), hormones  ­  3 types of blood cells: erthryocytes :  ­   blood cells are numerous blood cells; erthryocytes  lack nuclei ­  leukocytes :  fight infectious, some are phagocytic, engulfing and  digesting microorganisms as well as debris from the body’s own  dead cells ­  Platelets :  have both structural and molecular functions in blood  clotting.  Blood clotting:  ­   The occasional cut or scrape is not the three tennis  become blood components seal the blood vessels.      DL :   delivers chlosterol to cells of membrane production.      DL:  scavenges excess cholestrol for return to the river. A high  ratio of LDL to HDL increases the risk of artheosclerosis, a form of  heart disease.  ­  Gas exchange:  called respiratory exchange or  respiration; shouldn’t be confused with the energy transformations of cellular uptake.  Uptake of molecular oxygen from the environment, and discharge of carbon dioxide to the environment.  ­  Partial Pressure : the pressure exerted by a particular gas in a  mixture of gases. To do so, we need to know the pressure that  mixture represented by a particular gas, also apply to gases dissolved in a liquid, such as water.  ­  Ventilation:  movement of the respiratory medium over the  respiratory surface; maintains the partial pressure of gradients of  oxygen and carbon dioxide across the gill that are necessary for gas  exchange.  ­  Concurrent Exchange:   exchange of a substance or heat between  two fluids in ; as warm blood passes down into the arteries blood  gives up its heat to the cold blood returning from extremities in the  veins.


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