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Biology Chapter 5 notes

by: Alina Hasan

Biology Chapter 5 notes BSC 1010C

Marketplace > Valencia College > Science > BSC 1010C > Biology Chapter 5 notes
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General Biology 1010
General Biology
Professor Bouyahyaoui
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alina Hasan on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1010C at Valencia College taught by Professor Bouyahyaoui in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at Valencia College.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Biology Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules The Molecules of Life  All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.  Macromolecules are large molecules and are complex.  Large biological molecules have unique properties that arise from the orderly arrangement of their  atoms. Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers  A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks.  The repeating units that serve as building blocks are called monomers.  Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Nucleic acids  Lipids are not polymers because they do not have similar building blocks. The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers  Enzymes are specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions such as those that make or  break down polymers.  A dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water  molecule.  Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the   dehydratio    reaction. Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material  Carbohydrates include sugars and the polymers of sugars.  The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or simple sugars. (monomer)  Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O  Glucose (C6H12O6) is the most common monosaccharide  Monosaccharides are classified by   The location of the carbonyl group (as aldose or ketose).  The number of carbons in the carbon skeleton.  Monosaccharides serve as a major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules  Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many sugar building blocks. (polymer).  Polysaccharides, the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural roles.  Starch is a storage polysaccharide of plants; the simplest form is amylose.  Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide in animals; stored mainly in liver and muscle cells. Biology Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules  Cellulose is a major structural polysaccharide for the walls of plant cells.  Like starch, cellulose is a polymer of glucose, but the glycosidic linkages differ. The difference is based on two ring forms for glucose: alpha and beta.  Starch (alpha configuration) is largely helical.  Cellulose molecules (beta configuration) are straight and unbranched.  Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing alpha linkages can’t hydrolyze beta  linkages in cellulose.  Chitin, another structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and  also provides structural support for the cell walls of fungi.  A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides.  This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules  Lipids are the one class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers.  The unifying feature of lipids is that they mix poorly, if at all, with water. Lipids are hydrophobic  because they consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which form nonpolar covalent bonds.  The most biologically important lipids:  Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids. The  major function of fats is energy storage.  Glycerol is a three­carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon.  A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton.  Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen  atoms possible and no double bonds.  Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds.  Hydrogenation is the process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen.  Hydrogenating vegetable oils also creates unsaturated fats with  trans double bonds. These trans fats may contribute more than saturated fats to cardiovascular disease.  In a fat, three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, creating a  triacylglycerol, or triglyceride.  Phospholipids, two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol. The two fatty  acid tails are hydrophobic, but the phosphate group and its attachments form a hydrophilic  head. When phospholipids are added to water, they self­assemble into double­layered  structures called bilayers, this arrangement can be found in cell membranes.  Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings. Biology Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules  Cholesterol, a type of steroid, is a component in animal cell membranes and a  precursor from which other steroids are synthesized. Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions.  Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells.   Polypeptides are unbranched polymers built from these amino acids.  Amino acids are constructed of 20 amino acids. (monomers)  Amino acids are linked by covalent bonds called peptide bonds.  Enzymatic Proteins; selective acceleration of chemical reactions.   Defensive Protein; protection against disease.  Storage Proteins; storage of amino acids   Example: Casein, protein of milk  Transport Proteins; transport substances  Example: Hemoglobin  Hormonal Proteins; coordination of an organism’s activities  Example: Insulin  Receptor Proteins; Response of cell to chemical stimuli  Contractile and Motor Proteins; movement  Structural Proteins; support  Example: keratin  A functional protein consists of one or more polypeptides precisely twisted, folded, and  coiled into a unique shape.  Four levels of protein structure  The primary structure of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids.  Secondary structure, found in most proteins, consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide  chain. Results from hydrogen bonds between repeating constituents.  Tertiary structure is determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups).  Quaternary structure results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains.’  Alterations in pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other environmental factors can cause a protein to unravel. This loss of a protein’s native structure is called denaturation. A denatured protein is  biologically inactive. Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information  Genes consist of DNA, a nucleic acid made of monomers called nucleotides.  Monomer: nucleotides  Polymer: DNA, RNA, Polynucleotides  DNA directs synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) and, through mRNA, controls protein  synthesis. The flow of genetic information can be summarized as DNA → RNA → protein.  Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate  groups. Biology Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules  Adjacent nucleotides are joined by a phosphodiester linkage, which consists of a phosphate  group that links the sugars of two nucleotides.  Analyzing large sets of genes or even comparing whole genomes of different species is called genomics  A similar analysis of large sets of proteins including their sequences is called proteomics


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