PLCY 110 Week 6 Notes: Refugees and Corruption
PLCY 110 Week 6 Notes: Refugees and Corruption 110
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Snow on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 110 at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill taught by Dr. Zimmerman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Global Policy Issues in PLCY at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
PLCY 110 Week 6 Refugees:Lecture 2 9/27/16 9/19: Summit for refugees and migrants at the UN #UN4RefugeesMigrants- good to look into if you have a chance New YorkDeclaration: - Protecthumanrightsof allrefugeesandmigrants o Women’srightsandhelpfindsolution - Ensureeducationofchildrenofrefugees - Preventandrespondtosexualandgenderviolence - Supportthosecountriesrescuing,receivingandhostinglargenumbersofrefugeesand migrants. - Work towardsendingthepracticeofdetainingchildren forthepurposesofdetermining theirmigrationstatus. - Condemnxenophobia - Strengthenthepositivecontributionsmadebymigrantstoeconomicandsocial developmentintheirhostcountries. - Improvethedeliveryofhumanitariananddevelopmentassistanceto thosecountriesmost affected,includingthroughinnovativemultilateralfinancialsolutions,withthegoalof closingallfundinggaps. - Implementacomprehensiverefugeeresponse,basedonanewframeworkthatsetsoutthe responsibilityofMemberStates,civilsocietypartnersandtheUNsystem,wheneverthereis alargemovementofrefugeesoraprotractedrefugeesituation. - FindnewhomesforallrefugeesidentifiedbyUNHCRas needingresettlement;andexpand theopportunitiesforrefugeestorelocate toothercountriesthrough,forexample,labour mobilityoreducationschemes. - StrengthentheglobalgovernanceofmigrationbybringingtheInternationalOrganization forMigrationintotheUN system. Weaknesses ofNYDeclaration: - General specific - New solutions- doesn’t have any - Lackof new understanding of “Persecution” - Consequences for noncompliance- doesn’t have any - Cross-national coordination o Ex: assessing refugees-wherethey are, where they go,status - It’s very reactive, insteadof proactive/beyond relief Refugee PolicyTools in Receiving Countries: - Border control-limiting “illegal” immigration - Resettlement/integration innew place - Immediate needs (camps) - Quotas-limiting #s by country, skill level,Englishknowledge - Visa restrictions-restricting time of visas,adjusting categories ofvisas,raising requirements to obtain visas - Employer Restrictions/Incentives-Restricting and imposing costs on employing immigrants or insteadproviding incentives to help “match” immigrants to opportunities - Benefits Restrictions/Promotion- limiting or subsidizing services - Resettlement support- languagelessons,housing searches,paying forflights DescriptivevsCausalResearch Descriptive-describeswhat ishappening,“snapshot”ofdata Depict patterns, methods canbe used to describe evidence Article about newspapers Shows that there is negativethoughts on refugees There is divisive“us vs.them” mentality For research paper: methods canbe used to describeevidence Causal- attempt to determinecauseand effect Depict causal relationshipb/w variables For research paper: what we want to do inpape o Determine causeand effectof policy Definitely read articles fortoday- WILLBEONEXAM- Johnsonchapter1: https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8- 40ed-9c7f-7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2029/Johnston%20Ch.%201.pdf And Collier chapter 5 Criteria for CausalRelationship: - Temporal precedence no reverse causality - Covariation of causeand effect,but not spurious o Causeand effectgo together always (when there is no cause,there is no effect) - No plausiblealternative explanations no common cause o 90% of our paper rd o No alternative explanation (3 variable) o Discuss selectionbias o Prove your cases arevery similar(selectionbias)sothere is no 3 variable o Think: “What evidence would make me think otherwise?” - Example: o There was research done that saidgoing on a honeymoon could decreasethe chance of divorce o Saying that not going on a honeymoon causes divorce o Several plausibleexplanations for this: Honeymoons Improve Marriage Causal Relationship Marriage Improves Honeymoons ReverseCausality Something ElseAffects Marriageand Honeymoons Common Cause Marriage and Honeymoons Covary by Chance Spurious Correlation Corruption:Lecture 1 9/29/16 Corruption is definedas anindividual illicitlyputting their personal interests above those of the people they have to serve Self-interest not tapped for public purpose Useof public officeforprivategain—Self-interest Individual forms of corruption: - Embezzlement- theft of public funds - Bribery- taking payment for serice quid pro quo exchange - Maybe- o Inefficiency-likeofficials with2 jobs (cannot spend adequate time and energy into their public office job) o Failing to follow procedures and rules not being monitored so no consequences Nepotism or favoritism with friends’ companies o Taxrate manipulation o Nepotism- unqualified person or person not competing for job - Does it have to be illegal?Havea negativeeffect? Haveto be documented? - Separate from society-level “syndromes” of corruption as discussedinJohnston’s book What causes corruption? Lackof transparency and oversight Individual differences of people Financial incentive/economic need Nigeria:very corrupt becausenew governemtn o Corrupt culture/beliefs Asymetric info b/w officals andcitizens Limited oversight and few consequences Culture- Gift giving or patronage o In Malawi,people thank leaders by giving gifts (not corrupt) but canget blurry (bc officials maybegin to do things solelyfor those gifts, or not do things when they do not get gifts) o Havet-shirts that say“corruption is not our culture” Quote from evaluation officer: “poorsalaries lead to corruption” Whyis it a policy issue? - Expensivefor societies - Marginalizes groups of citizens - Barrier to development o There is a researched negative relationship between country’s economy and level of corruptness - Barrier to government effectiveness o Aid theft/Diversion Corruption isexpensive! In Malawi,82% saycorruption problem in district 40% income from corruption 70% officials corrupt in lastsixmonths 7% - 28% of transactions involve corruption Corruptionisatax - Researchin Malawi was done to look atbribery from taxi drivers to police officers o Powerful rich people (portrayed as taxi drivers) paid less inbribes than poorly portrayed people o 93% of drivers were stopped, and 2/3 of those paid a bribe Corruption impedesgovernment efficiency - Take resources from aid for their own personal gain
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