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ChemL 101 Polo, general chemistry, non-honors college

by: Claire Lee

ChemL 101 Polo, general chemistry, non-honors college Chem 101

Marketplace > Virginia Commonwealth University > Chemistry > Chem 101 > ChemL 101 Polo general chemistry non honors college
Claire Lee
Virginia Commonwealth University

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About this Document

These were the notes that cover the lessons on 8/31/16 and 9/2/16
General Chemistry
Class Notes
naming, covalent, ionic, bonds, emprical, Molecular, formula
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Lee on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Polo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Virginia Commonwealth University.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
QUIZ NEXT TUES, STUDY & GET ● PENCIL NOT PEN ● CALCULATOR ● V # DON’T GET ● SCANTRON [polo will provide <3] CHECK BB FOR TOPIC ● Mostly CHAPTER 2 NAMING COMPOUNDS AND PARTS OF ATOM + some review of ch 1 ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ CH 2 I. AMU Rarely use mass in grams for subatomic particles, we use AMU (1.66E­24) [don’t need to  memorize #, will be given] Atomic weight (atomic mass) of an element is the weighted average of AL  isotopes present in nature Atoms are too small for grams, so we use Atomic Mass Unit (amu) Finding Average Mass Practice Problems + 1. 12 amu 6 p  C (98.89% abundance, mass= 12.000 amu) and  13 amu 6 p  C (1.110% abundance, mass= 13.0034 amu What’s average atomic mass of carbon? (.9889 x 12 amu) + (.01110 x 13.0034 amu) = 12.0098374 ­> approximately 12.01 amu (4 sig  figs) 2. Copper­63 (69.17%, mass=62.94 amu) Copper­65 (30.83%, mass=64.93 amu) Calculate the atomic weight of copper (.6917x62.94) + (.3083x64.93) = 63.55517 ­> approximately 63.55 amu (4 sig figs) IF NO MASS IS GIVEN [ex: copper­63, 69.17%] JUST USE THE MASS NUMBER (in this  case it’s 63) 3. Cl has average atomic mass of 35.45 amu, it has two isotopes: One is Cl­35 with mass of  34.969 amu & abundance of 75.77%; What is the mass of the other isotope? Other isotope abundance = 100­ 75.77=24.23% (34.969)(0.7577) + (x)(0.2423)=35.45 amu 26.4960113 + 0.2423(x) = 35.45 ­26.4960113       =       ­26.4960113 ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (0.2423x)/0.2423 = (8.9539887)/0.2423 x= 36.95414239 ­> approximately 36.95 amu A. Electron is approximately zero because it’s so small, proton/neutron are approx 1; DO NOT  MEMORIZE MASS IN GRAMS.  1. Charge is measured in coulombs a. Electron is relatively ­1, proton is relatively +1, neutron is 0 2. Electrons outside, proton and neutron in nucleus Isotope= atoms of same element with different number of neutrons and therefore has a different mass NAMING REVIEW A. Covalent compounds (2 nonmetals) 1. Give first element normal name, if you don’t know symbols of simple elements go to quizlet and  review, not the odd ones at bottom of the periodic table though [i.e. Holmium] 2. 2nd element changes ending to “­ide” suffix; ex: chlorine becomes chloride in a compound (and  only when it’s in the compound) 3. Use prefixes to indicate how many of each element are present (mono­1, di­2, tri­3, tetra­4,  penta­5, hexa­6, hepta­7, octa­8, nona­9, deca­10) [professor polo won’t go over 10] OMIT  “mono­” prefixes from the first element if there’s only one of them. a. Ex: CO 2 Name: carbon dioxide Non­example: monocarbon dioxide b. Ex: CO Name: Carbon monoxide [drop the O] Non­example: Carbon monooxide ===================================================================== Practice for Covalent Compounds Laughing gas is dinitrogen monoxide, give the name Answer: N O2 WRONG ANSWERS that are TOXIC: NO [nitrogen monoxide], NO2 [nitrogen dioxide] What’s Phosphorus pentachloride? Answer: PCl 5 What’s H 2? Dihydrogen monoxide is technically right but it’s weird; just call it water, jesus, don’t be  so extra B. Ionic compounds (metal + nonmetal) Groups 1A­3A form a positive charge [generally the metals] Groups 7A­5A form a negative charge [generally the nonmetals] Group 4 is weird can be +/­ 4 charge but generally don’t form ionic bond NOBLE GASES LIKE TO BE LEFT ALONE AND DON’T BOND, like introverted/anti­ social/asexually people who just want Netflix, maybe a cat 1. Give metal first & leave its normal name 2. Change ending of the nonmetal to “­ide” 3. Use Roman numerals to indicate the charge of transition metals that have more than one  possible charge (Fe  vs. Fe )+ 4. Name polyatomic ions by their respective names a. Ex: CaCl 2 Answer: Calcium chloride [end of notes for 8­31] I. 2.12 A. Clicker Question: What’s the correct name for NI ? 3 a) Nitrogen iodide (IONIC) b) Nitrogen triiodide (COVALANT) WINNER [not misspelled] c) Nitrogen iodine (CHANGE SECOND NAME) d) Nitrous iodide (DON’T CHANGE FIRST NAME) B. What’s the correct formula for tetraphosphorus decaoxide? a) K4O10 b) P4O10 [tetra­ = 4, ­phoporus = P, deca­ = 10, ­oxide = O2) c) K5O9 d) P5O9 FeCl 2vs FeCl 3 FeCl 2 iron(II) chloride FeCl 3 iron(III) chloride [when typing, write it like this in online homework] ONLY TWO ELEMENTS NEVER NEEDS ROMAN NUMERALS, ZINC = Zn , SILVER =Ag ;  +2 +1 N.E.V.E.R. More practice: Copper(I) oxide → Cu +1 O → Cu O 2 Harder one­ what is the formula for tin(IV) oxide’? a) Sn O4 b) Sn O2 c) TiO 2 d) Ti 2 e) SnO  [2his one] +4 -2 Tin = Sn; Sn O → Sn O 2 R4DUCE to: SnO 2 ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Ionic Compounds with polyatomic ions Polyatomic ions­ a group of atoms that, overall, have a charge (ex: hydroxide [OH]­) THE ONES YOU SHOULD KNOW: M.E.M.O.R.I.Z.E. Practice: 1. Sodium hydroxide Na  [OH] ­1 NaOH 2. Calcium hydroxide +2 ­1 Ca  [OH] Ca(OH) 2 NOT CaOH 2 3. Harder one: Aluminum carbonate +3 ­2 Al  (CO )3 Al2(CO 3 3 Answer choices a) AlCO 3 b) Al 2CO )3 3IS ONE c) AlCO 2 d) Al 3CO )3 2 ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ 4. Group time! +1 +2 Sodium sulfide  Na S → Na S2 Sodium sulfate [ate more oxygen nom nom]  Na +1 (SO 4 → Na SO 2 4 +1 -2 Sodium sulfite [less oxygen]  Na (SO 3 → Na SO 2 3 Practice: SO  Sulfur trioxide 3 (SO 3­2  Sulfite ion ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ NOW INTRODUCINGGGGGGGG DIAAAAAATOMICCCC ELEMENTSSSSS :DDDDDDDDD Diatomic elements Definition: elements that are always found at 2 atoms bound together in ELEMENTAL form  (natural state of existence), molecular form can have whatever many 1. H 2 2. N 2 3. O 2 4. F 2 5. Cl 2 6. Br 2 7. I2 Ex: “[Element x] reacts with oxygen (refers to O2)”; not as: oxygen (O) ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Formulas Empirical Formula­ simplest ratio of the atoms Molecular Formula­ the true formula showing the actual number of each type of atom C6H 6 Name: Benzene (molecular formula) CH Empirical formula (reduce the ratio to x:1) Structural formula­ shows how the atoms are bonded together Benzene  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ H 2 has both an empirical and molecular formula, 2 in 1! ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ C H O 2 6 Ethanol (l) [liquid] ­ alcohol OR Ether (g) [gas] ­ anesthetic ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ II. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ch 19.1­19.2 Definition­ reactions that involve a CHANGE in the nucleus of the atom [neutrons/protons] Radioactive decay­the SPONTANEOUS emission of a small, sub­nuclear (inside nuclear,  something small) particle or energy or both. 3 main types + 0 1. Alpha Radiation (α)­ alpha particles = 2 p  & 2 n ;   , positively charged a. Uranium (U)­ 238  →   parent nucleus = U alpha radiation = He + daughter nucleus = Th (they  may or may NOT be stable, they may decompose some more!) 2. Beta Radiation (β)­ [see week 2 notes] 3. Gamma (γ)­ [see week 2 notes] Sorry folks, ran out of time!


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