Foundations and Models of Medicine
Foundations and Models of Medicine Psyx 383
Popular in Health Psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Bellinger on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyx 383 at University of Montana taught by Mark Primosch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychology at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Health Psychology – Foundations of medicine Health Psychology: The application of psychological principles and research to the enhancement of health and the prevention and treatment of illness Mortality rates are higher among people living in south-eastern America – why? - Socioeconomic status - Larger population - Average population age - Diet - Climate/environment How should we define health? - You can still be healthy despite having some sort of disease - Absence of sickness/illness and symptoms - Symptoms of disease (pain, emisis, diarrhea) New age conceptualization Death/Serious Optimum Health Prehistoric Era (10,000 BCE) - Evil spirits were the main cause of illness - Trephining was used as a cure in order to let the spirits escape and cure the patient Ancient China (800 BCE) - Imbalance of certain forces - Cured by herbal medicines Modern day: - The body and the mind are both key factors in influencing health (mental illness or physical illness) - Psychoanalysis (Freud) Hippocrates (460-377 BCE) - Father of western medicine - Proposed the first rational explanation of why people get sick - Humoral theory: o A healthy body and mind are the result of an equilibrium between four ‘humors’ or bodily fluids (black bile, yellow bile, blood, phlegm) o In order to maintain a balance people must live a healthy lifestyle with a good diet, sufficient exercise and rest Claudius Galen (129-200) - Expaneded on the humoral theory of disease by developing an elaborate system of pharmacology - His theory was based on the notion that each of the four bodily fluids has its own elementary quality that determined the character of specific diseases o E.g Blood is hot and moist, thus, an illness caused by an excess of blood could be cured by a drug that was cold and dry Post-renaissance rationality – reemergence of scientific inquiry – revitalization of anatomical study and medical practice Andreas Versalius (1514-1564) - Studied the anatomy of the human body - Influenced anatomical theory (replaced Hippocrates humoral theory) - Corrected the faults of Galen in human anatomy that were made due to Galen never having actually dissected a human body Rene DeCartes (1596-1660) - Viewed the body as a machine - Described all the basic reflees of the body through the use of constructive models to demonstrate his principles - Best known for his beliefs that the body and the mind are autonomous processes that intereact minimally, and that each is subject to different laws of causality: (Mind-body dualism) o The notion that the mind and body are separate entities and do not interact Cellular Theory (microscopic level) Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) - Disease results when body cells malfunction or die - Shutdown the idea of spontaneous generation - Helped shape the idea of germ theory – the idea that bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms that invade the body cells cause them to malfunction Health Psychology – Models of medicine Engell (1977) - illness always has a biological cause, leaving no room for social, environmental or behavioral causes New Medical Model: - Biological mechanisms are necessary but not sufficient (not the only cause) - Clinical manifestations and symptoms are related to the biological symptoms - Environment factors are important (personal history, family history) - Also takes into account social factors Biomedical Model: - Disease is the result of a pathogen - Accepts Cartesian dualism theory - Health is the absence of disease - Limitations: o The case of Anna O o Supposedly suffered from a neurological disorder as the result of her father’s death, however was able to be treated through the use of medication and therapy Psychosomatic Medicine - Created a bridge between psychological factors and physical illness - Franz Alexander (Nuclear conflict model) o Rheumatoid Personality = suppressed anger means you are more likely to suffer from arthritis Behavioral Medicine - Interdisciplinary approach - Integrates behaviorism and biomedical theory o E.g. Neil Muler (1970’s) – biofeedback showed that people could learn to control their blood pressure through behavioral techniques
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