New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 261 Ch. 7 Notes

by: Eryn Dixon

PSYC 261 Ch. 7 Notes PSYC 261

Eryn Dixon
CSU Chico
GPA 2.74

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes covering statistical methods in psychology. Will be used on exam 2.
Research Methods in Psychology
Adelaide Kreamer
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Research Methods in Psychology

Popular in Psychology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eryn Dixon on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 261 at California State University Chico taught by Adelaide Kreamer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology at California State University Chico.


Reviews for PSYC 261 Ch. 7 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/10/16
Using Statistics: Chapter 7 Interpreting Data ● Raw Data ○ Scores from each individual participant ■ Difficult to interpret ● Two Main Methods of Interpreting Raw Data: ○ Descriptive Statistics ■ Ways to summarize raw data that allows for interpretation ○ Inferential Statistics ■ Statistical procedures used to test hypotheses Descriptive Statistics ● Distribution ○ Set of data/scores ● Three Main Methods from summarizing a Distribution ○ Central Tendency ■ Examines the typical score in a distribution ■ Three Main Measures: ● Mean, Median, Mode ○ Variability ■ Indicates how much the scores in the distribution differ from one another ■ Three Main Measures: ● Range, Standard Deviation, Variance ○ Graphs or Tables ■ Tools for summarizing data in a visual way Central Tendency ● Mean ○ Average ■ All scores added together divided by the total number of scores ● Most common, used for inferential statistics ● Influenced by extreme scores (outliers) ● Median ○ Middle Score ■ Half of the scores are above, half o the scores are below ● Can be provide a more accurately typical score when dealing with outliers ● Mode ○ Most frequent score ■ Used with nominal scales Variability ● Range ○ Difference between the highest and lowest score ■ Very crude measure of variability ● Standard Deviation ○ Average difference between the scores and the mean of the distribution ■ More precise ● Used for statistical tests ● Variance ○ Standard Deviation squared ■ Used for statistical tests Tables and Graphs ● Frequency Distribution ○ Shows the frequency of each response in the distribution ● Bar Graph/Line Graph ○ Shows means for different studies ■ Bar Graph ● Bar height represents size of the mean ■ Line Graph ● Mean graphed as a point, points connected to show difference between mean scores ● Scatterplot ○ Shows the relationship between two dependent variables ■ Includes data points from each participant ● Tables ○ Organized to include the mean for different conditions or groups in a study Inferential Statistics ● Use inferential statistics to determine what can be learned about the population from the sample ● Hypotheses ○ Every research hypothesis contains two hypotheses ■ Scientific?Alternative Hypothesis ● The independent variable has an effect on the dependent variable ● A relationship between variables exists ■ Null Hypothesis ● Opposite hypothesis ○ The independent variable has no effect ○ There is no relationship between variables ● One vs Two Tailed Hypotheses ○ One Tailed Hypotheses ■ Directional ● Only one direction of an effect is predicted ● Ex: Individuals in a hot room will have HIGHER exam performance that individuals in a normal temp. Room ○ In order to be supported, hot room scores have to be higher ○ Two Tailed Hypotheses ■ Both directions considered ● ● Inferential statistics determine whether we have to accept or reject the null hypothesis ○ If null is accepted our hypothesis is not supported ■ We were wrong ○ F the null is rejected our hypothesis is supported ■ We were right ● Inferential statistics assess the probability that we are wrong and the null is true ○ If the chance is high then there is no evidence to reject the null ■ There is likely no effect or relationship ○ If the chance is low then we interpret that as being evidence against the null hypothesis ■ We reject the null and accept the alternative hypothesis that there is an effect or relationship ● Confidence Intervals ○ Use the sample mean to infer the population mean (true score) ■ Confidence interval provides a range of values in which the population mean is found with a particular level of certainty ● ■ Ex: If the sample mean is a value of 82 and we want to be 95% sure we have captured the population mean, we might have a margin error of +/- 3. ● ● Significance Testing ○ How likely is it that the sample mean from the study is just a product of the distribution of the population rather than a result of an effect or a relationship ○ Alpha Level ■ Highest percent chance we are willing to accept that the sample mean is just a product of the distribution of the population ● ​ ○ If the probability (p hypothesis ■ There is a high probability that the sample mean was a result of an effect or relationship ● ​ ○ If the ​p value is higher than alpha we cannot reject the null hypothesis ■ The sample mean was likely just a result of the distribution of the population ○ Typically use an alpha of %5 ■ Only a %5 chance that the sample mean is a product of the distribution of the population ■ 95% chance that the sample mean is a result of an effect or relationship Significance Test Outcomes ● Errors ○ Type 1 ■ Reject the null when it is actually true ● Say there is an effect/relationship when there isn’t ○ Type 2 ■ Accept the null when it should have been rejected ● Say there isn’t an effect/relationship when there actualy is


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.