Health and behaviour
Health and behaviour Psyx 383
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Bellinger on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyx 383 at University of Montana taught by Mark Primosch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychology at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Health Psychology Chapter 6 – Health and Behaviour Health behaviours: - Choices that improve or maintain health Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance (2013) Risk behaviours for health: - Smoking and other tobacco use - Eating high fat and low-fibre foods - Limited physical activity - Abusing alcohol and other substances - Neglecting proven medical interventions - Violent behaviours Heath belief model - How people make decisions about their health Four interacting factors - Perceived susceptibility - Perceived severity of health threat (Am I susceptible? Am I increasing my risk?) - Perceived benefits of and barriers to treatment (Access to healthcare) - Cues to action (Media advertisements, word of mouth) Theory of planned behaviour Measure behaviour intentions (shaped by): - Attitudes - Subjective norm - Perceived behavioural control Trans-theoretical model Stages theory: - Desire to seek out - Precontemplation information - Contemplation - Counterconditioning - Preparation - Reinforcement management - Action - Maintenance Factors to consider Motivational Interviewing The spirit of motivational interviewing: (Resnicow et al, 2004) - Non-judgmental, empathetic, encouraging Focus: - Allow the client to verbalize reason for and against change - How behaviour fits with client’s values Key elements - Reflective listening - Rolling with resistance o When clients are wanting to change but they are also being resistant - Agenda setting o Start to set the stage for how the problem will be worked through - Eliciting ‘change talk’ or sustain talk’ o Change talk: reasons for making a change o Sustain talk: reasons against change (e.g. it’s really hard, I can’t do it) Undershooting reflective statements - Underestimating what the client has said and repeating it to them in order to make them realize what they are saying and realize how the behaviour may be problematic What can motivational interviewing be used for? - Diet and physical activity - Smoking cessation - Medication adherence - Eating disorders Reflective Listening Practice Prevention: 1. Primary (Direct action to prevent illness or disease occurring) - Psychoeducation about HIV prevention (Individual level) 2. Secondary (Addresses illnesses as they are occurring early on – e.g. screening for HIV) - Establish a support network (Community level) 3. Tertiary (Actions to minimize an illness/disease after the early stages) - Mandating availability of HIV treatment to uninsured persons (Societal level) Community Health Education Precede/Proceed Model 1. Identifying the specific health problem in a group 2. Assess lifestyle and environmental factors 3. Background factors (predispose, enable, reinforce) o Helps determine what to do and how it might work 4. Implementation of intervention, assess effectiveness Message Framing - Gain-framed o Highlights positive effects of change in behaviour - Loss-framed o Negative effects that will occur if you don’t change behaviour Individual differences Approach - Behavioural activation system (Gray, 1970) - Temperament: approach o Gain-framed Avoidance - Behavioural inhibition system (Gray, 1970) - Temperament: avoidant o Loss-framed Threatening Messages Moderate fear arousal - Has been effective - BUT if optimal threshold is exceeded -> denial and avoidance occurs Key factors - Perceived behavioural control Too much fear - May backfire if to people become too fearful, they will become avoidant
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