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Animal Science 320, Week 6 Notes

by: Danielle Garrison

Animal Science 320, Week 6 Notes AN S 320

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Animal Science > AN S 320 > Animal Science 320 Week 6 Notes
Danielle Garrison

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Contains notes on forages and protein concentrates
Animal Feeds and Feeding
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Garrison on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN S 320 at Iowa State University taught by Morris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Animal Feeds and Feeding in Animal Science at Iowa State University.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
Feed Grain By-Products Cont.  Dry Milling o Concerns  S content – limitation to feeding DDGs  0.4% S in ruminant diets o PEM – necrosis of cerebral cortical region o Dietary S reduced to H sulfide – toxic o Causes thiamin deficiency o Affects cattle, sheep, goats  Fiber content  Fat content – may reduce feed intake and fiber digestion – ruminants  Cause milk fat depression – lactating dairy cows  High level of unsaturated FAs – result in soft pork fat  P content – causes urinary calculi – steers or lambs  Add Ca supplement  Aflatoxin – concentrated 3xs level of corn  Lactating dairy cows, young – handles lease amount  Wheat by-products o Wheat brain – high fiber; Monogastric feeds (swine, horses); limit to 15% of diet o Wheat shorts – energy; same as mids but only 7% CF o Wheat mids – energy; high CP; swine and companion animal diets o Wheat germ – B vits; high CP; energy, protein, vit source o Wheat germ oil – high vit E  Beer brewing by-products o Brewers grains – protein; in dairy and horse diets; some companion animal diets (small concentration)  Not used in swine or poultry due to fiber content o Brewer’s yeast – B vits  Oat processing by-products o Oat groats – energy in young animals o Oat hulls – fiber carrier for premixes; outer part of oat; high fiber (CF) o Too expensive for livestock diets  Used in companion animal diets  Whole oats in equine diets Protein Concentrates:  Classes o Plant – byproducts of oilseed or grain processing o Animal – byproducts of meat, dead animal, fish or dairy processing o Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) o Characteristics  Urea 280% CP; why: 42-46% N  42 x 6.25 = 263-288% CP  All over 16% N  Protein digestibility varies  Primarily low in fiber  How to formulate for protein o Formulate for AAs NOT protein – limiting AAs o Changes based on species and ingredients used o Synthetic AAs also available  Plant processing – oilseed meals – soybeans o Trying to remove oil o 2 processes – expeller and solvent (hexane used)  Soybean meal (SBM) – expeller and solvent processes o Source of: lysine and tryptophan o Limiting AA: methionine o RDP: solvent (75%) and expeller (50%; bypass protein)  Other RUP sources: o Blood meal, corn gluten meal, fish meal, meat meal, urea o By pass proteins meet AA needs of animal, CNOT microbes in rumen  SBM – antiquality factors o Trypsin inhibitor (destroyed by heating) o Urease (destroyed via heating) o P34 protein (allergic reaction in young animals and pets) o Undigestible carbohydrates – raffinose and Stachyose  Act as fiber, fermented in LI – cause gas and bloat  Use of SBM in ration balancing: o Expeller processed SBM in ruminants with high protein requirement  High producing dairy cows and calves less than 600 lbs o Limit SBM in early diets of young animals (P34 protein)  Milk replacers and nursery pig diets  Use purified soy protein concentrate  Limit SBM 12-15% of 1 diet  Whole (full-fat) soybeans: o High TDN o Processing – heat to 100 degrees C for 3 min; destroys trypsin inhibitor and urease o Uses in diets  Monogastric – can replace 100% of SBM in growing finishing pigs  Ruminants – limit to 8 lb/day, dairy cows  Cottonseed meal o Used mostly in southern US o Limiting AAs – lysine, methionine, tryptophan o RDP – high; not used as by-pass protein o High TDN o Antiquality factors  Gossypol – toxic to young monogastrics; poor egg yolk color (molten); limit to 5%  Sterculic acid – turns egg whites pink o Uses in diets  Ruminants – supplies all of supplemental protein  Commonly fed as supplement to grazing cattle in south  Monogastrics and poultry – limit 25% o Whole cottonseed  Can be fed as both energy and protein supplement  Various other plant protein sources: o Sunflower meal, linseed meal, rapeseed meal, peanut meal  Synthetic AAs o Manufactured by fermentation of corn o Economically viable  L-lysine, L-methionine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan o Use  Swine and poultry – supply essential AAs to young  Decrease amount of total CP req in diets  Ruminants – protected form fed to increase in producing dairy cows  Animal protein concentrates o Byproducts of meat processing o Expensive in relation to plan protein concentrates o Mostly used in pet foods o Uses – bioavailable proteins  Supplies limiting AAs  Replaces more expensive protein sources in milk replacers  Good for young – enhanced immune system  Supplies RUP to ruminants with increase protein requirement o Uses in diets  Monogastric and poultry – feed 5-10% of diet, balance lysine  Increased in pet foods  Ruminants  Can be fed to supply RUP o Only fed meat meal or bone meal from Monogastric species o If label doesn’t specify, have to assume ruminant is included o Prevention of prion transfer that causes Mad Cow disease o “Prohibited feed ingredients” – mandated by FDA and a label that says “DO NOT FEED TO CATTLE OR OTHER RUMINANTS” must appear on feed labels  Blood products o Blood meal – dried coagulated blood  80% CP, high RUP  Low protein digestibility  High lysine, low availability  Low isoleucine and methionine  Low rumen degradability (25%)  Uses: ruminant diets (source of RUP)  Monogastrics: only use in small quantities in diets of young pigs  Fish food o Spray died blood plasma  78% CP, high lysine content  Contains immunoglobulins – stimulates immune function and high growth rate  Contains peptide growth factors  Uses: nursery pigs (fed 4-7% of diet)  Milk replacers (can replace all milk protein in replacers)  Most producers have eliminated porcine proteins in young pigs due to PEDV  Dairy processing by-products o Seen a lot in milk replacers or starter diets o Very expensive  Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN) o Urea most common NPN source o Other ones – biuret, monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulfate  Biuret – slow N release o Can replace part of protein for ruminants o Amount depends on energy content of diet  Urea utilization of cattle fed high forage diets – benefit from molasses and grains  Not so for high concentrated fed animals o No more than 0.1-0.25 lb/head daily – feedlot cattle (urea) o Concern  Ammonia toxicity  Occurs when  Excessive NPN fed o Low feed intake, low daily gain, low feed efficiency, high feeding period  NPN NOT properly mixed into diet  Inadequate energy fed with NPN  Example in pwpt o Guidelines:  Rule – 1 lb urea + 6 lb corn = protein of 7 lb soybean meal  No more than 33% total N in diet  No more than 1% diet  No more than 3% concentrate supply  No more than 15% typical protein supply  Not recommended for – lactating dairy cows, young cattle over 600 lbs  Benefit from RUP  Must supply adequate energy in diet if NPN added  Protein Summary o Expensive; animals have AA req; urea contains >40% N; NPN can’t be used to meet needs of monogastrics; ruminants can’t consume “prohibited” materials including meat proteins from ruminant sources. Forages  Characteristics – low energy, high in fiber, 20% CP, higher than energy and plant protein supplements in Ca, major feed for herbivores, limited use for poultry and swine  Factors determining quality – forage species, maturity, processing, soil, and harvest method and quality of storage  Forage classes: o Cool Season Grasses – productive during Spring and early Summer and again in Fall  Sensitive to heat and drought (mid-Summer)  Most common grasses – Midwest  Antiquality factors:  Endophyte Fungus – in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass o Produces toxic alkaloids – similar to dopamine o Located mostly in the seed o Transfer to pasture via the seed o Effects of fescue toxicosis  Physiological effects – vasoconstriction, high core body temps, low heart rate, suppression of immune system  Results on animal – decrease intake and weight gain, retention of winter coat, standing in water sources, low milk production, hoof loss, and repro problems  Management – prevent excessive maturity of forage, dilute with legume forages in tall fescue pastures, rotate animals to non- fescue pastures, treat cattle with Ivermectin  Tryptamine alkaloids – Reed canarygrass o Serotonin receptor agonists o Common effects on animal – reduced feed intake and growth, staggers, sudden death o Management – plant low alkaloid varieties, rotate animals, cobalt supplementation (component of B12) o Legumes  High yield, palatable  Could be mixed with grasses  Species – alfalfa, clover, and Birdsfoot trefoil  Greatest in spring, more uniform over season than grasses  Slobbering horses – Rhizoctonia leguminicola  Fungus growing on legumes – not just clover  Risk – dehydration due to excessive saliva production  Concerns:  Bloat o Ruminants unable to release fermentation gases o Caused by high concentration of soluble protein that results in formation of foam in rumen o Prevention of bloat – plant mixes of grasses and legumes  Allow legumes to mature before grazing on Phytoestrogens – alfalfa and clover; affects repro and mammary dev Coumarin – sweet clover; converted to Dicoumarol in moldy sweet clover Tannins – Birdsfoot trefoil; prevents bloat; reduce protein degradation in rumen; chelates minerals such as Fe o Warm Season Grasses  70% of production in June and July  Productive yields (growth)  Concerns  Nitrates – drought stricken forages; nitrate in rumen; <3000 ppm (safe); >9000 ppm (dangerous for cattle)  Cyanogenic glycosides (cyanide) – in new growth of sorghum x sudan grass o Converted to hydrocyanic acid o Horses susceptible to this  Maturity effects on forage quality – increasing forage maturity: o Increases NDF, ADF, lignin o Reduces CP and soluble carbs  Managing Lignin o Alkali treatments – mature grass, straw, corn stalks  Increases digestibility by 10% and intake by 20%  Summary anti-nutrients o Toxic plants o Bloat – legumes (clover and alfalfa) o Tannins – reduce intake, bind Fe and protein o Cyanogenic glycosides – warm season grasses o Estrogenic compounds – legumes – repro failure o Alkaloids – canary grass o Coumarin – sweet clover o Nitrates – drought stricken forages  Summary Forages o 3 classes – warm and cool season grasses, and legumes o Protein – greater in legumes o Ca – greater in legumes o Warm season grasses – better for silage (Corn) o Cool season grasses – better for grazing/hay o Maturity effects of forage – older plant = more NDF/ADF, less protein, less energy


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