Animal Science 320, Week 6 Notes
Animal Science 320, Week 6 Notes AN S 320
Popular in Animal Feeds and Feeding
Popular in Animal Science
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Garrison on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN S 320 at Iowa State University taught by Morris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Animal Feeds and Feeding in Animal Science at Iowa State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Feed Grain By-Products Cont. Dry Milling o Concerns S content – limitation to feeding DDGs 0.4% S in ruminant diets o PEM – necrosis of cerebral cortical region o Dietary S reduced to H sulfide – toxic o Causes thiamin deficiency o Affects cattle, sheep, goats Fiber content Fat content – may reduce feed intake and fiber digestion – ruminants Cause milk fat depression – lactating dairy cows High level of unsaturated FAs – result in soft pork fat P content – causes urinary calculi – steers or lambs Add Ca supplement Aflatoxin – concentrated 3xs level of corn Lactating dairy cows, young – handles lease amount Wheat by-products o Wheat brain – high fiber; Monogastric feeds (swine, horses); limit to 15% of diet o Wheat shorts – energy; same as mids but only 7% CF o Wheat mids – energy; high CP; swine and companion animal diets o Wheat germ – B vits; high CP; energy, protein, vit source o Wheat germ oil – high vit E Beer brewing by-products o Brewers grains – protein; in dairy and horse diets; some companion animal diets (small concentration) Not used in swine or poultry due to fiber content o Brewer’s yeast – B vits Oat processing by-products o Oat groats – energy in young animals o Oat hulls – fiber carrier for premixes; outer part of oat; high fiber (CF) o Too expensive for livestock diets Used in companion animal diets Whole oats in equine diets Protein Concentrates: Classes o Plant – byproducts of oilseed or grain processing o Animal – byproducts of meat, dead animal, fish or dairy processing o Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) o Characteristics Urea 280% CP; why: 42-46% N 42 x 6.25 = 263-288% CP All over 16% N Protein digestibility varies Primarily low in fiber How to formulate for protein o Formulate for AAs NOT protein – limiting AAs o Changes based on species and ingredients used o Synthetic AAs also available Plant processing – oilseed meals – soybeans o Trying to remove oil o 2 processes – expeller and solvent (hexane used) Soybean meal (SBM) – expeller and solvent processes o Source of: lysine and tryptophan o Limiting AA: methionine o RDP: solvent (75%) and expeller (50%; bypass protein) Other RUP sources: o Blood meal, corn gluten meal, fish meal, meat meal, urea o By pass proteins meet AA needs of animal, CNOT microbes in rumen SBM – antiquality factors o Trypsin inhibitor (destroyed by heating) o Urease (destroyed via heating) o P34 protein (allergic reaction in young animals and pets) o Undigestible carbohydrates – raffinose and Stachyose Act as fiber, fermented in LI – cause gas and bloat Use of SBM in ration balancing: o Expeller processed SBM in ruminants with high protein requirement High producing dairy cows and calves less than 600 lbs o Limit SBM in early diets of young animals (P34 protein) Milk replacers and nursery pig diets Use purified soy protein concentrate Limit SBM 12-15% of 1 diet Whole (full-fat) soybeans: o High TDN o Processing – heat to 100 degrees C for 3 min; destroys trypsin inhibitor and urease o Uses in diets Monogastric – can replace 100% of SBM in growing finishing pigs Ruminants – limit to 8 lb/day, dairy cows Cottonseed meal o Used mostly in southern US o Limiting AAs – lysine, methionine, tryptophan o RDP – high; not used as by-pass protein o High TDN o Antiquality factors Gossypol – toxic to young monogastrics; poor egg yolk color (molten); limit to 5% Sterculic acid – turns egg whites pink o Uses in diets Ruminants – supplies all of supplemental protein Commonly fed as supplement to grazing cattle in south Monogastrics and poultry – limit 25% o Whole cottonseed Can be fed as both energy and protein supplement Various other plant protein sources: o Sunflower meal, linseed meal, rapeseed meal, peanut meal Synthetic AAs o Manufactured by fermentation of corn o Economically viable L-lysine, L-methionine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan o Use Swine and poultry – supply essential AAs to young Decrease amount of total CP req in diets Ruminants – protected form fed to increase in producing dairy cows Animal protein concentrates o Byproducts of meat processing o Expensive in relation to plan protein concentrates o Mostly used in pet foods o Uses – bioavailable proteins Supplies limiting AAs Replaces more expensive protein sources in milk replacers Good for young – enhanced immune system Supplies RUP to ruminants with increase protein requirement o Uses in diets Monogastric and poultry – feed 5-10% of diet, balance lysine Increased in pet foods Ruminants Can be fed to supply RUP o Only fed meat meal or bone meal from Monogastric species o If label doesn’t specify, have to assume ruminant is included o Prevention of prion transfer that causes Mad Cow disease o “Prohibited feed ingredients” – mandated by FDA and a label that says “DO NOT FEED TO CATTLE OR OTHER RUMINANTS” must appear on feed labels Blood products o Blood meal – dried coagulated blood 80% CP, high RUP Low protein digestibility High lysine, low availability Low isoleucine and methionine Low rumen degradability (25%) Uses: ruminant diets (source of RUP) Monogastrics: only use in small quantities in diets of young pigs Fish food o Spray died blood plasma 78% CP, high lysine content Contains immunoglobulins – stimulates immune function and high growth rate Contains peptide growth factors Uses: nursery pigs (fed 4-7% of diet) Milk replacers (can replace all milk protein in replacers) Most producers have eliminated porcine proteins in young pigs due to PEDV Dairy processing by-products o Seen a lot in milk replacers or starter diets o Very expensive Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN) o Urea most common NPN source o Other ones – biuret, monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulfate Biuret – slow N release o Can replace part of protein for ruminants o Amount depends on energy content of diet Urea utilization of cattle fed high forage diets – benefit from molasses and grains Not so for high concentrated fed animals o No more than 0.1-0.25 lb/head daily – feedlot cattle (urea) o Concern Ammonia toxicity Occurs when Excessive NPN fed o Low feed intake, low daily gain, low feed efficiency, high feeding period NPN NOT properly mixed into diet Inadequate energy fed with NPN Example in pwpt o Guidelines: Rule – 1 lb urea + 6 lb corn = protein of 7 lb soybean meal No more than 33% total N in diet No more than 1% diet No more than 3% concentrate supply No more than 15% typical protein supply Not recommended for – lactating dairy cows, young cattle over 600 lbs Benefit from RUP Must supply adequate energy in diet if NPN added Protein Summary o Expensive; animals have AA req; urea contains >40% N; NPN can’t be used to meet needs of monogastrics; ruminants can’t consume “prohibited” materials including meat proteins from ruminant sources. Forages Characteristics – low energy, high in fiber, 20% CP, higher than energy and plant protein supplements in Ca, major feed for herbivores, limited use for poultry and swine Factors determining quality – forage species, maturity, processing, soil, and harvest method and quality of storage Forage classes: o Cool Season Grasses – productive during Spring and early Summer and again in Fall Sensitive to heat and drought (mid-Summer) Most common grasses – Midwest Antiquality factors: Endophyte Fungus – in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass o Produces toxic alkaloids – similar to dopamine o Located mostly in the seed o Transfer to pasture via the seed o Effects of fescue toxicosis Physiological effects – vasoconstriction, high core body temps, low heart rate, suppression of immune system Results on animal – decrease intake and weight gain, retention of winter coat, standing in water sources, low milk production, hoof loss, and repro problems Management – prevent excessive maturity of forage, dilute with legume forages in tall fescue pastures, rotate animals to non- fescue pastures, treat cattle with Ivermectin Tryptamine alkaloids – Reed canarygrass o Serotonin receptor agonists o Common effects on animal – reduced feed intake and growth, staggers, sudden death o Management – plant low alkaloid varieties, rotate animals, cobalt supplementation (component of B12) o Legumes High yield, palatable Could be mixed with grasses Species – alfalfa, clover, and Birdsfoot trefoil Greatest in spring, more uniform over season than grasses Slobbering horses – Rhizoctonia leguminicola Fungus growing on legumes – not just clover Risk – dehydration due to excessive saliva production Concerns: Bloat o Ruminants unable to release fermentation gases o Caused by high concentration of soluble protein that results in formation of foam in rumen o Prevention of bloat – plant mixes of grasses and legumes Allow legumes to mature before grazing on Phytoestrogens – alfalfa and clover; affects repro and mammary dev Coumarin – sweet clover; converted to Dicoumarol in moldy sweet clover Tannins – Birdsfoot trefoil; prevents bloat; reduce protein degradation in rumen; chelates minerals such as Fe o Warm Season Grasses 70% of production in June and July Productive yields (growth) Concerns Nitrates – drought stricken forages; nitrate in rumen; <3000 ppm (safe); >9000 ppm (dangerous for cattle) Cyanogenic glycosides (cyanide) – in new growth of sorghum x sudan grass o Converted to hydrocyanic acid o Horses susceptible to this Maturity effects on forage quality – increasing forage maturity: o Increases NDF, ADF, lignin o Reduces CP and soluble carbs Managing Lignin o Alkali treatments – mature grass, straw, corn stalks Increases digestibility by 10% and intake by 20% Summary anti-nutrients o Toxic plants o Bloat – legumes (clover and alfalfa) o Tannins – reduce intake, bind Fe and protein o Cyanogenic glycosides – warm season grasses o Estrogenic compounds – legumes – repro failure o Alkaloids – canary grass o Coumarin – sweet clover o Nitrates – drought stricken forages Summary Forages o 3 classes – warm and cool season grasses, and legumes o Protein – greater in legumes o Ca – greater in legumes o Warm season grasses – better for silage (Corn) o Cool season grasses – better for grazing/hay o Maturity effects of forage – older plant = more NDF/ADF, less protein, less energy
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