Art History, Week 6 Notes
Art History, Week 6 Notes ARH 025VL
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 025VL at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Norris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Art History B in Art History at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Art History—Week 6 Notes High Renaissance (1485-1520; Leonardo da Vinci, Rafael, Michelangelo) Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): Used a combination of idealization and naturalism, ex—Vitruvian Man shows idealistic proportions for men Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495 -Combination of oil and tempera (this combination caused it to be very susceptible to fading) -Jesus is telling the disciples that one of them will betray him and they all show very emotional reactions -Painting was meant to go in a dining hall in a monastery -Judas being on the same side as the rest of the disciples signifies that all of them will betray Jesus in one way or another Castagno, Last Supper -Much less emotion than da Vinci’s depiction -Judas is on the opposite side of the table from the other disciples and does not have a halo. He also has more Jewish features than the others, who look more European (da Vinci does the same thing) Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna and Child with St. Anne and St. John -Cartoon: drawing that is the final step before a painting -Pyramidal composition: figures are placed on a sort of pyramid shape -Sfumato: hazy/smoky atmosphere in the picture Linear vs. tonal: Paintings with more linear composition have unrealistic lines (jaws, clothing, etc.), whereas in tonal paintings, there are masses of different tones rather than lines Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503-05 -Oil on canvas (oil begins to replace tempera) -Relatively small, only 2’x3’ -Sfumato -Tonal -Background is made up (idealization blended into naturalism) -da Vinci incorporates his ideal of beauty into all his paintings da Vinci’s Impact: Blending naturalism with idealization, pyramid composition, sfumato, and (biggest impact) raising the status of artists Rafael, Madonna of the Meadow, 1505-06 -Uses similar methods to da Vinci Rafael went to Rome and completely changed his style Rafael, Galatea -Scene from Greek mythology -10’x7 ½’ -Lots of action -Figures are all very muscular (women included) -Very idealistic Pope Julius II called Rafael to come to Rome. He wanted to rebuild St. Peter’s church. To pay for it, Julius sold indulgences that people bought so they could sin and not go to hell for it. Rafael, Stanze della Segnatura (signature room), 1509-11 -Painted for the Pope’s palace (in the library) -The paintings on the major walls are representative of theology and philosophy while the minor walls are representative of the law and arts -Crossed keys of the floor are a symbol of the pope -One painting is the School of Athens -Good representation of the High Renaissance -Similar composition to The Last Supper -Figures are all Greek, though from different periods: Pythagoras, Arab mathematician, female philosopher, and Euclid -Figures in the center are Plato (old with a white beard) and Aristotle (younger guy) -Plato thought that beauty can only be found in the abstract (abstract idealization) -Aristotle thought that beauty can be found in the concrete (Naturalism) -They were the foundation of Western knowledge and all others learned from them -This painting is an embodiment of the High Renaissance -Naturalism and Idealization reinforce each other in meaning and style -Monumentality/Grandeur (looking big and important) -Energy/Balance Michelangelo started making art when he was a teenager and didn’t stop until he died. He was a painter, sculptor, and writer. He felt connected to God through art (he was a very devout Christian). He followed Neo-Platonism. Michelangelo, David, 1501-04 -Twice the size of regular people -Ideal male physique according to Michelangelo -Extreme detail on the face: Flared nostrils, furrowed brows -Representation of when Goliath approached Davidhe recoils in disgust or distain -Signifies a safeguard (protector) for Florence Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to carve his tomb. Halfway through, he was supposed to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling, but Michelangelo didn’t want to. Julius threatened that he would never be allowed to do art again, so Michelangelo complied. Michelangelo, Moses, 1513-15 -7 ½’ high -Marble -Moses has horns (attribute) -Even though he’s elderly, he has enormous muscles -Holding the Ten Commandments in one hand
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