NTR 213 Chapter 6 Notes
NTR 213 Chapter 6 Notes NTR 213
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by bjwall on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 213 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Dr. Seth Armah in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 6 – Proteins and Amino Acids 6.1 Proteins in Our Food Legumes – starchy seed of a plant that produces bean pods; includes peas, peanuts, beans, soybeans, and lentils o Important source of dietary protein Amino Acids – building blocks of proteins. Each amino acid contains an amino group, an acid group, and a unique side chain o Proteins in plants made up of combinations of these therefore plant proteins not used as efficiently as animal proteins 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins Amino Acid Structure Each amino acid consists of central C that is bound to H atom, amino group, acid group, side chain o Nitrogen in amino acids distinguishes protein from CHO and fat o Side chains give amino acids their unique properties 9 must be consumed in diet Essential Amin Acid (Indispensable Amino Acid) – amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the body in sufficient amounts to meet its needs and therefore must be included in the diet The other 11 AA commonly found in protein are nonessential, or dispensable, amino acids because they can be made in the body. o Some of them cannot be synthesized at certain times, therefore called conditionally essential amino acids Phenylketonuria – genetic disease in which amino acid phenylalanine cannot be metabolized normally, causing it to build up in the blood. If untreated, condition results in brain damage Protein Structure Amino acids linked together by peptide bonds, which join acid group of one amino acid to the amino group of another amino acid Polypeptide – chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds that is part of the structure of a protein Denaturation – alteration of a protein’s 3-dimensional structure 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption Proteins must be digested before their amino acids can be absorbed into the body (p. 162 detailed figure on digestion and absorption) KNOW FOR TEST! 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions Amino Acid Pool – all the amino acids in body tissues and fluids that are available for use by the body Synthesizing Proteins Genes – length of DNA that contains the info needed to synthesize a polypeptide chain Regulating protein synthesis Both types of proteins made and when they are made are carefully regulated by increasing and decreasing gene expression. Limiting amino acids Transamination – process by which an amino group from one amino acid is transferred to a carbon compound to form a new amino acid Limiting Amino Acid – essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration relative to the body’s need 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease Protein Deficiency Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) – condition characterized by loss of muscle and fat mass and increased susceptibility to infection that results from the long-term consumption of insufficient amounts of energy and/or protein to meet the body’s needs Kwashiorkor – form of protein-energy malnutrition in which only protein is deficient Marasmus – form of protein-energy malnutrition in which deficiency of energy in the diet causes severe body wasting Proteins and Food Allergies and Intolerances Food Allergy – adverse immune response to a specific food protein Food Intolerance or Food Sensitivity – adverse reaction to a food that does not involve the production of antibodies by the immune system Celiac Disease – disorder that causes damage to the intestines when the protein gluten is eaten 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs Balancing Protein Intake and Losses Nitrogen Balance – amount of N consumed in the diet compared with the amount excreted over a given period Choosing Protein Wisely Protein Complementation – process of combining proteins from different sources so that they collectively provide the proportions of amino acids required to meet the body’s needs Vegetarian Diets Vegetarian Diets – diet that includes plant-based food and eliminates some or all foods of animal origin Vegan Diet – plant-based diet that eliminates all animal products
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