Sports Psychology: Chapter 12: Arousal and Regulation
Sports Psychology: Chapter 12: Arousal and Regulation PSYCH 380
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keel on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 380 at University of South Carolina taught by Joe Ferraracci in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Sports Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Arousal and Regulation Chapter 12 Monday, October 10, 2016 5:15 PM Why Regulate Arousal? • Athletes who don’t cope with stress may have decreases in performance as well as mental and physical distress • Athletes need to be able to regulate arousal to stay focused and in control. Self -awareness of Arousal • You must increase your awareness of your psychological states b4 you can control your thoughts and feelings. • Once you are aware of your optimal arousal, you can employ arousal regulation strategies • How individuals cope with anxiety is more important than the amount of anxiety • Compared to non-elite athletes, elite athletes see their anxiety as facilitative rather than debilitative. Anxiety reducing techniques • Somatic anxiety reduction: Progressive Relaxation ○ Learn to feel the tension in your muscles and then to let go of the tension • Somatic Anxiety Reduction: Breath control ○ When you are under pressure and tense, your breathing is short, shallow, and irregular ○ When you are calm, confident, and in control, your breathing is smooth, deep and rhythm. • Somatic Anxiety Reduction: Biofeedback ○ Becoming more aware of your autonomic nervous system and learning to control your physiological and autonomic responses by receiving physiological feedback not normally available. • Cognitive Anxiety Reduction: ○ Relaxation response teaches individuals to quiet the mind, concentrate and reduce muscle tension by applying the elements of meditation. • Cognitive Anxiety Reduction: ○ Autogenic training focuses on producing two physical sensations-warmth and heaviness-to produce a relaxed state. • Cognitive anxiety reduction: ○ Systematic desensitization aims to reduce anxiety responses to stimuli by trying to have a response antagonistic to anxiety at the same time of the anxiety-provoking stimuli. • Multidimensional anxiety reduction packages: SMT teaches a person specific ○ SMT teaches a person specific • Stress inoculation training (SIT) ○ A person is exposed to and learns to cope with stress (via provocative thoughts, mental images, and self- statements) in increasing amounts, thereby enhancing his or her immunity to stress. • Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness that can be induced by a procedure in which a person is in an unusually relaxed state and responds to suggestions designed to alter perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and actions Facts about Hypnosis • Researchers generally agree that ○ The more open individuals are to receiving suggestions, the more likely they are to benefit from suggestions given under hypnosis ○ The deeper the trance the more likely that the suggestions will work. ○ General arousal techniques are more useful than hypnotic suggestions in enhancing muscular strength and endurance. ○ Positive suggestions are effective in facilitating performance, regardless of whether the athlete is hypnotized. ○ Negative suggestions almost always cause a decrement in performance. The Matching Hypothesis • An anxiety management technique should be matched to a particular problem • some crossover effects occur (ex: somatic anxiety relaxation techniques produce cognitive anxiety relaxation as well). • Follow predictions of matching hypothesis ○ Cognitive anxiety should be treated with mental relaxation • To produce max anxiety reduction, the specific types of social support (ex: informational, emotional) should be matched to the specific anxiety problem (ex: competitive pressure, technical problems) What is coping? • Coping is the process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external or internal demands or conflicts appraised as taxing or exceeding one's resources Coping Categories • Problem focused coping: efforts to alter or manage the problems that are causing stress (ex: time management, problem solving) • Emotion focused coping: Regulating the emotional responses to the problem that cause the stress (ex: though relaxation, meditation) • Seeking social support coping: turns to others for assistance. • Major problem focused categories ○ Info gathering ○ Pre-competition and competition plans ○ Goal setting ○ Time management skills ○ Problem solving ○ Increasing effort ○ Self-talk • Major Emotion Focused categories ○ Meditation ○ Relaxation ○ Wishful thinking ○ Reappraisal ○ Self-blame, mental and behavioral withdrawal ○ Cognitive efforts to change the meaning of the situation (turning things from pessimistic to optimistic Coping with adversity • Use problem-focused coping when stressful situations can be changed but use emotion focused coping when the situation cannot be changed. Resiliency: bouncing back from adversity • Resiliency seems appropriate to study because participants needs to effectively bounce back from adversity (ex: • Resiliency seems appropriate to study because participants needs to effectively bounce back from adversity (ex: injury, poor performance, being cut from the team). • Many individuals not only survive but gain positive attributes because of adversity. • Mental toughness and personal resources are keys for resiliency. • Sociocultural influences such as social support (or lack of it) were seen as critical to being resilient. Sport team resilient characteristics • Group Structure: positive group norms and values, clearly defining communication channels • Mastery approaches: effective behavioral responses, effectively managing change. • Social Capital: social support • Collective efficacy: group cohesion, positive communications after failure. Coping in sport • There is no single coping strategy that is effective in all situations • Athletes must learn a diverse set of problem-and emotion-focused coping strategies to use in different situations • Coping strategies ○ Task focus ○ Rational thinking and self-talk ○ Positive focus and orientation ○ Social support ○ Mental prep and anxiety management ○ Time management ○ Training hard and smart • Sex, age and pubertal status can affect with how you cope with anxiety or with the use of a certain strategy • Coping appears to be situation specific • There are great individual differences in coping strategies, and each athlete has to find what best works for them or in their situation Beyond Anxiety • Self-statement modification: change negative to positive statements • Imagery: Coping with negative emotions or use positive emotions • Corrective experiences: Athlete makes a conscious decision to engage in the behavior that is of concern, which can reverse anxiety and correct past mistakes. • Vicarious Learning: Modeling appropriate behaviors makes it more likely that behavior will be produced • Self-analysis: monitor emotions in sport and thus increase self-awareness. • Goal setting: Focus on achieving a specific outcome. • Storytelling metaphors and poetry: literary techniques encourage athletes to consider alternative ways to view and deal with situations • Reframing: Perspective taking involves viewing an important competition as just another game. Signs of under arousal • Moving slowly no getting set • Mind wandering being easily distracted • Lack of concern of how one will perform • Lack of enthusiasm or anticipation • Having heavy feelings in legs, no bounce Arousal inducing techniques • The goal is to get athletes at an optimal level of arousal • Often things such as pep talks and motivational speeches can over arouse athletes • If arousal is to be raised, it should be done in a deliberate fashion with awareness • Increase breathing rate • Act energized • Use mood words and positive statements • Yell or shout • Listen to music • Use energizing imagery • Complete a pre-competition workout. • Complete a pre-competition workout. Pep talks • Guidelines for a coaches successful pregame talk ○ Give them a plan ○ Make them believe that they can win ○ Do not lie ○ be yourself ○ Use humor
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