HRMA 1337, Week 8 Notes
HRMA 1337, Week 8 Notes Hrma 1337
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theresa Nguyen on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hrma 1337 at University of Houston taught by S. Barth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Hospitality Industry in Hotel and Restaurant Management at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 10: Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs Recreation, Leisure, and Wellness The term burnout—and indeed the word stress—has become a part of our everyday vocabulary. Recreation is all about creating a balance, a harmony in life that will maintain wellness and wholeness. Recreation allows people to have fun together and to form lasting relationships built on the experiences they have enjoyed together. - This is called bonding. The word recreation implies the use of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one’s body or mind. Leisure is best described as time free from work, or discretionary time. Some recreation professionals use the words leisure and recreation interchangeably. Government-Sponsored Recreation Various levels of government that constitute government-sponsored recreation are intertwined, yet distinct, in the parks, recreation, and leisure services. The founding fathers of America said it best when they affirmed the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in the Declaration of Independence. Government raises revenue from income taxes, sales taxes, and property taxes. Additionally, government raises special revenue from recreation- related activities such as automobile and recreational vehicles, boats, motor fuels, transient occupancy taxes (TOTs) on hotel accommodations, state lotteries, and others. Recreation professionals face a number of political and legal concepts. Comprehensive planning, land classification systems, land-use planning, funding, and differences in purpose are among the factors to be considered. National Parks in the United States - The United States has designated 407 national park units throughout the country, including a rich diversity of places and settings and 80 million acres of land. - The National Parks Service was founded in 1916 by Congress to conserve park resources and to provide for their use by the public in a way that leaves them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations. - Annual visitation to the National Park system approaches 300 million visitors. - Today, emphasis is placed on preserving the vitality of each park’s ecosystem and on the protection of unique or endangered plant and animal species. National Park Management - The National Park Service is in the Department of the Interior and is overseen by a director who reports to the Secretary of the Interior. - There are 407 National Parks divided into seven regions. - The Director of the National Park Service establishes and approves service-wide natural resource policies and standards. - The National Park Service budget for 2014–2015 is $3 billion, and it employs a staff of 22,000. - Beyond these appropriated funds, the National Park Service is also authorized to collect and retain revenue from specified sources: Recreation fees: approximately $172.9 million per year Park concessions franchise fees: approximately $60 million per year Filming and photography special use fees: approximately $1.2 million per year. Additional funding comes from individual donations. Public Recreation and Park Agencies - By the early 1900s, fourteen cities had made provisions for supervised play facilities, and the playground movement gained momentum. - About the same time, municipal parks were created in a number of cities. - Boston established the first metropolitan park system in 1892. - In 1898, the New England Association of Park Superintendents (predecessor of the American Institute of Park Executives) was established to bring together park superintendents and promote their professional concerns. Commercial Recreation: Attractions Recreation management came of age in the 1920s and 1930s when recreation and social programs were offered as a community service. College degrees began to be offered in recreation management. Both public and private sector recreation management have grown rapidly since 1950. Commercial recreation, often called eco- or adventure tourism, provides residents and visitors with access to an area’s spectacular wilderness through a variety of guided, outdoor activities. Specifically, commercial recreation is defined as outdoor recreational activities provided on a fee-for-service basis, with a focus on experiences associated with the natural environment. Commercial recreation includes theme parks, attractions, and clubs. Theme Parks - Knott’s Berry Farm has truly been a great influence on the American theme park industry. - Hundreds of parks, both independent and corporate owned, started to develop following the birth of Knott’s. - Size and Scope of the Theme Park Industry Theme parks create an atmosphere of different places and times and usually concentrate on a dominant theme. Architecture, landscaping, shows, and merchandise are all focused on the theme. Theme parks and attractions vary according to theme, which might be historical, cultural, geographical, and so on. Some parks and attractions focus on a single theme (Sea World parks); other parks and attractions focus on multiple themes, such as King’s Island in Ohio. Introducing Walt Disney: A Man with a Vision Walt Disney said that Disneyland really began when he took his two young daughters to the park. He felt there should be some kind of family park where parents and children could have fun together. Mickey and Minnie Mouse first appeared in Steamboat Willie, which also incorporated music and sound, on November 18, 1928. Huge audiences were ecstatic about the work of the Disney Brothers, who became overnight successes. During the next few years, Walt and Roy made many Mickey Mouse films, which earned them enough to develop other projects, including full-length motion pictures in Technicolor. Both Walt Disney World and Disneyland have excellent college intern programs that enable selected students and faculty to work in a variety of hotel, foodservice, and related park positions. Magic Kingdom - The heart of Walt Disney World, and its first famous theme park, is the Magic Kingdom. - It is a giant theatrical stage where guests become part of exciting Disney adventures. - It is also the home of Mickey Mouse, Snow White, Peter Pan, Tom Sawyer, Davy Crockett, and the Swiss Family Robinson. - More than forty major shows and ride-through attractions, not to mention shops and unique dining facilities, fill its seven lands of imagination. Epcot - Epcot is a unique, permanent, and ever-changing world’s fair with two major themes: Future World and World Showcase. - Future World shows amazing technology for the near future. - Around the World Showcase Lagoons are pavilions where guests can see world-famous landmarks and enjoy native foods, entertainments, and culture. Disney’s Hollywood Studios - With fifty major shows, shops, restaurants, ride-through adventures, and backstage tours, Disney’s Hollywood Studios (formerly Disney– MGM Studios) combines real, working motion picture, animation, and television studios with exciting movie attractions. - Walt Disney World is the most popular destination resort in the world. - Since its opening in 1971, millions of guests, including kings and celebrities from around the world and all eight U.S. presidents in office since the opening (excluding President Obama), have visited the parks. Universal Studios Universal Studios Hollywood has been giving guided tours on its famous movie sets for almost forty years, and tens of thousands of people visit Universal every day. Since its founding, Universal Studios has become the most formidable competitor facing the Walt Disney Company. In addition to its Hollywood and Orlando parks, Universal has since expanded into Singapore and Japan with future locations planned for Dubai, United Arab Emirates and Seoul, South Korea. One reason for Universal’s success is its adaptation of movies into thrill rides; another is its commitment to guest participation. Sea World Parks and Entertainment SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment includes Busch Gardens and is a division of Blackstone Group. The animal parks not only offer guests from around the world the opportunity to see and experience the wonders of many marine and land animals, but they also have highly developed educational programs. The company is dedicated to preserving marine life. - It uses innovative programs to research various wildlife dilemmas. It also participates in breeding, animal rescue, rehabilitation, and conservation efforts throughout the year. Hershey’s It was at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago that Hershey first became fascinated with the art of chocolate. He opened his new establishment in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and named it the Hershey Chocolate Company. In the 1900s, the company started to produce mass quantities of milk chocolate, which resulted in immediate success. In 1907, Milton Hershey opened Hershey Park as a leisure park for employees of Hershey’s company to relax and have some fun when they were not on the job. In 1908, the park started its soon-to-be huge expansion with the addition of a merry-go-round. In 1971, the park underwent redevelopment to turn the small regional park into a large theme park. In addition, the company decided to add a one-time admission fee to eliminate the pay-as-you-ride policy and changed its name from Hershey Park to Hersheypark. Today, the park sits on more than 110 acres and is the home of more than sixty rides and attractions. Regional Theme Parks The Florida Attractions Association, founded in 1949, is a trade association representing 90-plus family-oriented attractions, including - Astronaut, historical, cultural, military, and scientific museums - Botanical gardens - Castles - Collections of the unique and different - Dinner entertainments - Dolphin and marine parks - Exhibitions of alligators, lions, monkeys, parrots, butterflies, and manatees - Native American villages - Musical entertainment complexes - Sightseeing trains, cruises, and boat tours - State parks - Theme parks - Towers - Water parks, and - Zoological parks. Dollywood - Dollywood, owned by Dolly Parton and located in the Great Smoky Mountains in Tennessee. Legoland - Legoland, Owned by Lego Group with four locations in England, Germany, California, and Denmark. Gatorland - GatorLand, a 110-acre theme park and wildlife preserve located in Florida. Wet ‘n Wild - Wet’n Wild, a chain of water parks in Florida and North Carolina. Animal Attractions Zoos - Approximately 181 million people visit a U.S. zoo every year. - The first zoo in the United States was the Philadelphia Zoo, built in 1859. - Even today, zoos are extremely popular in the United States and Canada, and almost every major city has one. - San Diego Zoo, California The world-famous San Diego Zoo is located in historic Balboa Park in downtown San Diego, California. Founded in 1916 by Dr. Henry Wegeworth, the zoo’s original collection totaled 50 animals. Today, it is home to over 4,000 animals of more than 800 different species. The zoo also features a prominent botanical collection with more than 700,000 exotic plants. - The National Zoo The National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C., is part of the respected Smithsonian Institution. More than 2,000 animals from nearly 400 species make their home in this zoo. Aquariums - Aquariums are attractions that provide thrilling educational experiences to millions of tourists each year. - They are also multi-million-dollar showpieces, displaying creatures vastly different from us who dwell on land. Historic Places and Sites The first sites visited in recorded history were the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, which included - The Great Pyramid of Giza (Egypt) - The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (modern-day Iraq) - The Statue of Zeus at Olympia (Greece) - The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (modern-day Turkey) - The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (modern-day Turkey) - The Colossus of Rhodes (Greece), and - The Lighthouse of Alexandria (Egypt). Historic places, sites, and museums are a part of what is now called heritage tourism. Heritage tourism has gained prominence in recent years, particularly with baby boomers and older adults. The National Register of Historic Places is the United States’ official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects worthy of preservation. The more than 85,000 listings represent significant icons of American culture, history, engineering, and architecture. Consider the following for a look at a few of the most important U.S. historical attractions: - Monticello - The Alamo - The French Quarter in New Orleans - The Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta - The Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, - The Freedom Trail in Boston, and - The Liberty Bell in Philadelphia. Museums Some experts have speculated that people visit museums because of some innate fascination with the past and with diverse cultures. Nobody knows for sure, but it is a fact that the number of museums in the United States has more than quadrupled since 1950. There are many types of museums, including general, art, science and technology, natural history, history, and military. The Smithsonian Museum - This well-known institution now holds almost 140 million artifacts, works of art, and specimens, and is visited by more than 30 million people a year. The Field Museum, Chicago - The Field Museum, founded in 1893 in Chicago, is a “unique institution of public learning that utilizes its collections, researchers, exhibits, and educational programs to increase public knowledge . . . of the world.” Performance Arts Theaters once were immensely important. In a time before people had access to modern inventions like radio or television, books and theater were the only entertainment available. Theater is no longer attractive only to the upper classes; affordable prices make it reasonable entertainment for almost anyone. Destinations Athens, Greece - Athens, the capital city of Greece, is one of the world’s oldest cities —the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy; a center for the arts, learning, and philosophy; and home of Plato’s Academy and Aristotle’s Lyceum. London - London was once the center of an empire that included approximately one quarter of the globe, and as the name suggests; history, pageantry, royalty, theater, shopping, museums, music, fashion, and now even food. Paris - Paris is a city of beautiful buildings, boulevards, parks, markets, and restaurants and cafés. - In time, Paris grew onto the Left Bank (Rive Gauche), where the University of the Sorbonne was founded. - The university provided instruction in Latin, so it became known as the Quartier Latin, or Latin Quarter. Rome - They say, “All roads lead to Rome.” Rome, the Eternal City, also called the “Cradle of Civilization,” is built on seven hills beside the Tiber River, with centuries of history that seem to exude from every building. Managing Attractions Theme park managers use the same main management functions: planning, including forecasting; organizing; decision-making; and controlling. Planning involves two types of planning: strategic (long term) and tactical (short term). Decision-making can be quick and easy for the many programmed decisions—decisions that occur on a regular basis. Controlling is constantly checking to make sure that the results were what they should be. Attractions management is all about keeping the quality of product and guest service at the highest levels. It boils down to revenue minus expenses equal net profit. Clubs Private clubs are places where members gather for social, recreational, professional, or fraternal reasons. Members enjoy bringing friends, family, and business guests to their club. Their club is like a second home, but with diverse facilities and staff to accommodate the occasion. Many business deals are negotiated on the golf course. A few years ago, country clubs were often considered to be bastions of the social elite. New clubs are born when a developer purchases a tract of land and builds a golf course with a clubhouse surrounded by homes or condominiums. The homes are sold and include a membership to the club. After all the homes are sold, the developer announces that the golf course and clubhouse will be sold to an investor who wishes to open it to the public. Size and Scope of the Club Industry - There are a few thousand private clubs in North America, including both country and city clubs. - When the total resources of all the clubs are considered, such as land, buildings, and equipment, along with thousands of employees and so forth, clubs have billions of dollars of economic impact. Club Management - Club management is similar in many ways to hotel management. - The general managers of clubs now assume the role of chief operating officer (COO), and in some cases chief executive officer of the corporation. - The main difference between managing a club and managing a hotel is that with clubs the guests feel as if they are the owners (in many cases they are) and frequently behave as if they are the owners. - Another difference is that most clubs do not offer sleeping accommodations. - Club members pay an initiation fee to belong to the club and annual membership dues thereafter. - Some clubs also charge a set utilization fee, usually related to food and beverages, which is charged regardless of whether those services are used. Club Management Structure - The internal management structure of a club is governed by a constitution and bylaws. - The members elect the officers and directors of the club. - The officers establish policies by which the club will operate. - Committees also play an important part in the club’s activities. - The president presides at all official meetings and is a leader in policymaking. - The basic level of competency required of a general manager (GM) or COO is management of club’s operations, which includes Private club management Food and beverage Accounting and financial management Human and professional resources Building and facilities management External and governmental influences Management, marketing, and Sports and recreation - The second tier of the model is mastering the skills of asset management. - Today’s GM or COO must be able to manage the physical property, the financial well-being, and the human resources of the club. - The third and final tier of the new model is preserving and fostering the culture of the club, which can be defined as the club’s traditions, history, governance, and vision. Types of Clubs - Country Clubs Nearly all country clubs have one or more lounges and restaurants, and most have banquet facilities. The banquet facilities are used for formal and informal parties, dinners, dances, weddings, and so on, by members and their personal guests. Country clubs have two types of memberships: full and social. Full members are able to use all of the facilities at all times. Social members are able to attend only social facilities. - City Clubs City clubs are predominantly business oriented, although some have rules prohibiting the discussion of business and the reviewing of business-related documents in dining rooms. They vary in size, location, type of facility, and services offered. Some of the older, established clubs own their own buildings; others lease space. Clubs exist to cater to the wants and needs of members. Clubs fall in the following categories: o Professional o Social o Athletic o Dining o University o Military o Yachting o Fraternal o Proprietary Professional clubs are for people in the same profession. Social clubs concentrate on serving the social needs of members who are from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. Athletic clubs provide an outlet for working out, dining, and meeting. o Some have sleeping quarters. Dining clubs are usually located in large office buildings. University clubs are reserved for alumni. Military clubs cater to both non-commissioned officers and enlisted officers. Fraternal clubs include many special organizations such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Elks, and the Shriners. Proprietary clubs are operated on a for-profit basis by corporations or individuals. People wanting to become members purchase a membership, not a share in the club. Sustainable Golf Course Management The golf course industry recognizes sustainability as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sustainable practices include the following; reducing energy during peak times, holding departments accountable for energy consumption, and recycling. As landfill disposal costs rise, recycling becomes even more important. Golf courses can improve their sustainability by improving grass and plant selection and by using well water and organic fertilization. Noncommercial Recreation Noncommercial recreation includes voluntary organizations, campus, armed forces, and employee recreation, as well as recreation for special populations. Voluntary Organizations - Voluntary organizations are nongovernmental, nonprofit agencies, serving the public-at-large or selected elements with multiservice programs that often include a substantial element of recreational opportunities. - Examples include: Boys Scouts, Girl Scouts, YMCA, and YWCA. - A multipurpose club has more exclusive recreation programs than a health club. - Some clubs offer automatic bank tellers, laundry and dry cleaning services, and other services. - Revenues come from membership fees, food and beverage sales, facility rentals, etc. - Human resources account for 66% of expenses at most clubs. Campus, Armed Forces, and Employee Recreation - Campus Recreation North America’s colleges and universities provide a major setting for organized leisure and recreational programs with services involving millions of participants each year. The programs include involvement by campus recreation offices, intramural departments, student unions, residence staffs, or other sponsors. The various recreational activities help in maintaining good morale on campus. - Armed Forces Recreation The Department of Defense has an official policy regarding the obligation of maintaining well-rounded morale, welfare, and recreational programs for the physical, social, and mental well-being of its personnel. These services are provided under the auspices of the Morale, Welfare and Recreation Program (MWR). Recreation is seen as an important part of the employee benefit package for military personnel, along with the G.I. bill, medical services, commissaries, and exchanges. - Employee Recreation Businesses and industry have realized the importance of promoting employees’ efficiency. Experts have found that workers who spend time in constructive recreational activities have reduced absenteeism. Recreation for Special Populations - Recreation for special populations involves professionals and organizations that have a responsibility for serving groups such as the mentally ill, mentally retarded, or the physically disabled. - The Special Olympics is an international program of physical fitness, sports training, and athletic competition for children and adults with mental disabilities. Trends in Recreation and Leisure Trends include - advancements in rides and attractions - more fitness centers - reinvestment leading to increased competition - blurring the lines in product development for theme parks - custom VIP experiences - shopping entertainment parks - national and state parks investing in infrastructure to become a destination for events.
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