Week 1: Rhetoric vs. Orality (Notes+Reading)
Week 1: Rhetoric vs. Orality (Notes+Reading) COMM 220
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This 87 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sandra Lee on Thursday April 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 220 at University of Washington taught by MCGARRITY,MATTHEW K in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Speaking in Communication Studies at University of Washington.
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w 13 a g a H Iquot annu H 5quot N a W 7 W W W I 139 I flaw a a an J any x NH NJ Good Language 131 Speech and Writing Speech and writing are two different forms of communication that serve different func tions Neither is more superior or inferior than the other However there is a widely held misconception that writing is more perfect than speech To many people writing somehow seems more correct and more stable whereas speech can be careless corrupted and sus ceptible to change Some people even go so far as to identify languagef with writing and to regard speech as a secondary form of language used imperfectly to approximate the ideals of the written language 39 One of the basic assumptions of modern linguistics as opposed to linguistics before the beginning of the twentieth century however is that speech is primary and writing is secondary Again this shouldn t be interpreted as a superiority ranking The most imme diate manifestation of language is speech and not writing Writing is in most cases the rep resentation of speech in a physical medium different from sound Spoken language encodes thought into a physically transmittable form while writing in turn encodes spoken lan guage into a physically preservable form Writing is a two stage process All units of writing whether letters or characters are based on units of speech ie words sounds or syllables When linguists study language they take the spoken language as their best source of data and their object of description except in instances of languages like Latin for which there are no longer any speakers We will be concerned with spoken language throughout this course39Though ideally we would prefer to give our examples in audio form for technical reasons we will instead use the con ventional written or orthographic form with the understanding that it is always the spo ken form that is intended There are several reasons for maintaining that speech is primarybasic and writing is secondary The most important ones are the following 1 Writing is a later historical development than spoken language Current archeological evidence indicates that writing was rst utilized in Sumer about 6000 years ago What was once Sumer is in modern day Iraq The Sumerians probably devised written char acters for the purpose of maintaining inventories of livestock and merchandise As far as physical and cultural anthropologists can tell spoken language has probably been used by humans for hundreds of thousands of years 39 39 8 File 13 Good Language 9 2 Writing does not exist everywhere that spoken language exists This seems hard to imag ine in our highly literate society But the fact is that there are still many communities in the world where a written form of language is not used According to the latest informa tion provided by SIL International among the approximately 6900 languages in the world today a rough estimate of 3900 languages or 5 7 are unwritten Ethnologue 2004 version forthcoming Note that this estimate says nothing about literacy percentages or uency only about whether a writing system exists Even in cultures that use a writing system there are individuals who fail to learn the written form of their language In fact the majority of the earth s inhabitants are illiterate though quite capable of spoken com munication However no society uses only a written language with no spoken form 3 Writing must be taught whereas spoken language is acquired automatically All children except children with serious learning disabilities naturally learn to speak the language language before they enter school and even if they never attend school they become fully competent speakers Writing systems vary in complexity but regardless of their level of sophistication they must all be taught 39 4 Neurolinguistic evidence studies of the brain quotin action during language use demon strates that the processing and production of written language is overlaid on the spoken language centers in the brain Spoken language involves several distinct areas of the brain writing uses these areas and others as well So what gives rise to the misconception that writing is more perfect than speech There are several reasons 1 The product of writing is usually more aptly worded and better organized containing fewer errors hesitations and incomplete sentences than are found in speech This per fection of writing can be explained by the fact that writing is the result of deliberation correction and revision while speech is the spontaneous and simultaneous formulation of ideas writing is therefore less subject to the constraint of time than speech is 2 Writing is intimately associated with education and educated speech Since the speech of the educated is more often than not set up as the standard language writing is as sociated indirectly with the varieties of language that people tend to view as correct However the association of writing with the standard variety is not a necessary one as evidenced by the attempts of writers to transcribe faithfully the speech of their charac ters Mark Twain s Huckleberry Finn and John Steinbeck s Of Mice and Men contain exam ples of this 3 Because spoken language is physically no more than sound waves through the air it is ephemeral and transient but writing tends to last because of its physical medium char acters on some surface and can be preserved for a very long time Spelling does not seem to vary from individual to individual or from place to place as easily as pronunci ation does Thus writing has the appearance of being more stable However spelling does vary as exempli ed by the differences between the British and the American ways of spelling gray and words with the suf xes r39ze and z39zr1tion The British spellings are grey and ise and isation Writing could also change if it were made to follow changes in speech The fact that people at various times try to carry out spelling reforms amply il lustrates this possibility For instance through is sometimes spelled firm to re ect its modern pronunciation more closely 132 Linguistic Competence and Linguistic Performance As a speaker of English you know a great deal about your language but suppose someone Were to ask you to put all that knowledge down into a textbook to be used to teach English quotquot o39f39the community39inwhichtheyarebrought up They acquire the basicsof their native m p xp x F O NMNNNNNr tr tr tr tr tr tr tr t ONUIPUJNP ODOOIOUlIgtUJN l l J 00 COM 220 Reading Pack Contents 1 Welcome To Public Speaking 2 Assignment Overview 3 Policies 4 Rhetoric 5 Introductory Speech Assignment Description 6 Impromptu Speech Assignment Description 7 Overview of Impromptu Invention 8 Sample Impromptu Thesis Statements 9 Making the Speech Easy To Follow Peer Critique Assignment Description SelfCritique Assignment Description Sample Self Critique Persuasive Speech Assignment Description Picking and Researching a Persuasive Speech Topic Topic Selection Paper Assignment Description Sample Topic Selection Paper Reasoning Arranging and Revising Your Main Points Gallery Walk Presentation Assignment Description Persuasive Speech Outline Assignment Description Sample Persuasive Speech Outline Citing Sources Orally Advocacy Speech Assignment Description Some Figures of Style Sample Advocacy Speech Manuscripts Selection from Barack Obama s address to the Wisconsin Democratic Party Feb 2008 Ronald Reagan The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Address Delivered 28 January 1986 George W Bush The Space Shuttle Columbia Tragedy Speech to the Nation Delivered 1 February 2008 WELCOME TO PUBLIC SPEAKING The public speaking course here at the University of Washington has a long and distinguished history Some of the first students at UW would have taken a course in rhetoric similar to the current public speaking course While the syllabus has changed as have the teaching methods the need for students to develop strong speaking skills remains essential Given the demands for good communication skills in the civic realm and in the workplace a course in public speaking is perhaps more important than ever In joining the ranks of UW speech students you will learn the lesson that your predecessors learned there is no quick path to a great speech Good speaking is developed through practice and hard work The public speaking course is a unique course Unlike say a course in the principles of law or the history of Central Asia the public speaking course requires you to both know content and be able to perform a skill well You will learn important principles of public speaking and argumentation but simply knowing these principles is insufficient you must also be able to apply them well By the same token you might be able to get through a speech without saying um but if the content of the speech is bad it is not a good speech The best public speakers not only speak smoothly they also say important and interesting things COURSE OBJECTIVES The course objectives are deceptively simple by the end of this quarter you should be able to compose and deliver clear and compelling speeches on complex issues In service of this goal we will study the principles of argumentation and arrangement critically examine our own speeches and the speeches of others and practice practice practice By becoming a student of public speaking you join a long history of rhetorical study dating back to ancient Greece This course thus advances the mission of the Department of Communication to nurture socially responsible literate citizens who can interpret and evaluate the images and messages they create and receive HOW TO BE A STUDENT OF PUBLIC SPEAKING The most successful model for teaching public speaking and the one this class follows relies on a mix of instruction imitation and practice Instruction reinforces the lessons learned from the history of public speaking study The instruction in this class draws most explicitly from the rhetorical tradition We will study principles of argumentation arrangement and style Imitation means that when studying a performance skill like speaking we benefit by identifying and imitating the best practices of skilled speakers I don t mean stealing or plagiarizing I mean trying to link phrases together in a manner similar to a speaker we think sounds good There are a number of speeches that you will watch this quarter online and in class The intent of these speeches is to show you some best practices COM 220 Public Speaking 1 You shouldn t simply watch a speech like you would a television show you should look to find some verbal or nonverbal behaviors that you would like to be able to imitate Practice is the most obvious leg of public speaking study If you are going to get better at public speaking you must be able to apply the lessons of instruction and imitation by practicing your speeches The nice thing about public speaking is that you can practice it almost anywhere However your practice time is best spent by speaking in situations where you have an attentive audience as opposed to a curious dog or a sleeping roommate MISCON CEPTION S ABOUT PUBLIC SPEAKING 1 You can t learn to be a good public speaker you have to be born a naturally good speaker Everyone can become a better public speaker through study and practice I love to ski I wasn t born being a good skier rather I grew up skiing I skied as often as I could and I got better The same is true of public speaking You were born with the basic equipment needed for speaking in public lungs and a mouth 2 I can only learn public speaking through practice alone This misconception often works in conjunction with the misconception 1 and 3 I see this as a hugely egoistic argument since it assumes that only you know what good public speaking is and only you know how to improve Let me return to the skiing analogy though you could substitute any sports or skills analogy like playing a musical instrument Most people develop their skiing ability by simply skiing a lot But if you want to get better you need to seek outside information about the principles of skiing That s why people pay a lot of money for ski lessons Ski instructors can both model good skiing behaviors and they can talk about the physics of metal on snow and the physiology of your muscles on skis 3 Public speaking is just delivery speech content doesn t matter This is like saying that a good essay is simply one that has good grammar or punctuation A good essay should have good grammar and punctuation but it also needs good content The same holds true of a speech When we listen to a speech we judge the speaker according to what they say as well as how they say it Think about presidential debates After any presidential debate pundits ood the airwaves and pick apart both content and delivery but they spend far more time discussing what the candidates said 4 Reading a speech is the best way to ensure a good speech You will hear me talking a lot about the similarities between writing and speaking but they also differ in many important respects A speech is an act of communication with a specific audience Reading a speech undermines this and as we will see can actually make you more nervous If you were having a conversation with a friend about your classes and suddenly started reading a prepared set of comments the conversation would sink Why A conversation is dynamic and relies on communicating with the other person A speech is like a conversation in this way you are engaging in a shared act of communication with the audience COM 220 Public Speaking 2 CLASS EXPECTATIONS 1 Classroom Conduct Each class meeting is an opportunity to participate in lectures and discussions By being present and on time completing the assigned reading making study notes and participating in discussions you39ll increase your opportunities to learn the course material Active participation is critical to learning passive learning is quickly forgotten As trite as it sounds the more time and effort you devote to this course the more you will benefit from it This classroom must remain a tolerant space where we reason through opposing arguments No doubt you will hear many opinions this quarter that are not your own but you must engage those opposing views in a respectful manner I will not tolerate oppressive comments in the classroom that make it difficult for any student to have fair and equal access to education Arrive on time leave on time I will start class on time and end it on time Irealize that you have many demands on your time but you signed up for this class at this time I now expect you to schedule around it You may think that arriving lateleaving early is simply a personal issue that you can get in or out of class without disturbing class This is false It disturbs the lecture and it draws the class s attention to your movement Do not arrive late and do not leave early this includes packing up Do the reading and homework I operate on the assumption that you have completed the assigned reading by the time class starts If you don t do the reading you will not understand all of what I m saying in the lecture The same holds true for the homeworks They are not busy work the instructors don t have time to look at busy work These are assignments designed to reinforce certain themes or give you focused practice on some element of speech preparation Be here mentally and physically Don t come to class and sleep You should be in class and thinking about the information Most of the material is covered in class so it is in your best interest to be there The discussion sections are where you deliver the speeches and hand in assignments Beyond that you owe it to your classmates and to yourself to attend section A speaker needs an audience Work on your speeches I know you are busy Speeches however are time intensive If you wait until the night before to put together your speech your grade will suffer We have built in assignments that give you feedback at various levels of speech preparation Again this isn t busy work the assignments are there to give you feedback at key points during speech preparation process You are responsible for setting up your practice time The speaking center is there to give you a space to practice and get quality feedback from the tutors But only practicing once isn t sufficient or only practicing the day before your speech It s like signing up for a gym membership Just signing up won t make you lose weight or build muscle you have to get yourself in the gym and use the equipment correctly COM 220 Public Speaking 3 Just signing up for this class doesn t guarantee that you will become a significantly better speaker that s up to you The instructors provide the equipment and training but you gotta provide the muscle THE NATURE OF THE COURSE ASSIGNMENTS The term public speaking is akin to the term writing the word merely identifies an action As you know there are as many different types of writing novels short stories business memos wedding announcements newspaper articles government reports and the list goes on Even within a particular genre the business memo for example writers must address very different types of audiences A memo to an investor is written differently than a memo to one s boss The same is true of public speaking There are as many genres as there are occasions and audiences State of the Union addresses religious sermons business presentations testimony before Congress after dinner speeches speeches of introduction and again the list goes on There is simply no way to cover much less deliver every imaginable type of speech in the time we have So in COM 220 we have specialized COM 220 focuses on composing and delivering clear and compelling speeches based on claims and evidence Being able to compose and deliver a clear and compelling speech with evidence is a skill that is applicable to a wide range of setting It is an approach to preparing and delivering a speech For example students regularly tell me about how they performed an impromptu speech in their job interviews We don t teach interviewing but the skill of being able to articulate a few points with evidence is the heart of the impromptu speech assignment In sum this class focuses on speech skills rather than genre of speeches Public speaking is about adapting to audience and situational constraints In this class you will be told what those audiences and situational constraints are and you will need to adapt to them If you do not adapt to these constraints you will not do well So when the assignment description says that you need to develop a persuasive argument on a current public policy issue that motivates audience members to take action and instead you write and deliver a speech on how to bake a cake you will get an F It could be the world s most perfect how to bake a cake speech ever delivered and bring tears to the eyes of each and every audience member but it still gets an F because it didn t respond to the constraints The class assignments will present you with a set of expectations and constraints You will then be graded on how well you meet those expectations A beautifully delivered presentation can still be bad speech if it does not identify and respond to the relevant constraints and expectations COM 220 Public Speaking 4 ASSIGNMENT OVERVIEW Speeches Impromptu Speech 6 minutes of preparation followed by a 45 minute speech Impromptu speaking reinforces all aspects of good public speaking quick thinking sound argumentation strategic word choice and engaged delivery On the day you are assigned to speak you will draw two thesis statements from an envelope Selecting one of them you will go into the hallway for six minutes to prepare You will then return to the room and deliver a four to five minute speech supporting or opposing the thesis Evaluations of your speech will focus on the strength of the arguments the clarity of the arrangement and the effectiveness of the delivery Please see the assignment description in this packet for a detailed list of the assignment requirements Persuasive Speech 68 minutes Unlike the impromptu speech where your goal is to simply develop and deliver credible arguments clearly and effectively your goal in the persuasive speech is to persuade those who disagree with you The persuasive and the advocacy speeches require you to speak on public issues Given what you know about the controversy the arguments circulating in the public forum and the classroom audience you should attempt to increase the audience s understanding and support for your position Evaluations of your speech will focus on the capacity of the arguments to convince disagreeing members of your audience the appropriateness of the arrangement and style and the effectiveness of the delivery Please see the assignment in this packet for a detailed list of the assignment requirements Advocacy Speech 57 minutes Your goal in the advocacy speech is to motivate uninformed andor apathetic members of your audience to take some form of action This speech round will be held in an outdoor public location to allow us to work on delivery and audience engagement Evaluations of your speech will focus on the capacity of the arguments and style to move members of your audience to take action the appropriateness of the arrangement and the effectiveness of the delivery Please see the assignment description in this packet for a detailed list of the assignment requirements Homeworks There are a number of smaller assignments that will help you prepare your speeches There are no makeup homeworks If you miss class on the day of an in class activity or fail to turn in a homework on time you receive a 0 for that assignment For this reason your two lowest homework grades will be dropped from the calculation of your final grade There are 13 total homework assignments each worth 5 points and I will calculate 11 into your grade Topic Paper 1 total Since you are free to speak on the same topic for both your persuasive and advocacy speeches it is important that you select a good one that addresses a public issue and interests you and your audience In order to assist you on that path this assignment asks you to justify your proposed topic You must select two COM 220 Public Speaking 5 potential topics For each topic you must show that this topic is debated publicly and provide an annotated bibliography demonstrating that there are enough sources to support your claims Your instructor will read these and provide recommendations on which topic might serve as the best one for this class Please see the assignment description in this packet for a detailed list of the assignment requirements Gallery Walks 4 total Prior to delivering your informative and advocacy speeches for a grade you will deliver a full run through to get some practice and feedback Each student will be assigned to present on a gallery walk day based on the speaker order On your assigned day you will deliver your speech for a small audience a few times and receive some feedback Since an audience is essential to the activity you must attend and will receive a homework grade for all gallery walk days regardless of whether you are speaking or not Please see the assignment description in this packet for a detailed list of the assignment requirements Speech Outlines 1 total Outlining your speech provides you an opportunity to develop arguments and make language choices in a format conducive to extemporaneous speaking Your outline will be assessed based on your ability to develop arguments convincing for your audience arrange your speech material in a clear and effective manner and reference relevant evidence in appropriate places Your instructor will review this outline and return it to you with recommendations for your speech Advocacy Workshops 2 total While you won t be turning in your advocacy outline you do benefit by getting some feedback on it from your peers After we have discussed the basic components of the advocacy speech we will devote a workshop to refining the stylistic language and a workshop devoted to practicing advocacy delivery SelfCritiques 2 total After delivering a speech you should spend some time critically re ecting on it You must complete a selfcritique of both your impromptu and informative speeches You will need to view a recording of your speech and write a short paper evaluating it according to the standards set in class Your selfcritiques will be assessed based on your ability to provide clear insightful and accurate analysis Please see the assignment description in this packet for a detailed list of the assignment requirements Peer Critiques 3 total Like a number of other arts we refine our public speaking abilities through a mixture of instruction practice and imitation Critically examining your peers39 speeches provides you another venue for thinking about how to adapt to different rhetorical situations Additionally individual speakers benefit immensely from articulate feedback from their audiences Over the course of the quarter you will be required to orally critique your classmates speeches These peer critiques will be assigned before the speech rounds begin Please see the assignment in this packet for a detailed list of the assignment requirements This assignment is performed in class COM 220 Public Speaking 6 Grading System Point Value Percentage of the final grade Assignment Impromptu Speech 55 18 Persuasive Speech 80 27 Advocacy Speech 90 30 Homeworks 44 15 Quizzes 30 10 Test assignment 1 Total 300 points 100 Grades Will be assigned based on your final number of accumulated points For a discussion of the grade ranges please see your student handbook or Visit httpWWWwashingtonedustudentsgencatfrontGrading SVshtm1 A Range 90100 B Range 8089 C Range 7079 D Range 6269 100 40 99 40 89 34 79 24 69 14 98 40 88 33 78 23 68 13 97 40 87 32 77 22 67 12 96 40 86 31 76 21 66 11 95 40 85 30 75 20 65 10 94 39 84 29 74 19 64 9 93 38 83 28 73 18 63 8 92 37 82 27 72 17 62 7 9136 8126 7116 61 7 90 35 80 25 70 15 60 7 Below 6 is failing COM 220 Public Speaking POLICIES Adding the Course There are no addcodes for this course All adds and drops will be taken care of automatically by the University registration system Late Assignments An assignment is on time when it is turned in at the beginning of the class session on the day it is due this includes online submissions In the event that you do not turn in your homework andor are present for the performance of a homework by the start of class on the day it is due you will not receive credit for that homework In other words you cannot come late to section simply to deliver your speech or homework unless prior arrangements have been made with the instructor If you miss a homework either by not turning it in ontime or not being present for a performance homework you will receive a zero There are no homework makeups Missed Speeches This class runs on a very tight schedule since all speeches are performed in sections there simply is not time in the schedule to allow for makeup speeches Given this practical concern I ve listed actions to take to avoid missing your speeches and penalties that will occur if you do Avoid missing your speeches If you know that you will not be able to attend on a day when you are scheduled to speak or critique you must make arrangements with a classmate to switch speaking or critiquing positions as soon as possible You must also inform your instructor of this change Swapping speech days with a classmate AND informing your instructor will receive no grade penalty If you are traveling on a University trip athletic competition field trips etc it is your responsibility to work with your instructor to negotiate your speaking and critiquing schedule with your travel schedule As noted above missed homeworks will receive a zero if you missed a gallery walk that day is gone and cannot be made up Excused missed speeches If a serious illness or emergency prevents you from performing your duties you should do everything you can to contact your instructor as soon as possible Prompt consultation with your instructor within 24 hours and documentation of the unavoidable incident e g a note from your doctor a copy of the accident report etc might result in the scheduling of a makeup speaking without a grade penalty if the instructor deems the circumstances that caused the absence to be severe enough to merit rescheduling If the absence is excused you must deliver the speech during the first opening in the schedule that is you will be on standby until time opens up in the class Unexcused missed speeches An unexcused missed speech will receive an automatic 15 deduction for each section day that you are absent or present but unprepared to deliver it As above you must deliver the speech during the first opening in the schedule that is you will be on standby until time opens up in the class Hypothetically you could miss your speech day come the next section COM 220 Public Speaking 8 prepared to deliver the speech receiving only a 15 deduction but not be able to deliver it until the following section because there wasn t enough time to get through six speeches Special Needs To request academic accommodations due to a disability please contact the Disability Resources for Students Office DRS 448 Schmitz 5438924 V 5438925 TTY or uwdssuwashingtonedu Please present your letter from DRS indicating that you have a disability that requires academic accommodations to your instructor and the course coordinator so we can discuss the accommodations you might need for the class Grade Appeals If you wish to challenge a grade you received on an assignment you should wait 24 hours after receiving the grade Refer back to the assignment description in order to identify areas where you and the grader apparently differed As a side note I tried really hard is not an argument for a grade change We can only grade product not effort After 24 hours make an appointment with your TA to discuss the grade If the issue is still not resolved following that meeting make an appointment with me If you are still not satisfied with the response that you receive you may contact the chair of the Department of Communication David Domke at 5432662 You have two weeks after receiving a grade to challenge it After two weeks grade challenges will not be considered Academic Integrity The University39s definitions of academic and personal misconduct are outlined in the Student Conduct Code available online at httpwwwwashingtonedustudentshandbookconducthtml It is your responsibility to read and understand the University39s expectations Until you have read the Code do not assume that you know what this University defines as academic misconduct Plagiarism is a significant violation of the Student Conduct Code and will be dealt with severely in this class Plagiarism is any representation of another person39s words or ideas in either oral or written form in a manner that makes it seem as if they were your own This means that you may not copy another person39s paper or speech But it also means that you should not use another person39s unique phrases or organizational schemes without making it clear to your audience where those words or ideas originated If it becomes evident that you have collaborated with another student andor plagiarized work the matter will be immediately turned over to the University39s Committee on Academic Conduct more information on this process here httpdeptswashingtonedugradingpdfStudentInfopdf Finally the same speech may not be given for credit in more than one class If you are taking another course with speech assignments you may not recycle a speech by giving it in both classes COM 220 Public Speaking 9 RHETORIC A class on public speaking is essentially a rhetoric class The word rhetoric is often used to indicate that the speaker is lying his record doesn t match his rhetoric or that the speaker is filling air with meaningless talk let s move past all the rhetoric and get down to business It is true that term has gotten a lot of bad press over the past 2000 years or so but the study of rhetoric is the study of what is persuasive We are certainly not the first group to study what goes into a dynamic and moving speech The ancient Greeks and Romans spent a lot of time thinking and writing about good speaking Throughout history thinkers and charlatans alike have devoted a considerable amount of effort to figuring out what sounds good looks good and works to motivate various audiences DEFINITIONS OF RHETORIC Since the study of rhetoric has been around for so many years there are a number of different definitions for the word Aristotle defined rhetoric as the faculty of discovering in any particular case the available means of persuasion Plato held that rhetoric is the art of winning the soul by discourse The Roman thinker Quintilian suggested simply that rhetoric is the art of speaking well John Locke however held a dimmer view of the art and wrote that rhetoric is a powerful instrument of error and deceit The contemporary writer Gerard Hauser suggests Rhetoric is communication that attempts to coordinate social action For this reason rhetorical communication is explicitly pragmatic Its goal is to in uence human choices on specific matters that require immediate attention For the purposes of this class we will de ne rhetoric as the study and art of effective Speaking This doesn t begin to capture all the ways in which rhetoric could be and has been defined but it does focus our study on the aspects of rhetoric most relevant to our present concern 5 MAIN PARTS OF RHETORICPUBLIC SPEAKING Earlier thinkers argued that the study and practice of rhetoric involved five main parts 1 Invention The first thing that must go into a good speech is good material Invention means finding or thinking up good speech content Basically a good speaker knows what she is talking about There are a number of different strategies that we will study to help prime the mental pump Our focus in this class is on good arguments solid claims supported with good evidence Aristotle suggested that the speech content was either artistic you had to think it up or inartistic it already existed Proving your claims requires both inartistic and artistic proofs We all know that good arguments require evidence so let s look at the artistic proofs Aristotle saw three main ways to make an argument LOGOS We convince people through our use of logic So I can argue that it rained last night by pointing to the puddles on the ground I use the evidence of rain puddles to make a claim about something that I didn t see relying on the COM 220 Public Speaking 10 basic logical premise that puddles generally indicate recent rain This isn t the most contentious of arguments you say Very true but the principle is the same We use appeals to logic to help support our arguments Economists make logical arguments all the time They have evidence about current trends but they argue about where to invest money based on logic they don t know 100 what the market will do but they can try to figure out where to invest based on historical precedent prevailing wisdom and informal logic PATHOS We persuade people by appealing to their emotions Of course we are not simply logical animals we have emotions and these often shape how we see and understand the world Now an appeal to pathos doesn t mean that we simply tug at people s heart strings or we try to scare them into acting our way Of course this happens but you would be hard pressed to call it good argumentation Aristotle saw pathos as putting the audience in the right frame of mind So if you are arguing for something that might seem unfamiliar to your audience you would be well advised to tell some personal stories that helped people understand the human element The commercials you see asking for help in funding starving populations rely a lot on pathos They are trying to evoke your compassion by showing you what the living conditions are like for many in need ETHOS We can persuade people by virtue of good character Aristotle suggested that of the three artistic proofs ethos was potentially the most persuasive Do we trust the speaker s credibility as a person and herhis credibility on the topic Do we trust that the speaker has our best interests at heart We can gain ethos by doing all the research that a good speech needs and then demonstrating that ethos by being able to talk about the topic intelligently We can borrow ethos by citing the best research available Ultimately though ethos must be earned by showing the audience that you are a credible source on this topic A good speech requires you to think about a host of different issues ranging from possible arguments oppositional arguments and all the different types of evidence you can use A good speech also includes a miX of logos pathos and ethos The process of sorting through all this material and deciding on the best for your case is the process of invention 2 Arrangement Once you determine what your speech will be about and what types of artistic and inartistic proofs you will use then you need to think about the best possible way to arrange your speech How much background information do you need to give How should you arrange your main points How long or short should the introduction be In many ways arranging a speech is more difficult than arranging an essay because a reader can jump around in an essay look at the section headings jump back and revisit something she was unclear on etc but an audience member must listen to the speaker s ow of information in chronological time Given this you must think about how your audience will hear and understand your speech COM 220 Public Speaking 11 3 Style Once you know what you will say and the order in which you will say it then you can begin to focus more on the details of exactly how you will say it Some speeches are stylistically rich Abraham Lincoln s Gettysburg Address is a famous example while others are more stylistically plain say a business presentation yet both have a type of style The rhetorician Cicero talked about high middle and low styles in public speaking We are probably familiar with the high style many political orators use it for famous speeches In the US the State of the Union Address is usually delivered in a middle or high style We are also probably familiar with the low style If not watch a television talk show here the style is very casual Ultimately style is governed by the topic and the audience you are addressing In this class we are concerned most with the middle and middle high style You should think strategically about your style and how your audience will hear and understand your words The three main speech assignments move from low middle style impromptu speech to middle style informative speech to middle high style advocacy speech 4 Memory This part of rhetoric was really important for speakers in classical Greece and Rome because they delivered really long speeches often in very high style It remains important for us because a speech is spoken not read If you don t practice your speech you won t be familiar with it If you aren t familiar with your speech you will probably read it to us This is not a class in public reading but in public speaking You should not try to memorize your speeches word for word This will only exacerbate any fear you have of public speaking However you should know the main parts of your speech This comes down to a matter of knowledge and practice You need to know your material well enough so that you can talk about the topic intelligently invention You also need to practice enough so that you know how best to explain this topic to the audience arrangement and style 5 Delivery The final part of a study of rhetoric is the one that people fear the most standing up in front of an audience and actually delivering the speech Of course if you have the invention arrangement style and memory parts down pat the delivery part shouldn t give you too many headaches That said there are a number of delivery issues that can help or hurt your speech We will study some of those delivery issues that are most distracting and those techniques that are most beneficial However the basic delivery approach we will focus on in this class is conversational delivery This doesn t mean simply speaking as you would with your friends about any subject but finding a style that looks good sounds good and helps your ethos COM 220 Public Speaking 12 INTRODUCTORY SPEECH ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES The introductory speech should help students to begin a study of public speaking in a low risk setting practice delivering a speech within a time limit begin the process of getting to know their classmates work on conversational delivery ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION We all have certain stories about ourselves that we love to tell Others get to know us a little bit better when you tell a story about yourself This assignment asks you to tell one of your favorite stories from your personal history It can be a funny or serious story all that matters is that you have told this story many times before You simply need to tell this story to your classmates What is different is that you must conclude your story with some type of moral or lesson e g And that was when I truly learned that you never want to give your car keys to an angry bear or So it is true what they say a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush REQUIREMENTS 0 The story can run no longer than 2 minutes 0 You cannot use a notecard why would you need it You ve told this story before 0 You must end the story with some type of moral or lesson you learned HINTS ON DOING WELL Practice The more you practice the story the more comfortable you will be with it and the more enjoyable it will be to listen to Speak normally Don t adopt an artificial sounding speech voice Such voices often sound disingenuous Remain within the bounds of decorum I want you to have fun but this is a story that is introducing you to your classmates and your teacher If your story was a movie it should carry a G or PG rating Pick something that you can speak on comfortably Make sure this is a story that you know that you can speak on comfortably in front of an audience of strangers You would hate to get halfway through and then realize that this story was too personal Have f am This is the lowest intensity speech you will give all quarter so you better enjoy it now COM 220 Public Speaking 13 IMPROMPTU SPEECH ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES After completing the impromptu speech students should be able to quickly develop and deliver clear and wellreasoned arguments craft well phrased main points that support and advance the main argument use evidence that clarifies and supports the main points deftly explain how the main points and evidence all work to advance the thesis use previews reviews and signpost words to clarify argument structure 0 speak confidently with appropriate rate and projection 0 use delivery to distinguish between key ideas and elaborating detail ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION In business in school and in public life you are often called upon to make a few comments Though these are not as formal as some of your other speeches they are speeches nonetheless Often people so tasked with a short speech become ummoxed The impromptu speech assignment is designed to help you shine where others falter Impromptu speaking reinforces all aspects of good public speaking quick thinking sound argumentation strategic word choice and engaged delivery This speech does not reward those who simply fill air with words for a few minutes My main goal for this speech is that you are able to quickly arrange and deliver a clear and wellsupported argument Each one of these words is important to this assignment You must act quickly which requires a sense of speech arrangement Your speech must be clear which requires you to include previews reviews and transitions Your speech needs to have at its heart a wellorganized and solid argument This means that you must practice impromptu speeches many times before you deliver your speech in class PROCEDURE For the impromptu you will have six minutes of prep time and be expected to deliver a four to five minute speech Each student will receive two thesis statements on a slip of paper You can speak on either one of the thesis statements You do not have to agree with the thesis statement you can argue against it Next you should support the thesis statement with two main points For each main point you need two pieces of elaborating support COM 220 Public Speaking 14 SPEECH ARRANGEMENT At minimum your speech should include the following elements Introduction 0 State your thesis 0 Preview of your main points I First main point 0 Statement of your first main point 0 Provide and explain two pieces of support illustrating the first main point 0 Conclude your first main point II Second main point 0 Statement of your second main point 0 Provide and explain two pieces of support illustrating the second main point 0 Conclude your second main point Conclusion 0 Restate the your thesis statement and review your two main points 0 Conclude your speech BASIC REQUIREMENTS Time Your preparation time cannot exceed time allotted If you finish your preparation before the time limit is up you can use the remaining time to think more about the speech Once you begin the speech you have four to five minutes to deliver your speech Your assignment grade will be lowered by five points for every 45 seconds you speak under or over the target time range For example 0 A 3 15 speech would receive no grade penalty 0 A 305 speech would receive a five point penalty 0 A 2 15 speech would receive a ten point penalty and so on Similarly o A 545 speech would receive no grade penalty 0 A 555 speech would receive a five point penalty 0 A 645 speech would receive a ten point penalty and so on Notes You may use a notecard to prepare and deliver your speech Arrangement Your speech must include a thesis statement supported by two main points Each main point should be supported by two pieces of evidence Evidence You should use concrete examples to explain and support your main points In essence your examples should demonstrate why your main point is valid COM 220 Public Speaking 15 HINTS ON DOING WELL PRA C T I CE 39 I cannot stress this enough While practicing is always the surest way to get better at something this is particularly true in the case of the impromptu speech I assume that you have not performed something like this previously This is a skill building assignment to get you ready for more formal speeches later in the quarter You should practice developing thesis statements main points and evidence whenever you have the opportunity Pick a few statements to work with and practice them in your head as you walk from class to class If you don t practice you will not do well on this assignment Get of f the card I am often struck by how much students want to rely on their notecards You only spent 6 minutes with it out in the hallway it only has a few words on it why do you spend 75 of your time looking at that blank sheet I know it feels safer to look at this card but it generally leads to a poorer speech You have had six minutes to gather your thoughts now simply explain your argument to the audience Remember the goal here is to communicate your thoughts to the audience not to simply stand and speak in front of us Move through the parts with purpose Think about what your goals are in each section In the introduction you need us to understand what you are going to talk about so make sure we understand In the main points you need to explain how this main point supports the thesis and how the evidence supports the main points You goal is not to have everything laid out perfectly rather you need to spontaneously generate words that will help us your audience understand what you are arguing Finally PRACTICE Come to the Speaking Center and work with a TA or a tutor These people can help you even if you don t think you need help and these people know what excellent good and adequate speeches look like and how you can improve COM 220 Public Speaking 16 IMPROMPTU SPEECH EVALUATION Name excellent good adequate awed poormissing Note The percentages here are guidelines All these categories are mutually dependent Invention 50 The speaker supported the thesis with appropriate main points The speaker phrased the main points clearly and effectively The speaker explained how the main points supported the thesis clearly and effectively The speaker included appropriate and effective evidence for both main points The speaker explained how the evidence supported the main points clearly and effectively Arrangement 30 The speaker previewed the speech in the introduction clearly and effectively The speaker transitioned between the main parts of the speech clearly and effectively The speaker provided internal structure clearly and effectively The speaker reviewed the speech clearly and effectively and provided a sense of closure in the conclusion Delivery 20 The speaker used notes effectively and appropriately The speaker used projection effectively and appropriately The speaker used speech rate effectively and appropriately The speaker maintained good eye contact with the audience Additional Comments Time Time Penalty if any Grade for Speech COM 220 Public Speaking 17 HOLISTIC GRADING DESCRIPTIONS In addition to the above rubric I wanted to give you a more holistic description of what the different speeches often look and sound like What follows below is simply a discussion of some of the commonalities that occur when we see an excellent good adequate or poor speech Invention arrangement and delivery are all mutually dependent A speaker might have excellent invention adequate arrangement and good delivery the speaker s grade re ects this admixture Excellent impromptu speeches 5055 Invention Excellent speakers tie the support main points and thesis together clearly and succinctly Excellent speakers discuss targeted main points that are neither too broadvague nor too specific to sustain supporting examples and discussion The main points are specific to the thesis that is the main points speak to this specific agent with this specific mandate The supporting examples elaborate on the main points and provide greater context and detail When discussing the examples the excellent speaker is able to bring in the ideas and language of main point and the thesis statement Arrangement Excellent speakers deliver speeches that are easy to ow The main points are phrased powerfully and memorably The speaker s arrangementtalk highlighting the main points and support is clear and sounds natural They are performing the major breaks between the sections of their speeches nonverbally as well longer pause breaks movement etc Excellent speeches are easy to ow because the speakers highlight the organization and because the organizational patterns are logical Delivery Excellent impromptu speeches are easy to listen to The speakers appear confident and speak with plenty of projection and vocal variety They use pauses rate and pitch changes as well as other delivery devices to help the audience distinguish between high and low priority sentences and ideas Excellent speeches appear well prepared and have good pacing in that the speeches are neither rushed nor plodding Excellent speakers maintain good eye contact with the entire audience Good impromptu speeches 4449 Invention Good speakers tie the support main points and thesis together well Good speakers have good main points that relate clearly to the thesis statement Whereas in an excellent speech both main points are targeted and specific the good speaker might have one really strong point and one slightly weaker point The main points tie to the thesis but perhaps the link to the specific agent and mandate may not be as readily obvious to listeners The supporting examples work well as illustrations of the main points that they are supporting In an excellent speech these pieces of support elaborate on the main points in a good speech most of the examples illustrate the key ideas The difference being that an elaborating example extends and sharpens the main point s ideas whereas an illustration is simply shows how the main point operates in the world Arrangement Good speakers deliver speeches that are easy to ow As with the excellent speeches the main points are phrased well When good speakers deliver their speeches the arrangementtalk is clear but at times clunky They are performing the COM 220 Public Speaking 18 major breaks between the sections of their speeches nonverbally longer pause breaks movement etc Good speakers don t have the clarity and conciseness of an excellent speaker s internal arrangement The supporting examples might not be previewed andor the transitions between the pieces of support might also be unclear In essence the arrangement is clear and solid in good speeches but not as strategic or powerful as in excellent ones Delivery Good speakers sound like they are performing the speeches they have practiced a couple of times excellent speakers sound like they are discussing an idea with the audience One or two of the delivery aspects discussed rate changes pauses projection eye contact tend to need work in good speeches The speakers might need to do more to help the audience distinguish between key and supporting sentences and ideas The speakers might be running a bit fast or they are blurring over major breaks in the speeches or the speakers might simply be a bit difficult to hear Adequate impromptu speeches 3943 Invention Adequate speakers don t provide a deep explanation of how the thesis main points and support tie together Each argumentative element while fine on its own doesn t have a strong relationship to the other argumentative elements In some instances this results in main points that don t relate the specificities of the thesis statement they argue the general idea evoked by the thesis rather than the thesis s specific agent and mandate As a result the speaker s argument is not rooted in the thesis and thus tends to be overly vague The support examples tend to be illustrations rather than elaborations and the speaker doesn t do as much as they need to explain how the examples relate to the main point Usually this vagueness results in a speech that struggles to fill the time with relevant content Arrangement It is generally easy to identify the basic idea of the main points in adequate speeches but precision is lacking Adequate speakers rarely preview or overtly discuss internal structure rather the listeners tend to make educated guesses at the nature of the supporting examples After listening to an adequate speech audience members can conceive of a few key changes to the arrangement that would probably increase the speech39s clarity and argumentative force The claims present in adequate speeches are generally fine albeit with some clumsy wording but often undersupported Delivery Adequate speakers sound as if they have done a few practice impromptus but the speech model is not yet secondnature Adequate speakers tend to sound rather unenthused about their speech and its argument If they are enthused it often sounds rather forced Audience members can detect that the pacing is off in adequate speeches Adequate speakers haven39t run impromptus enough to find the places where tempo shifts are needed or where pause breaks help direct their audiences39 attention to key ideas Ultimately the delivery in an adequate speech does not contribute much to argument clarity or audience engagement While adequate delivery may not detract much from the meaning of the speech it adds little COM 220 Public Speaking 19 Poor impromptu speeches 3338 Invention Audiences listening to poor speakers are unclear as to the relationship between the thesis main points and supporting examples One or both main points are unclear to the point where a listener has difficulty identify exactly what the speaker is attempting to argue The supporting examples are unclear andor underdeveloped and their relationship to the main points is questionable Usually one major speech element is missing or significantly underdeveloped e g only one piece of support for an example a main point that only runs a few sentences etc As with adequate speeches these invention problems results in a speech that struggles to fill the time with relevant content Arrangement Audience members often have a hard time owing poor speeches Sometimes the points are out of balance with one huge main point and one tiny unsupported main point Alternatively poor speakers may make their main points very clear but these arguments have little clear relationship with the thesis The supporting examples are difficult to identify Delivery The delivery of poor speakers seems to actively harm the quality of their speeches This may be because they seem apathetic towards their topic andor their audience andor the assignment Most of the delivery tactics that can help increase the clarity and energy of a speech pacing vocal variety pausing are absent or poorly used in poor speeches Failing impromptu speeches 32 and below Invention Failing speakers develop and deliver speeches that have little to do with the assignment requirements The main points have little clear relationship with the thesis statement The supporting examples if present are unclear Arrangement Failing speakers seem to have little to no sense of structure Main points and supporting examples if mentioned seem disconnected from one another and the thesis Delivery Failing speakers have inappropriate delivery This may mean that the speakers are clearly apathetic towards the entire act of giVing a speech This may mean that the speakers are enthused but are doing so merely for comic effect or as a way of passionately advancing an inappropriate topic COM 220 Public Speaking 20 OVERVIEW OF IMPROMPTU INVENTION We will discuss the finer points of coming up with material for your impromptu speech in class and you ll practice in class and the speaking center I did want to however provide a few additional tips on coming up with good material for impromptu speeches DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE Obviously this is the first challenge you are presented with once you select the thesis statement that you will respond to You must take a stand on the thesis statement Do you agree or disagree Having practiced these for years I can tell you one is not easier or harder than the other Choose whichever one you think you can make a better case for COMING UP WITH MAIN POINTS 1 Make sure your main points are reasons for your thesis The best and easiest way to come up with main points is to ask why is my thesis statement true This guides you towards main points that support your thesis For example if my thesis statement was The College of Arts and Sciences should retain its foreign language requirement and I agreed with this I would ask why is this true My answers would be because foreign language skills encourage the broad cultural outlook that a good college education should develop in students who attend the school and because the current requirement is not too burdensome for students I can drop the because and these become my two main points Thesis The College of Arts and Sciences should retain its foreign language requirement 1 Foreign language skills encourage the broad cultural outlook that a good liberal arts education should develop in students who attend the school 11 The current requirement is not too burdensome for students They clearly support and advance my thesis statement In fact each main point explains in greater detail why the thesis is accurate You might just as easily argue the opposite case Thesis The College of Arts and Sciences should eliminate its foreign language requirement 1 Foreign language skills are not necessary for each and every department in the college 11 The current requirement proves to be an unnecessary difficulty for transfer students COM 220 Public Speaking 21 2 Make sure your main points speak to both the agent and mandate Each thesis you will draw has a who agent and a what mandate Your argument should be able address both elements So in the above example the thesis is COAS agent implementing a foreign language requirement mandate So both of my main points should be arguing about the presence or absence of the requirement The argument in favor of the requirement for example isn t simply an argument in favor of knowing a foreign language but an argument for requiring COAS students to take a foreign language course The distinction might sound minor but it is an important one Your claims should advance your thesis not some unstated thesis Let s take a look at a awed example Thesis The College of Arts and Sciences should retain its foreign language requirement I Foreign language skills help with jobs II Foreign language skills help foster a broader cultural outlook The problem here is that the main points aren t dealing with the agent COAS or the mandate the foreign language requirement If we simply looked at the main points and had to guess at what the thesis statement would be you might guess foreign langauge skills are good In addressing both agent and mandate you will find yourself talking about policy implementation Is this policy needed Can this policy be implemented welleffectively at a reasonble cost PHRASIN G MAIN POINTS Now that I have my main points I can pay attention to how well they are phrased We will discuss the finer points of phrasing in class The main concerns though are active voice brevity and parallelism Revising my main points for language might make the points end up looking like this Thesis The College of Arts and Sciences should retain its foreign language requirement I Foreign language skills are central to the College s educational mission II The current requirement is not too burdensome for students In this instance my phrasing on the second point is fine but the first point ran on too long In trimming the language I also see that I can focus the first main point even more on the stated thesis In essence my first point now is an argument for why the College has a pedagogical link to foreign language study and the second is a justification for why this link can be cemented into a requirement COM 220 Public Speaking 22 COMING UP WITH EVIDENCE As with the thesis you should ask of your main points what would show that this is an accurate statement The evidence you need in your impromptu speeches and in your later speeches should clearly demonstrate that your main points are accurate So in the above example I would need some eVidence that explained the link between a liberal arts education and language study The more concrete the eVidence the better I can certainly speak to my own experiences with language courses as a way of expanding one s intellectual horizons HOW THE OUTLINE DIFFERS FROM WHAT YOU SAY You may have great main points and wonderful eVidence in your head or on your notecard but the audience can t see inside your head and isn t looking at your notecard This is where a lot of speakers fail They put their faith and effort only into the notecard Getting the information in good order on the card is only half of the equation Now you have to explain the argument in a way that is clear interesting and logical It may make perfect sense to you why your eVidence supports your main points but you need to explain that link to the audience I often see speakers who simply tick off their main points and their eVidence without explaining their reasoning This is like going to a fancy restaurant and haVing the chef come out and dump the ingredients for your order on your table Oh your meal requires some assembly The same is true of speaking you have the ingredients for your speech on the notecard but you have to cook it so that it is appealing and easy for the audience to digest COM 220 Public Speaking 23 SAMPLE IMPROMPTU THESIS STATEMENTS NOTE Below are some impromptu thesis statements to practice with These are the impromptu thesis statements from recent years The thesis statements for this quarter will be posted to the class website before the start of the round I do this so that you can check to make sure you can speak for a few minutes on any one of the thesis statements Also if you are concerned that you may not know the definitions of some key words you can look up the troubling words 0 The UW should charge instate and outof state students the same tuition C The City of Seattle should make University Way a pedestrian only zone 0 The UW should ban the use of laptops in all classrooms o The City of Seattle should rebuildrecreate an NBA team 0 The UW should not allow professors to assign textbooks they authored or co authored The US Federal Government should double the amount of money it gives to NASA each year 0 The US Federal Government should pass the Stop Online Piracy Act SOPA in order to crack down harder on online copyright infringement o The NCAA should allow universities to pay student athletes o The UW should eliminate the tenure system for professors o The UW should keep the IMA opened 24 hours a day 0 Washington State should not toll the 520 bridge 0 The UW should prohibit the use of skateboardslongboards on campus 0 The UW39s College of Arts and Sciences should eliminate the foreign language graduation requirement 0 Washington State should allow charter schools COM 220 Public Speaking 24 MAKING THE SPEECH EASY TO FOLLOW Your outline on the notecard may look like this Thesis statement I A B II A B You end up filling in all the gaps when you deliver the speech That is you explain how main point I supports your thesis and how IIA supports 11 We can call these explanations links because they link the evidence to the claim or warrants Someone who explains the links between the main points and the thesis and between the evidence and the main points makes it easy for an audience to understand hisher speech Someone who doesn t explain the links may leave their audience wondering what was that evidence doing in the second main point or worse what are you talking about The model below is meant as a way of thinking about all the filling that helps transform your truncated and visually oriented outline into a clear speech for an audience of listeners Each step is a chunk of talk Watch one of the sample outstanding impromptu speeches on the website and you will notice that they follow this model for the most part Intro open the Speech II Main point 2 0 state your thesis statement State main POint 2 0 preview both your main points brie y PreVieW bOth Of Your examples 0 discuss your 1st example and how it Transition to your first main point SUPPOI tS main point 2 0 discuss your 2nd example and how it 1 Main point 1 supports main point 2 0 state main point 1 0 if you haven t already address 0 brie y preview both of your examples explicitly what main point 2 means and 0 discuss your 1st example and how it hOW it supports your theSiS supports main point 1 wrap up POth 2 0 discuss your 2nd example and how it supports main point 1 o if you haven t already address explicitly what main point 1 means and how it supports your thesis 0 wrap up point 1 Transition to your conclusion Conclusion 0 restate your thesis 0 review both your main points 0 conclude the speech Transition to your second main point COM 220 Public Speaking 25 HELPFUL PHRASES FOR INDICATIN G STRUCTURE Students have requested some potential phrases for highlighting the structure in their impromptu speeches Below are a few suggestions Make up your own as well All that is important is that you are helping your audience follow along with your speech Some potential phrases for stating your thesis in the introduction I am responding to the argument I agree with the assertion Alternatively I disagree with the assertion And I argue instead Some potential phrases for preViewing your main points in the introduction And we can see this by looking to two main reasons This is true for at least two reasons Two thing really stand out to me when thinking about this Some potential phrases for preViewing your examples in your main points I can think of two examples that show this well two things jump out to me on this Some potential phrases for transitioning between main points Now that we have examined let s move on to HaVing discussed let us turn now to Some potential phrases for restating your thesis in the conclusion So in the end I do think that So in response to the argument I have argued COM 220 Public Speaking 26 PEER CRITIQUE ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION OBJECTIVES By performing peer critiques students should refine their abilities to 0 critically assess speeches o quickly formulate a concise speech with two main points 0 provide examples to clarify the main points 0 adopt a conversational tone while still looking polished DESCRIPTION Over the course of the quarter you will be required to critique your classmates speeches Your peer critique assignments are listed on the speaker order sheet You will be required to provide oral criticism following a peer s speech These peer critiques serve both a critical and speech function Critical function Like a number of other arts we refine our public speaking abilities through a mixture of instruction practice and imitation As such critically examining your peers speeches provides you another venue for thinking about how to adapt to different rhetorical situations Additionally individual speakers benefit immensely from articulate feedback from their audiences Speech function I was recently at a public lecture where there were a number of UW students During the QampA I was shocked and appalled at how poorly most students were at quickly articulating a single point These peer critiques are short speeches that speak to this crucial ability to quickly develop insightful comments Your peer critiques are speech assignments While they are not as long as your other graded speeches they are speech assignments In fact short twopoint speeches are some of the most common speeches you will deliver PEER CRITIQUE SPEECH STRUCTURE These speeches are short twopoint speeches Points I and II should take roughly 2035 seconds Overall each peer critique speeches should be about a minute to a minute and a half I What the speaker did well In this section you should identify a strength of the speech This should be stated as a clear main point e g In his speech Tom did an excellent job of stating clear and memorable main points You should then provide one or two examples from the speech to illustrate your point e g For example Tom s second point was Retrofitting the existing Alaskan Way Viaduct is significantly less expensive II What the speaker could still work on As above you should identify one area of the speech that was not clear and provide an example to illustrate what you mean Please remember that you will be hindering your classmate s future public speaking success by being untruthful COM 220 Public Speaking 27 vague or indirect about opportunities for improvement By the same token you should provide constructive criticism intended to help the speaker improve WHAT TO CRITIQUE In case you are wondering what to critique I have provided below a couple of important questions to ask of each speech These are simply some questions to guide your thinking and critique of a speech When developing your peer critiques you should reference specific parts and passages of the speech Avoid critiques that are overly vague e g Your introduction was good I thought your speech owed nicely and work on providing specific comments e g Your call for the replacement of the UW athletic director needed some testimony from a respected UW source Impromptu Critical Questions 0 Did the speaker s main points clearly support the thesis statement and address both the agent and the mandate How could the main points have been clearer 0 Did the speaker s evidence clearly support herhis main points How could this evidence have been clearer 0 Was the speech easy to follow with good previews transitions and conclusions How could these have been clearer 0 Did the speaker engage the audience well Did the speaker speak too fast or slow or quiet How could the delivery have been more effective Persuasive Critical Questions 0 Did the speaker make herhis arguments clearly Did you understand what the speaker was asserting How could these arguments have been clearer 0 Did the speaker engage the opposing arguments effectively and fairly Were there other arguments that the speaker did not address that shehe should have 0 Did the speaker make language choices that were appealing to an oppositional audience 0 Did the speaker provide enough supporting material to justify hisher claims Where did the speaker need more supporting materialevidence 0 Was the speech delivered in a persuasive manner How could the delivery have been more persuasive Advocacy Critical Questions 0 Did the speaker clearly explain the ill How could the identification of the ill andor the cause have been more powerful for the audience 0 Did the speaker make a clear argument Was it clear what types of actions the audience should take How could these solutions have been better 0 Did the speaker use stylistic devices well Did the speaker s language choice increase the speech s intensity How could the speaker have used language more effectively 0 Did the speaker deliver the speech in an engaging way What could have been improved 0 What else could the speaker have done to motivate the audience to act on herhis solutions COM 220 Public Speaking 28 SELF CRITIQUE ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION OBJECTIVES By writing selfcritiques students should refine their abilities to 0 critically analyze all aspects of speech composition and delivery 0 distinguish between weak and strong support 0 identify unclear speech arrangement and identify possible solutions 0 diagnose delivery problems and propose remedies DESCRIPTION Like many other arts the best public speakers are highly selfre ective about their skills We all have certain strengths and areas that need improvement These selfcritiques are designed to help you identify your strengths and weaknesses It is often difficult to distance yourself from your speech in order to re ect on it critically but you must After you deliver your speech in class you should view the recording of your speech and write a singlespaced page paper 500600 words that critiques your speech content and delivery Even though you re watching yourself on the video don t obsess about your physical performance A speech is everything going on between you and that audience physical behaviors are important but are only one part of the much larger communication transaction Think about how you are explaining your evidence to that audience or how you are highlighting the arrangement of your speech WHAT TO CRITIQUE As you view your performance and write your selfcritique you should address the following questions 1 What do you think you did well 2 What didn t go as well as you had planned 3 What will you do differently the next time you give a speech Please use the questions listed on the peer critique assignment description to guide your analysis of your speech In writing your selfcritique please do not focus exclusively on your delivery as is the tendency in such selfre ections In addition to critiquing your physical and verbal performance also think about your structure evidence and argument Cite specific passages from your speech to support your critical claims If you say that you had good transitions provide an example of where you had a good transition If you say that you needed more evidence discuss a point that lacked sufficient evidence Your paper should be written in paragraph form not a bullet point response You should actually analyze your speech do not simply write a single sentence observation about each aspect of your speech This is a unique opportunity to see your speech as others saw it Don t be too hard on yourself but view this as another step in your ongoing improvement as a speaker COM 220 Public Speaking 29 SAMPLE SELF CRITIQUE Myname Here COM 220 Section BH Speech Self Critique NUCLEAR ENERGY IS A SAFE AND RELIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO FOSSIL FUELS In general I felt the speech went well though upon viewing the DVD there are a number of areas I would like to improve upon To further my thesis that nuclear energy a safe and reliable alternative to consuming fossil fuels I decided to use the additional benefits model I had three main points the existing concerns of opponents of nuclear energy a response to the concerns and the additional benefits of nuclear energy There were a number of things in this speech that went well especially in terms of invention and delivery I felt my argument incorporated a significant amount of logos I thought that I was quite fair to the environmentalist position and provided enough evidence to prove that these were actual concerns they held In order to address these concerns I responded to each concern in my second main point I didn t argue that these concerns about nuclear energy were wrong but that technology had reduced each of the three main threats posed by nuclear energy I was able to use a lot of evidence here to show that nuclear energy is now much safer than it once was In terms of delivery I liked the way I was engaging the audience I tried to do things to liven the conversation considering I was talking about such a dry topic I took pauses and asked rhetorical questions in order to provide mental breaks for the audience I also liked the way I walked around during my speech although next time I want to be more deliberate and practice walking at key points phrases or pauses There were a number of things that I would change if I were to deliver this speech again Each point could have used more evidence I thought my additional benefits section was strong but it would have been stronger if I had provided more information about how nuclear energy is better for the environment than fossil fuels I would have also liked to talk about desalination more I forgot to add in my speech that desalination can be done with energy generated with oil but that it would still pollute the air I don t think I needed more statistics but some examples would have helped make this issue easier to visualize Each point was a bit dry in spots At times it felt like I was simply moving from one piece of evidence to the next I had done a lot of research and I wanted to be able to use all this research but points two and three might have benefited from more summary I liked my ying analogy in point two and I think I might have used more of these types of explanations Some things I didn t like about my delivery were that I said things that I told myself REPEATEDLY not to say such as You should support me When I watched myself on the DVD I noticed that I quickly caught myself saying such things and had to correct myself This just made things cumbersome and awkward I also didn t like the transition I had between my first and second points I didn t mean to sound sarcastic I wanted to just take a second to provide some sort of comic relief after discussing serious and daunting information All in all this was a strong speech but for my next speech I want to work more on developing and delivering parts of the speech that summarize the evidence more Also this speech was logos intensive I would like to be able to incorporate more ethos and pathos into my speeches The nature of the subject matter lends itself to logos but some additional testimony or solid examples of the benefits of nuclear energy would add to overall persuasiveness of my position I am comfortable with my delivery but I would like to get over some of the rough spots where I seem to be reaching for a planned phrase COM 220 Public Speaking 30 PERSUASIVE SPEECH ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES After completing the persuasive speech students should be able to 0 identify a target audience and the areas where the target audience might be persuaded 0 design and explain complex arguments appropriately and effectively for an oppositional audience 0 select and discuss complex evidence appropriately and effectively for an oppositional audience use language and delivery appropriately and effectively for an oppositional audience arrange and perform a complex case in a clear and persuasive manner use previews reviews and signpost words to clarify argument structure extemporize a speech in a manner that adds to their ethos and engages the audience speak confidently with appropriate rate projection movement and vocal variety use delivery to distinguish between key ideas and elaborating detail ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION The persuasive speech asks you to persuade members of your audience who disagree with you on a topic of genuine public controversy These controversies can range from the local to the regional to the national and international What is important is that you address an issue that affects the public as a collective and is debated publicly We will discuss public forum topics more in class The purpose of this speech is to persuade not simply to argue You might be able to develop a perfectly logical argument that is unpersuasive for your audience Persuading audience members who disagree with you requires that you understand why they disagree with you identify areas where audience members can be persuaded and speak to those areas in a way that highlights shared interests It is doubtful that you will be able to cover all the oppositional members of your audience in a six to nine minute span but you can begin to weaken their commitment to their original position and increase their sympathy with your position Remember that your credibility plays an important role in persuading audiences as such you must deal with oppositional arguments in a fair and convincing way Good persuaders do not ignore the opposition nor do they simply attack the opposition they engage opposition s arguments in an evenhanded way COM 220 Public Speaking 31 BASIC REQUIREMENTS In addition to persuading your audience the persuasive speech must satisfy the following requirements You must speak to a public forum topic You must speak to a topic that affects us as a public and is debated publicly See the section on Picking and Researching a Persuasive Speech Topic for a description of public forum topics In selecting a public forum topic you must select an issue that has reasonable pro and con arguments You should not speak to a topic that everyone agrees on rather you need to select issues that demand genuine persuasion You must speak to persuade oppositional members of your audience You are attempting to weaken your audience members support for the opposing case and strengthen the support for your case You need to develop arguments that are designed to sway audience members who may initially disagree with your position You must stay within the time limits The speech should run 69 minutes Your assignment grade will be lowered by 5 points for every 45 seconds you speak under or over the target time range You must speak extemporaneously This means that the speech should not be memorized or scripted You may use notedcards standard 3x5 cards but you should not rely too heavily on them You must adequately source your speech You must orally cite a minimum of three sources Two of your sources must be available in print the third can be a webonly source Odds are that you are going to have far more than three pieces of evidence but you must include at least three sources Your evidence should clearly support your arguments and you should explain the link You should include a variety of evidence statistics examples testimony etc You must not use a visual aid HINTS ON DOING WELL Select a topic that allows you to persuade Students may try to speak on a topic that is not genuinely controversial I am reminded of a speaker who made a wonderful argument against cyanide fishing which is exactly what it sounds like using cyanide to fish The problem was that she didn t really have to persuade her audience to support efforts to halt cyanide fishing because they already agreed No one was out there making principled arguments for cyanide fishing there weren t two reasonable sides that disputed that issue Speak to persuade Despite my protestations I regularly see speeches that are simply self defensive arguments e g This is why I believe what I believe and you are simply wrong if you think otherwise Television conditions us to make these types of arguments but it is often COM 220 Public Speaking 32 unhealthy and unproductive in interpersonal settings No one is going to agree with the person who just spent six to nine minutes attacking hisher beliefs You must think about introducing new evidence that maybe we hadn t thought about or reframing the issue in terms of a shared value There are a few sample speeches on the course website that does a good job of this The Nuclear Energy speech in particular is a good example In it the speaker argues for using nuclear energy Why Because there are newer and safer modes of generating nuclear power new evidence She also argues that the minimal risk is worth the decrease in pollution and increase in cheaper energy shared values and because other respected nations regularly use nuclear energy reliable testimonyshared ethos Is this argument going to convince a diehard environmentalist Probably not Might it convince someone who had a negative preconception about nuclear energy but hasn t done much research Maybe Use logos pathos and ethos Students tend to get lost in their research and regurgitate every factoid they found This is not helpful We are persuaded by facts and statistics but we are also persuaded by examples that show the human impact of your argument Of course you must use such examples carefully and honestly If an audience feels that you are milking an example they will probably discount it and much else of what you say Also use ethos Make sure that we know that you know what you re talking about Make savvy language choices Please avoid the words my opposition This is a convenience in the lecture to explain the assignment and talk about the process but it just sounds odd in your speech You are trying to get the audience to understand your position and its benefits you want to emphasize that you are on the same side Use language that grants their position legitimacy encourages agreement and negation This is why persuading is harder than arguing Arguing simply requires you to spout off persuading requires you to think about how you will be heard and understood Get of f the cards This holds true for all speeches but I ve had the most problems with card reading in the persuasive speech It is probably because you have more evidence in your persuasive speech than in other speeches Regardless you need to engage us as an audience of listeners and generate the words at the moment of speaking There may be a few phrases that you have to get just right but cards should be used minimally Cards are often a crutch You can easily remember the main parts of your speech you are mentally equipped to remember this amount of information However you need to practice this speech many times before you give it for a grade A good rule of thumb is to practice the final draft of the speech ten times before delivering it for a grade COM 220 Public Speaking 33 PERSUASIVE SPEECH EVALUATION Name excellent good adequate awed poormissing Note The percentages here are guidelines All these categories are mutually dependent Invention and Style 50 The speaker addressed an appropriate topic in a comprehensive manner The speaker included appropriate claims for the topic and the audience The speaker included appropriate and varied evidence The speaker clearly and effectively used the evidence to support the claims The speaker demonstrated a thorough understanding of the debate The speaker demonstrated a sympathetic understanding of the target audience Arrangement 20 The speaker arranged the speech effectively and appropriately The speaker highlighted the speech s main points and subpoints clearly and effectively The speaker previewed the speech and oriented the audience to the topic clearly and effectively The speaker reviewed the speech clearly and effectively and provided a sense of closure in the conclusion Delivery 30 The speaker s delivery helped to distinguish between key ideas and elaborating detail The speaker used notes effectively and appropriately The speaker used projection effectively and appropriately The speaker used speech rate effectively and appropriately The speaker used vocal variety effectively and appropriately The speaker moved and gestured effectively and appropriately Additional Comments Time Time Penalty if any Grade for Speech COM 220 Public Speaking 34 HOLISTIC GRADING DESCRIPTIONS In addition to the above rubric I wanted to give you a more holistic description of what the different speeches often look and sound like What follows below is simply a discussion of some of the commonalities that occur when we see an excellent good adequate or poor speech Invention arrangement and delivery are all mutually dependent So a speaker might have excellent invention adequate arrangement and good delivery The resulting grade re ects this admixture Excellent persuasive speeches 7280 Inventionstyle Excellent speakers clearly know their topics inside and out This knowledge comes through in multiple ways they have the most appropriate evidence for their arguments they don39t have to read their cards their manner of speaking indicates that they have more information than the bits of evidence that they are relating to the audience and they can summarize information in a way that clarifies complex data elegantly In terms of the argument they have identified and developed the areas of agreement between them and their target audiences They tend not to ask the target audience to give up too much in terms of values or ideas but focus on the areas with the greatest potential for audience opinion shift new information larger shared values etc The evidence used in excellent speeches re ects the speakers39 deep knowledge of the subjects the evidence is appropriate interesting and clearly supports the arguments being made Excellent speakers meet their target audiences where they are ie the speakers respond well to the existing positionsknowledge held by their target audiences Arrangement Excellent speakers deliver speeches that are easy to ow The main points and subpoint are phrased powerfully and memorably When the speakers deliver their speeches the arrangementtalk highlighting the main points and subpoints is clear but sounds completely natural They are performing the major breaks between the sections of their speeches nonverbally as well longer pause breaks movement etc The speakers choices regarding main points and subpoints make sense Essential ideas are included super uous ones are excluded Excellent speeches are easy to ow because the speakers highlight the organization and because the organizational patterns are logical given the speakers goals Delivery Excellent persuasive speeches are clearly well practiced The speakers avoid many verbal stumbles More importantly it is apparent that even a few stumbles would not throw off these speakers serving as another illustration of the excellent speakers39 logical arrangement and mastery of the subject Excellent speeches appear well prepared look practiced and thus sound solid Since excellent persuasive speakers have practiced the speeches aren39t rushed or too slow The speakers deliver the speeches with confidence and plenty of projection As above the pauses and ratechanges seem to make it easier to ow the speeches39 arguments and better understand the evidence Good persuasive speeches 64 71 Inventionstyle Good persuasive speakers know their topic but tend to know it primarily through their sources This isn t to say that the sources that they have are bad merely that these sources tend to represent most of what the speaker knows about the topic This more limited COM 220 Public Speaking 35 understanding translates into the speeches invention and delivery The arguments are often solid but the evidence carries the points a bit more than the speakers do In terms of argument good speakers have solid arguments and solid evidence Usually a lack of depth and diversity distinguish good speakers arguments from excellent speakers arguments Excellent speakers can deploy a number of varied sources and explain the argument with greater clarity good speakers have fewer sources discussed more cursorily Good speakers have some points of identification with their audiences and these are discussed well Whereas excellent speakers have these points of identification running throughout their speeches written in at a deep level good speakers have a few of them inserted into the speech Arrangement Good speakers deliver speeches that are easy to ow As with the excellent speeches the main points and subpoint are phrased powerfully and memorably When good speakers deliver their speeches the arrangementtalk is clear but at times clunky They are performing the major breaks between the sections of their speeches nonverbally longer pause breaks movement etc In terms of arrangement good speeches are fine in terms of the main points and subpoints but could benefit from a slight rewrite that rearranges the subpoints a bit Sometimes there is an argument that survives into the final draft of a good speech that sounds like it stayed there simply because the speaker needed the point or liked the evidence In essence the arrangement is clear and solid in good speeches but not as strategic or powerful as in excellent ones Delivery Good speakers have done a number of run throughs and it shows The speakers are polished and know the speech well However good speeches tend to sound like classroom speeches Good speakers sound like they are performing the speeches they have practiced a couple of times excellent speakers sound like they are discussing an idea with the audience One or two of the delivery aspects discussed rate changes pauses projection tend to need work in good speeches The speakers might be running a bit fast or they are blurring over major breaks in the speeches or the speakers might simply be a difficult to hear Adequate persuasive speeches 5663 Inventionstyle Adequate speakers seem to know their topic but have a few areas where that knowledge is suspect Sometimes the speakers have good general topics but have failed to narrow them in ways appropriate to the assignment Upon hearing the audiences are convinced that the speakers have a grasp on their subjects but there are a few points where that knowledge is questionable either due to adequate speakers saying something that sounds a bit wrong or hyperbolic or because the speakers stay on a point that feels tangential to the issues at hand Most of the claims have solid evidence but a few feel too lightly sourced Excellent speakers convey ethos through mastery of their subjects adequate speakers convey the ethos of someone who has a grasp on the subject As such the evidence in adequate speeches tends to be a mix of really good sources and a few odd ones Adequate speakers tend to explain the evidence but not with much depth or clarity In essence the evidence alone carries a lot of the burden of the arguments Adequate speakers make some references to points of identification with the target audience but these are not discussed in much depth COM 220 Public Speaking 36 Arrangement It is generally easy to identify the main points in adequate speeches but not all of the subpoints Adequate speakers rarely preview or overtly discuss internal structure rather the listeners tend to make educated guesses at the nature of the subclaims After listening to an adequate speech audience members can conceive of a few key changes to the arrangement that would probably increase the speech39s clarity and argumentative force The claims present in adequate speeches are generally fine albeit with some clumsy wording but often under supported Delivery Adequate speakers sound as if they have done a few practice run throughs though they still need to rely heavily on their cards to navigate the speech Adequate speakers tend to sound rather unenthused about their speech and its argument If they are enthused it often sounds rather forced Audience members can detect that the pacing is off in adequate speeches Adequate speakers haven39t run their speeches enough to find the places where tempo shifts are needed or where pause breaks help direct their audiences39 attention to key ideas Ultimately the delivery in an adequate speech does not contribute much to argument clarity or audience engagement While adequate delivery may not detract much from the meaning of the speech it adds little Poor persuasive speeches 4855 Invention The topicargument feels off in poor speeches Poor speakers tend to address inappropriate topics for this assignment Alternatively poor speakers might choose appropriate topics but end up discussing them inappropriately or more commonly in exceptionally vague terms Strategic attempts to win over the audience are largely absent or clumsily handled Often poor speakers explain why they believe their arguments but do little to explain why an oppositional audience would want to agree The quality and quantity of evidence is even poorer than in adequate speeches with result being that poor speeches have few sources of questionable relevance Poor speakers sound like they came to their topics fairly recently and have yet to fully grasp all of the relevant issues Arrangement Audience members often have a hard time owing poor speeches Sometimes the points are out of balance with too many subpoints supporting one main point and too few sub points supporting another Alternatively poor speakers may make their main points and sub points very clear but these arguments are not the most important ones given their topics and audiences needs Often major issuesarguments are missing from poor speeches Since poor speakers don t seem to have a full grasp on their topics the resulting arguments tend to strike out in odd directions e g responding to false concerns or simply resulting in false information Delivery The delivery of poor speakers seems to actively harm the quality of their speeches This may be because they seem apathetic towards their topic andor their audience andor the assignment In addition to seeming unfamiliar with the topic they seem unfamiliar with their own speeches Most of the delivery tactics that can help increase the clarity and energy of a speech pacing vocal variety pausing are absent or poorly used in poor speeches COM 220 Public Speaking 37 Failing persuasive speeches 47 and below Invention Failing speakers develop and deliver speeches that have little to do with the assignment requirements If they deal with appropriate topics they make few if any attempts to persuade their audiences Arrangement Failing speakers seem to have little to no sense of structure Main points and sub points if mentioned seem disconnected from one another and the thesis Delivery Failing speakers have inappropriate delivery This may mean that the speakers are clearly apathetic towards the entire act of giving a speech This may mean that the speakers are enthused but are doing so merely for comic effect or as a way of passionately advancing an inappropriate topic COM 220 Public Speaking 38 PICKIN G AND RESEARCHIN G A PERSUASIVE SPEECH TOPIC ASSIGNMENT BASICS Picking a topic for your persuasive and advocacy speech proves challenging at times You must speak on a topic that is being debated or has been within the past six months in one or more of the following forums 0 US Congress Washington State Legislature Seattle City Council Seattle School Board UW Board of Regents UW Faculty Senate GPSS Graduate and Professional Student Senate andor ASUW Associated Students of the University of Washington Senate This means that you are speaking on a recent matter of public interest It can be a matter of interest to the university community the city of Seattle the state or the country WHY ONLY THOSE TOPICS By now you know that the audience is vital part of the public speaking equation The persuasive and advocacy speeches focus on persuasion and argumentation In order to craft a good argument that adapts to audience concerns the audience must know something about your topic You could get up there and deliver a heartfelt plea to eliminate the membership dues for the American Philatelic Society stamp collectors but your inclass audience wouldn t be able to judge how good your arguments are since they re not in the society You must speak to an issue that potentially affects your actual inclass audience At first glance the members of your inclass audience share little in common besides the fact that they all signed up for the course and happened to pick the same class as you However we can identify some deeper shared traits about that inclass audience if we look more closely they currently attend the UW live in or near Seattle in Washington State in the United States of America So you need to speak to a topic that currently addresses one or a couple of those levels of identification Since these are public issues many members of your audience will have some knowledge about them and have an opinion on them WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY DEBATE The other relevant aspect of this assignment is that you are engaging in the exchange of reasons You must address those matters that people currently disagree on All of the approved forums are policy making entities so the debates there will focus on questions of what should we do Congress doesn t get together and talk about how fiscal health is good that s not debatable They COM 220 Public Speaking 39 do get together and debate about the best way to achieve fiscal health while balancing other demands WHERE CAN I FIND TOPIC IDEAS There are many places to find topic ideas If there isn t a burning public topic that you feel you must address there are a number of places to stoke the mental fires Go to the Topic Selection page on the COM 220 website Also read the opinion pages of newspapers What policy matters are people talking about publicly A while back I found the marijuana topic below simply be reading the papers and by going to the Washington State Legislature webpage and searching the term marijuana YOU SHOULD FOCUS ON THE POLICY NOT JUST THE ISSUE Avoid vague topics like the death penalty legalization of marijuana and euthanasia These are important issues but they are rarely being debated in major policy areas in such vague terms Bad Thesis Statement We should legalize marijuana Good Thesis Statement The State of Washington should reclassify possession of forty grams or less of marijuana from a misdemeanor to a class 2 civil infraction What make the bad one bad and the good one good I see at least two big differences Specificity The we in the bad thesis is ambiguous Who is to legalize marijuana The city the state the country In the good thesis we know who is taking action Washington State and the specific type of action reclassifying As with the impromptu thesis statements you are thinking in terms of agent and mandate Reality The bad thesis is not currently being debated in any of the forums in those broad terms The good thesis was being debated in those exact terms in the Washington legislature HB 1177SB 5615 Anyone who is for or against the broader legalization of marijuana would certainly be able to make an argument for or against the good thesis statement Additionally the narrower thesis will make the topic easier to research and argue YOU SHOULD FOCUS ON A POLICY THAT IS PUBLICLY DEBATED You should select a topic that is being discussed and debated in the forum as well as in the general public For example if you found a topic being discussed in the UW faculty senate but no reference to that issue in any of the campus publications e g The Daily University Week then it probably isn t a great topic However if you found a topic being debated in the City Council and that topic was also debated in editorials in the Seattle Times and The Stranger that would probably be a good topic Why Because it is the subject of both policy the Council and public the papers debate COM 220 Public Speaking 40 DO YOUR RESEARCH You need to know what you re talking about If you don t your audience and your instructor will know You need to know what the major arguments against your position are you need to know the major arguments for your position and you need facts and statistics to back up your claims Check out the Topic Selection portion of the 220 website for research portals You already know that the internet is a factually sketchy domain You will also note that the persuasive speech has a requirement about sources being available in print The idea behind this is that you need to support your claims with credible and verifiable evidence So much bad political argumentation currently occurs untethered by either fact or reality It is important that you do better and speak with solid evidence As a side note Wikipedia is not a valid source for this class Anyone can play with it The television show host Stephen Colbert urged his viewers to go to Wikipedia and change the entry for African Elephants to report that their numbers have tripled in the past six months which wasn t true Wikipedia eventually corrected the error but Wikipedia s open edit policy allows for such tampering This is not to say that Wikipedia is a great resource but simply that you must always verify its information You can start the research process with the Wikipedia entry but it is not a valid source by itself and you should not rely on it in your speech COM 220 Public Speaking 41 In an excellent topic paper the writer TOPIC SELECTION PAPER ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION This assignment is designed to help you select a topic that interests you fulfills the requirements for a public forum topic and has generated enough published research to support your claims Your will select TWO potential speech topics For each potential topic you must address each of the sections below The paper is due on the first day set aside for the topic selection workshop see the due dates listed on your speaker order sheet Section 1 Write an appropriate draft thesis statement for persuasive speech on this topic for your target audience I assume that your argument will change as you conduct more research and revise the speech but develop a working thesis that gives the reader a sense of what you might argue Section 2 Demonstrate that suf cient research exists to support a good speech For this section you must provide a bibliography with 2 recent credible sources on each topic and for each source provide a brief summary 12 sentences of what it says about your proposed topic These sources must be cited appropriately See the library website for help on proper citation httpwwwlibwashingtoneduresearchwrihtml Section 3 Identify which deliberative body the debate is occurringwill occur Very brie y identify where the debate is taking place or will take place If it is currently occurring identify the bill number Section 4 Identify reasonable arguments against your position For this section you must identify and brie y describe two of the most important and challenging arguments that you think are persuasive to your target audience who currently disagree with you You will get a much better sense for what these arguments are as you conduct more research but write down what some of the existing reasonable arguments are against your position Evaluation In a poor topic paper the writer examines two different public forum topics 0 only examines one topic completes all four sections as listed above 0 does not satisfy the requirements in one or for each topic all of the sections cites sources that are recent and credible 0 includes a couple of sources that are explains the content of the source clearly questionable identifies reasonable arguments that might 0 includes an overly vague description of the be persuasive to their target audience and sources not simply straw arguments o is turned in after the due date COM 220 Public Speaking 42 SAMPLE TOPIC SELECTION PAPER Name Jane Doe Section AA TA ML Veden Topic 1 Domestic Partnerships old topic from 2009 Section 1 Thesis The Washington State legislature should pass SB 5688 extending all the rights and privileges of marriage to domestic partnerships Section 2 Annotated Bibliography Eskridge William N Equality Practice Civil Unions and the Future of Gay Rights New York Routledge 2002 In this book Eskridge as professor at Yale Law School lays out an argument for the gradual implementation of civil unions Rather than framing the issue solely on the basis of legal rights Eskridge develops an argument that justifies samesex marriage as a social good for all Americans Gallagher Maggie Latter Day Federalists The Weekly Standard 928 2004 LexisNexis Academic 4 Jan 2005 LEXISNEXIS lthttpweblexisnexiscomuniversegt This article argues for a Federal definition of marriage Gallagher asserts that marriage is a social norm that provides social stability as such the existing understanding of marriage merits Federal protection Gallagher also suggests that US efforts to stamp out polygamy in the late 1800 s demonstrate the importance of a Federal defense of marriage Section 3 Deliberative Body This debate is occurring in the Washington State Legislature SB 5688 Section 4 Reasonable Arguments Against my Position 1 Legally recognizing domestic partnerships is unnecessary Same sex couples are denied a few economic privileges but these are minor Same sex couples have all the same basic rights as heterosexual couples and thus do not really need this additional recognition 2 Legally recognizing domestic partnerships is too divisive right now So many people in the population still have a problem with homosexuality that recognizing domestic partnerships would divide the community While such partnerships may be a good idea we as a country and as a state need to wait until it is more broadly accepted Note This is the write up for one topic You must do this twice for your Topic Selection Paper COM 220 Public Speaking 45 REASONING We all engage in reasoning it is a human faculty It is this ability that allows us to render judgments and decide on actions When giving a speech you are forced to reason quickly and eXplain that reasoning to an audience so they follow your arguments In their book An Introduction to Reasoning Toulmin Rieke and J anik define reasoning as presenting reasons in support of a claim so as to show how those reasons succeed in giving strength to the claim 1 There are two concerns when talking about reasoning in speeches First are your arguments logical and well reasoned Second are you eXplaining this valid reasoning clearly to your audience This is an important part You could have a perfectly valid argument on the page but unless you eXplain it well to an audience of listeners they won t see the strength of your reasoning The section below provides some basics on making sure that you have the first of these two components taken care of Good reasoning eXplains how you are moving from the evidence to your claims Stephen Toulmin famously charted out the parts of an argument V Claim Data I Warrant Backing A claim is the assertion you want your audience to take as valid Data are the facts and evidence you use to support the claim The warrant is the statement or belief that authorizes the link between your data and your claim Backing certifies the statement made in the warrant Each component authorizes another one the data supports your claim the warrant supports the link between data and claim the backing supports the warrant Cindy Griffin provides a good adaptation of Toulmin s model of reasoning by turning the key issues into questions 1 Stephen Toulmin Richard Rieke and Allan J anik An Introduction to Reasoning New York Macmillian Publishing Co Inc 197913 2 have further adapted Griffin s questions I use Toulmin s term for data as opposed to Griffin s preferred grounds because I think data is clearer for class purposes COM 220 Public Speaking 46 Claim What do you think or want to propose Data Why do you think this or want to propose it Warrant How do you know your data supports your claim Backing How do you know the warrant supports the data3 I think this is a good formulation because it forces you to think about how a skeptical audience member will hear and evaluate your reasoning If your audience understands and thinks your backing warrant and data are valid they are far more likely to judge your claim as valid Think of it this way As you are developing arguments you should envision a skeptical listener constantly stopping you and asking why is that true We can see this playing out in some of the arguments that appeared in Seattle and Washington papers for and against the state wide smoking ban 1 901 Here is a passage from one of the arguments against I 901 Another example of how I 901 supporters deceive voters is their New York City study This study uses economic data from April to September 2002 and compares it with the same period in 2003 What39s the problem On Sept 11 2001 the World Trade Center buildings were destroyed and businesses for miles around were closed down or severely damaged This study uses economic data starting just siX months after 911 Certainly revenue 18 24 months after the disaster was higher than 6 12 months after the disaster regardless of whether a smoking ban was implemented Claim The NYC study fails to prove that smoking bans are not economically harmful bars and restaurants Data The study establishes a awed pre smoking ban income level because it took place too close to 9 11 Warrant Revenue is higher regardless of a smoking ban because the city was reemerging from a major disaster Backing History and common sense shows that major disasters significantly impact consumer behavior The above example is a fairly solid reasoning based on logic and evidence A skeptical listener might still disagree with the data in this case or more evidence to prove the validity of the backing This specific claim is just one part of a much larger argument against I 901 which included a number of different and interlocking claims 3 Cindy L Griffin Invitation to Public Speaking 2nd ed Belmont Thomson Wadsworth 2006 176 COM 220 Public Speaking 47 Compare the above claim against this claim also from the 1 901 debate I know a few nonsmokers and each and every one of them is against this ban because of our right of choice Even though I39m currently a smoker I have quit twice for a total of seven years If you can39t smoke in bars bowling alleys etc it will seriously cut their income And if it cuts their income it will also cut the amount of taxes the state gets from businesses Guess who gets to pay more taxes You guessed right us Claim 1 901 will increase taxes for individuals Data A decrease in bar revenue will decrease the amount of taxes they pay Warrant A decrease in taX revenue from bars will force the city to increase taxes on individuals Backing The city generates most of its revenue from local businesses and individual taxes A skeptical reader here would probably not accept the validity of the data They might argue that the smoking ban will not decrease revenue They might also argue that even if there is a slight decrease in revenue it will not significantly affect their taX burden This same skeptical reader might then move on to challenge the warrant The city has a number of individual and corporate taXpayers a decrease in taX revenue from bars and bowling alleys will not significantly affect the city s budget Moreover bars and individual taXpayers do not eXist in a zero sum relationship a decrease in one does not automatically lead to an increase on the other This argument relies on a number of unproven and debatable assumptions 1 901 will decrease bar revenue decreased bar revenue will lead to an increase in individual taxes Now this may be a perfectly convincing argument to someone who already believes that the grounds and warrant are valid But to someone who doesn t agree this is a weak argument The writer could have made this argument much stronger by providing hard evidence for the data and defended the warrant with backing that showed a clear and dynamic relationship between individual taXpayers and local bars and restaurants assuming that such evidence eXists which it may not Something else that is worth noting about these two arguments is that the first is much narrower than the second Indeed proving that 1 901 will lead to an increased taX burden on all taXpayers would require a significant number of smaller supporting claims However proving with evidence that a specific study s findings are limited or awed can be done rather quickly The lesson for your persuasive speeches is this focus and narrow So what is the practical application of this As you conduct your research you are gathering evidence and data but you are also thinking about the inferences that allow you to move from hard evidence what is known andor proven to a claim what is unknown If there is a recurring problem in persuasive speeches it is that speakers list their evidence and make claims but do not eXplain the reasoning process that links them together A clear argument is in this sense like a good math solution you need to show your work You need to make sure that your audience can follow along with your logic ie you are clear and are likely to follow along with your logic ie you have included appropriate sources for the audience COM 220 Public Speaking 48 ARRANGING AND REVISING YOUR MAIN POINTS In the preparation for any speech you should be constantly researching writing and revising Unfortunately I imagine some people tend to think of preparing a speech as a completely linear process Research writing audience adaptation 9 practice 9 deliver the final speech That is you do research and finish you research and then you start writing and then finish writing etc When in actuality speech composition is probably more like this In other words we should constantly be working on all aspects Early on in the writing phase I stand up and try to talk my way through my outline This practice tells me which points need more evidence research and what needs better phrasing writing As I m researching and writing I m thinking about what evidence works best for my target audience All of this is to say that speech composition is non linear Also think of practice as part of the composition process not something that is merely done after you have written the speech One important way to guide the speech composition process is to think through some of the ways in which you can arrange your main points The list below is meant to provide some assistance There is nothing inherently magical about any one of these arrangement patterns You could COM 220 Public Speaking 49 follow one of these patterns to the letter and still have a bad speech That said the patterns below are designed to highlight the clarity of your speech You can adapt these patterns in order to better suit your topic Above all you should design the speech so that it is clear and it achieves your speech goal which in the case of the persuasive speech is to persuade those members of your audience that disagree with you Persuasive Arrangement Patterns 1 Responding to each major oppositional argument as a group Thesis The State of Washington should toll the 520 bridge Introduction My I Many people have some real valid concerns about the toll A Some worry that the toll will be too expensive B Some are concerned that the toll unfairly punishes those on the Eastside II Yet the toll is the best way to improve the bridge A The toll though pricy is a sound investment in the bridge s safety B The toll means that those who benefit most from the bridge are the ones who pay the most to support it Conclusion 2 Responding to each major oppositional argument one by one Thesis The State of Washington should toll the 520 bridge Introduction m I The toll though pricy is a sound investment in the bridge s safety A Some worry that the toll will be too expensive B The Federal Government will pay a significant amount for repairing the bridge but only if there is a toll C There will still be cheaper options like riding the bus or diverting to 190 to avoid the toll II The toll means that those who benefit most from the bridge are the ones who pay the most to support it A Some are concerned that the toll unfairly punishes those on the Eastside B Everyone ends up paying for some of the repairs to the bridge but a toll ensures that the heaviest users foot a larger portion of the bill Conclusion 3 Residue Model Thesis The State of Washington should toll the 520 bridge Introduction m I The toll does pose some problems A The toll won t be cheap B Those on the Eastside will feel it more than others II The toll provides some significant benefits COM 220 Public Speaking 50 A If there s a toll the Federal Government will pay a significant amount for repairing the bridge B There will still be cheaper options like riding the bus or diverting to 190 to avoid the toll III We should support the toll since the benefits outweigh the problems A This toll though pricey ensures that we can quickly repair a dangerous bridge B It is fair to bill heavy users more especially since there remain some low cost alternatives Conclusion 4 Response with additional benefits Thesis The US should increase its use of nuclear energy Introduction m I Opponents of nuclear energy have a number of valid concerns A People opposed to nuclear energy are afraid of the threat of a meltdown B Environmentalists note the problem of nuclear waste C People opposed to nuclear energy argue that nuclear energy plants are a terrorism target II Yet the development of nuclear energy is proving to be increasingly safe A Technological advances have almost eliminated the threat of a meltdown B Nuclear waste is inevitable but we can deal with it reasonably C We have largely safeguarded our nuclear facilities from terrorist attack III There are additional benefits that can be provided with the adoption of nuclear energy A Nuclear power can lead to more drinkable water B Nuclear energy produces less carbon emissions than burning fossil fuels Conclusion 5 Including a separate background point Thesis The city of Seattle should replace the Alaskan Way Viaduct with a cut and cover tunnel Introduction m I The current debate over replacing the Alaskan way viaduct centers on cost and workability A The Mayor s office argues for a tunnel but opponents argue for a retrofit of the existing structure B Opponents to the tunnel raise concerns about cost and workability C Currently the debate is still ongoing II The tunnel is a better use of city funds A the tunnel will cost more than a retrofit initially B the tunnel will cost less than a retrofit in upkeep over time III The tunnel improves the waterfront district A The tourist area will be quieter B The viaduct area can be converted into business and public space Conclusion COM 220 Public Speaking 51 Determining the arrangement of your main points allows you to start practicing right away and it allows you to conduct more targeted research So after you do some general background research you can start drafting up your main points T HOWEVER you should always revise your main points and subpoints All too often I see speakers who quickly settle on an arrangement pattern and then never change it Your main points should evolve as you conduct more research and practice the speech Below are four drafts of the same speech The thesis for the speech was Seattle should retrofit the existing viaduct instead of replacing it with a tunnel So after settling on the topic of the Alaskan Way viaduct rebuild I did some background research After a few hours of finding and reading articles about the viaduct I made my first draft of my main points Draft 1 T Seattle should retrofit the existing viaduct instead of replacing it with a cut and cover tunnel I Traffic would be horrible A the tunnel would reroute the traffic onto surface streets making for traffic nightmares B it will take years to build the tunnel II Seattle doesn t have the money for the tunnel project A cost for the tunnel vs cost for the viaduct B the need for other transportation maintenance C Seattle public schools need more money III Retrofitting the viaduct is just as safe as the tunnel A the existing tunnel was designed to survive an earthquake B there are other more dangerous roads and bridges that need our attention This draft responds to each major concern against the rebuild for the viaduct After drafting this up I started looking for specific pieces of evidence to support my claims the As Bs and Cs In doing so I found that I didn t have evidence that really proved point IIIB I didn t have any comparative figures Also I liked some of the evidence I found that refuted the argument that a tunnel would allow Seattle to turn the waterfront into a pedestrian park Given my research I went back and revised my main points and subpoints Draft 2 T Seattle should retrofit the existing viaduct instead of replacing it with a tunnel I The retrofit will make the viaduct safe A the viaduct was designed to stand up to an earthquake B the retrofit would strengthen older areas and make the viaduct capable of withstanding a massive earthquake II The retrofit costs less time money and disruption than the tunnel COM 220 Public Speaking 52 A the tunnel would cost about 4B the retrofit would cost about 200 M B the tunnel would take at least 3 years the retrofit would take about 3 months C when building the tunnel all traffic would be put out onto surface streets the retrofit allows the viaduct to stay open during the work III The retrofit buys us time to decide what we want to do with the waterfront After coming up with this draft I was familiar enough with the case that I could stand up and try giving the speech a real quick once through for delivery I did this because I discover things when I perform a speech that I can t see when it is just an outline on a computer screen The main thing I learned was that my point II was simply too long Also the new point III was a nice idea but it wasn t enough to support an entire main point So I sat back down and started to revise my points again I had all my research printed out so I started adding in more and more of the research that I liked and could talk about easily After about another 45 minutes or so I came up with the following outline Draft 3 T Seattle should retrofit the existing viaduct instead of replacing it with a tunnel I both the tunnel and the retrofit protect the corridor from earthquakes and strengthen the seawall A as a new project the tunnel is able to build to protect against earthquakes and strengthen the seawall 1 evidence Charles Royer s comment in the Seattle Times B the original viaduct was build to withstand earthquakes but was weakened as a result of a massive oil fire 1 evidence Seattle Times article about the fire C the retrofit can strengthen the existing structure to protect against massive earthquakes and also develop a separate project to strengthen the seawall 1 evidence engineer Art Skolnik 2 evidence Seattle Times article II The retrofit is cheaper than the tunnel A the tunnel would cost about 46 B 1 evidence the mayor s cost estimates 2 evidence the governor s cost estimates B the retrofit would cost about 600 M 400 M for the viaduct and 200 M for the seawall 1 evidence the independent engineer s estimates 2 evidence the state s estimates place it higher but still substantially lower than the tunnel 3 evidence Seattle Times article III The retrofit would cause less disruption than the tunnel A the tunnel would take at least 3 years and cause significant traffic problems and potential some business closures COM 220 Public Speaking 53 1 evidence the mayor s time estimates the most hopeful is 67 years of construction with 3 full years of closures 2 evidence Council Member Nick Licata s note about time estimates 3 evidence long term closure would displace the 48000 cars that drive on 99 and potentially move an additional 20000 cars daily to 15 B the retrofit would take 3 months and be less disruptive to traffic 1 evidence Art Skolnik s time estimate 2 evidence need another estimate here Conclusion the retrofit buys us time without sacrificing safety address land development I stood up and tried delivering this draft and I got through it pretty well By this point I knew what the evidence said so I could summarize it in a compelling fashion However I noticed that the speech dragged just a bit when the cost and time issues were separate points So I sat back down again and tinkered a bit with the points to try and consolidate the time and cost issue I also had learned more about the argument concerning the developable land along the waterfront in the meantime and I still liked that argument since it seemed to show that retrofit advocates had thought about most of the major issues So I came up with the following draft Draft 4 T Seattle should retrofit the existing viaduct instead of replacing it with a tunnel I Both the tunnel and the retrofit protect the corridor from earthquakes and strengthen the seawall A the original viaduct was build to withstand earthquakes but was weakened as a result of a massive oil fire 1 evidence Seattle Times article about the fire B the tunnel will be able to protect against earthquakes and strengthen the seawall 1 evidence Charles Royer s comment in the Seattle Times C Yet the retrofit can also strengthen the existing structure to protect against massive earthquakes and also develop a separate project to strengthen the seawall 1 evidence engineer Art Skolnik 2 evidence Seattle Times article II The retrofit is quicker and cheaper than the tunnel A The tunnel would cost about 46 B and take about 3 years causing significant traffic problems 1 evidence the mayor s cost estimates 2 evidence the governor s cost estimates 3 evidence the mayor s time estimates the most hopeful is 67 years of construction with 3 full years of closures 4 evidence Council Member Nick Licata s note about time estimates 5 evidence long term closure would displace the 48000 cars that drive on 99 and potentially move an additional 20000 cars daily to 15 COM 220 Public Speaking 54 B The retrofit would cost about 600 M 400 M for the viaduct and 200 M for the seawall and take about 3 months 1 evidence the independent engineer s estimates 2 evidence the state s estimates place it higher but still substantially lower than the tunnel 3 evidence Seattle Times article 4 evidence Art Skolnik s time estimate III The tunnel buys us time to figure out what we want the waterfront to become A tunnel advocates point to the public lands that the project will open up B right now we don t know exactly who will benefit from such development I then stood up and tried delivering draft four It wasn t as good as draft three I was rushing in point II because I had a lot of information and I was oundering in point III because I didn t have enough information So I went with draft three Why Because even though I liked the issue of land development I couldn t prove as much as I wanted to If I could have found enough evidence for the land development main point I would have gone with draft four because that draft allowed me to address all the major arguments against my position in that version Of course then time might have become an issue In which case I would have gone back to draft three anyway What s the take away lesson here Research writing revision and practice are all equal and often simultaneous parts of speech composition COM 220 Public Speaking 55 GALLERY WALK PRESENTATION ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION OBJECTIVES As a speaker you ll get some feedback from your audience learning how to adapt your speech to make it more persuasive to the oppositional members of your audience You ll also get a chance to practice the delivery of your speech before your performance is graded The gallery walk presentation is a full run through Though you will make changes you should view this as a full version of your speech Meaning you should know the speech and practice it before delivering your gallery walk presentation As always deliver the speech to your audience don t simply read your outline to them DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY On the day you are scheduled to speak in the gallery walk activity you will come to class with two printed out copies of your draft speech outline one for you to work off of while presenting and one for your audience to look at After moving all the chairs into the hallway or the center of the room the students speaking on that day will stand at stations around the room The rest of the class will divide themselves to the speakers and the speakers will then present to their small audiences who have a copy of the speaker s outline to review as well After the speech the audience members critique the speeches providing suggestions for improvement both orally and in written form on postit notes that they affix to the outlines The postit notes will serve as reminders to the speakers about changes they should make when they take their outlines home with them After enough time for the speech and some discussion the instructor will announce a shift and each audience group will move to the next outline EVALUATION A good gallery walk presenter 0 has two completed typed draft outlines o is delivering the speech competently A poor gallery walk presenter 0 has no outlines or shoddy outlines 0 is simply talking about the speech or reading the outline directly COM 220 Public Speaking 56 PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION Speech outlines are practical documents that allow you to map out your argument in a format conducive to extemporaneous speaking They provide a space for your classmates to comment on particular aspects of your speech during the gallery walk and for your instructor to provide assistance as you revise the speech Your speech outline should provide a roadmap of your speech allowing you to chart where and how you will make and support your main points When preparing your outline you need to avoid making your outline overly vague by not writing enough or overly specific by writing too much You should explain your evidence and work on making the wording in your main points clear and concise Ultimately the work you spend developing a strong outline will pay off with a better speech because you will learn and internalize the information as you write it up YOUR OUTLINE IS DUE THE DAY AFTER YOU PRESENT IN THE GALLERY WALK to give you time to make changes So if you present your gallery walk on Tuesday you turn in your outline online on Wednesday see the due dates listed on the speaker order sheet REQUIREMENTS 0 The outline is structured appropriately with 25 main points each with subpoints that support the main point 0 The introduction includes a clearly marked opener and thesis statement The conclusion includes a clear closer o The evidence is clearly stated in the outline The outline satisfies the speech requirements for number of sources The outline also follows appropriate citation procedures students should read the citation information available on the UW library s website httpwwwlibwashingtoneduresearchwrihtml All sources should be cited in the text of the outline and in the bibliography o The grammar spelling and punctuation are correct Your name the date your section and your instructor s name should appear on the first page of the outline COM 220 Public Speaking 57 I SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE Vanessa Au Sample Speech Topic 700car parking garage at the Woodland Park Zoo Opening Being forced to spend a lot of money on something you don t need and perhaps don t even want is never a good thing That is what is happening here in Seattle at the famous Woodland Park Zoo Seattle City Council is proposing the construction of a 700car parking garage to be built in 2008 but many neighbors and a council majority wants the city to rethink their plans Relevance The construction of the garage will be funded partly by us Seattle taxpayers If you live in the Phinney Ridge area you will also need to put up with the construction increased traffic and a change in the zoning of parking in your area The above ground garage is also an eyesore for Seattle residents Thesis We should reject City Council s proposal to build the 700car parking garage at the Woodland Park Zoo The parking garage is not necessary Woodland Park Deputy Director Bruce Bohmke claims that business is hampered by the parkingquot Seattle PI May 9 2006 but this simply is not the case a The perception that the zoo needed a garage was based on flawed research Evidence Projections about how many people will park in the garage and pay 5 up from the current 4 or more in addition to their zoo admission are quotwildly exaggeratedquot Seattle PI May 9 2006 Evidence Projections regarding demand were based on expectations that nearly all visitors will pay to park at the zoo But neighbors ask If they don39t do that now why would they do so in the future Seattle PI May 9 2006 b There are lots of parking places near the zoo Evidence Use of additional surface parking in the Woodland Park additional parking on city streets and shuttles from Northgate which has a new parking garage I 5 park and ride at NE 65th and school parking lots which are unused during the zoo s peak summer season Irene Wall president of the Phinney Ridge Community Council CrossCut news April 4 2007 c The existing zoo parking lots don t ll up Evidence Zoo neighbor Diane Duthweiler said the parking areas are empty much of the year Seattle PI April 10 2007 Evidence Councilmember Nick Conlin points out that The Zoo currently has 654 parking spaces About 55 of visitors use the zoo spaces many of which are COM 220 Public Speaking 58 vacant even on busy days as visitors prefer to park for free on the nearby streets Conlin s City Council Webpage Evidence there are 1800 spaces on neighborhood streets During the busiest 30 days of the year there are only about 1000 car loads of zoo visitors searching for those 1800 spots Seattle PI May 9 2006 II The parking garage is too costly a Zoo neighbors will end up having to pay extra money due to the garage s presence Evidence Neighbors of the zoo will have to also incur the costs of an annual 35 restricted parking zone RPZ pass to park on their own street This will be used to force people to park in the lot instead of on the street and is argued to be a cash cow for the city Seattle PI June 9 2005 b The garage will end up costing taxpayers a lot more than was originally estimated Evidence The mayor s proposed budget includes an 183 million bond that would be used to finance garage construction But with financing costs the garage would actually cost 31 millionPhinney Ridge Community Council November 8 2006 Evidence City used garage use miscalculations to figure that 19M of the debt would be covered by parking fees Seattle PI May 9 2006 c The garage could costing the zoo money instead of making money Evidence if the zoo defaults on its share of the debt the city could withhold payments that it makes to the Woodland Park Zoological Society for operation and maintenance Seattle PI May 9 2006 Conclusion Thesisreview Closer It comes down to this This is too much money for the city to spend on an unnecessary and unsightly garage Works Cited Akhmeteli Nina and Levi Pulkkinen Zoo Garage Opponents Make Final Plea A Bid to Win Over City Council as New Vote Nears Seattle Post Intelligencer 10 April 2007 ProQuest UW Lib Seattle WA 19 May 2007 lthttpseattlepinwsourcecomlocal311160garage11htmlgt Andrews Paul The Seattle Zoo39s Parking Garage Cost to City Might Double Rekindling a Controversy CrossCut News 4 April 2007 19 May 2007 lthttpwwwcrosscutcomneighborhoodscommunities1471gt Conlin Nick Zoo Garage Making It Work 94 7 May 7 2007 Newsletter lthttpwwwseattlegovCouncilConlinmiw0704miwhtm4gt COM 220 Public Speaking 59 Mulady Kathy Zoo Garage Numbers Assailed Seattle Post Intelligencer 9 May 2006 ProQuest UW Lib Seattle WA 19 May 2007 lthttpseattlepinwsourcecomlocal269512zoogarage09htmlgt Phinney Ridge Community Council City Council Refuses to ReEvaluate False Information Used to Justify Controversial Zoo Garage Phinney Ridge Community Council Appeals Environmental Analysis for Garage Memo 8 November 2006 ltWWWphinneyecovillagenetsaveourzooprccappealsgt COM 220 Public Speaking 60 CITIN G SOURCES ORALLY In your speeches you should provide oral footnotes These footnotes should indicate where you found a particular fact quote statistic etc Usually this can be done smoothly by saying the name of the source person andor organization and the credentials or background information that explains the credibility of that source If the date of that information will help establish credibility you should include that information as well As in all things how much you cite is a matter of judgment based on what your audience needs to know about that particular source In some instances this might be a passing reference just last week the Seattle Times reported that In other instances the source might take more center stage we know this to be true In fact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ran a study on this and found that in 20112012 When citing a source you want to make sure that we know what the source is You should paraphrase rather than quote directly to aid extemporaneous delivery unless the direct quotation is really important or really snappy and should be recited word for word If you are citing a direct quotation be sure to distinguish between your wordsthoughts and those that you are quoting For example In the words of Dr George LaMaster pause If it walks like a duck and sings like a giraffe it s a bad day to play golf Additional Examples You may choose to use information or direct quotes gathered from several types of sources Above all the citation should be informative and be delivered well Book According to historian Dan Howe South Carolina39s two senators resigned their seats in the United States Senate on November 10 1860 Note You can often discover the credibility of the source by reading the dust jacket or the short bibliography of the author at the back of the book However if this information is not available you should do research to discover more about the author and his or her credentials Newspaper Article The New York Times of October 2004 reported that current volcanic activity at Mount St Helens is less threatening than the activity prior to its 1980 eruption Note Since newspaper provide information that is timesensitive it is often important to include the date of the article in your oral footnote If the newspaper is a credible one and the article is not an editorial you usually don t have to include the name of the author in the oral footnote However you should almost always include the name of the newspaper in the oral footnote and the name of the person quoted Television Program As was reported on a June 2002 CNN special broadcast called Salmon on the Brink the salmon population of Washington has decreased continuously since 1984 Note Include the name and date of the broadcast and the name of the network COM 220 Public Speaking 61 Journal or Magazine Article University of Memphis professor and rhetorical critic Michael Leff wrote in the journal Communication Reports Lincoln s purpose in the speech is to develop a frame of passive acceptance a perspective capable of accounting for the horrors of the war and of justifying a conciliatory postwar policy Note As with newspaper articles and television programs it is often a good idea to include the date of the magazine or journal article in your oral footnote If it is a general interest magazine article the name of the author may not be important If it is an academic journal the name and credentials of the author probably is important Web Page On their website Human Rights Watch an international organization devoted to exposing human rights violations calls for an end to detention of immigrants in facilities designed to hold accused or convicted criminals They point out that these detainees are not being held for criminal sentences nor are they awaiting criminal trial but are often held in local jails where they are forced to mix with the general population of criminal prisoners Note Generally cite the organization instead of the url To find out who the author of information on a web page is and whether or not that author is credible you are often going to have to do some research Often the best way of starting is to go to the home page that is linked to the page you have discovered Interviews In an interview I conducted with Bill Smith the director of Undergraduate Housing at Boston College I discovered that no one is getting rich off of the dorm food service The income from student food contracts barely covers the cost of the utilities the labor and the food itself Note Make sure to include the interviewee s credentials so the audience can judge their credibility to speak on a certain topic If citing expert testimony include that person s name and some description of that person as well as where the interview was found As the University of Washington s Biology professor Dr Jones told the New York Times of October 12 2004 COM 220 Public Speaking 62 ADVOCACY SPEECH ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES After completing the advocacy speech students should be able to 0 develop a compelling case that effectively explains problems and provides appropriate solutions identify and discuss interesting and realistic actions that the audience can support highlight the congruency between various argumentative elements write and deliver a stylistically rich speech design and deliver a speech with appropriate emotional and delivery variations and intensities speak confidently with appropriate rate projection movement and vocal variety 0 adapt their delivery to account for a variety of environmental constraints and distractions ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION The advocacy speech is quite different from the impromptu and informative speeches In the impromptu speech you merely had to clearly explain your topic and argument In the informative speech you had to inform your audience but you didn t need to move them to action In the advocacy speech your audience may know nothing about the topic or argument so you must make the case In making the case for your topic you need to raise awareness about your topic by identifying a pressing problem discussing appropriate solutions and outlining specific steps that the audience can take to advance these solutions In so doing you must be clear the audience may have little to no existing knowledge you must be convincing you are trying to sway the audience that your argument is valid and you must be compelling you are trying to motivate the audience enough so that they want to take specific actions The advocacy speech requires the clarity of the impromptu the strategy and topic mastery of the informative plus a sense of style and presence BASIC REQUIREMENTS As part of the advocacy speech you must satisfy the following requirements You must develop an argument with congruent elements that raises audience awareness and motivates action We can assume that the audience on red Square knows little or nothing about your topic As such you need to quickly and clearly make your case You need to develop an argument that identifies problems andor causes outlines appropriate and congruent solutions to these problems and spells out specific and realistic actions that the audience can take that can advance the stated solutions COM 220 Public Speaking 63 You must write a stylistically rich speech You must write the speech through stylistic devices Your rich writing style must meld with the argument you are advancing You are not sprinkling one or two stylistically rich paragraphs here and there rather your entire argument is made in a stylistically rich way You must deliver the speech in an engaging manner Though many sections of your speech are written out you must deliver the speech in an engaging and dynamic manner Your delivery should capitalize on the figures of style written into the argument At a minimum you need to deliver the speech with appropriate projection and presence for the space You must stay within the time limits The speech should run 57 minutes Your assignment grade will be lowered by 5 points for every 45 seconds you speak under or over the target time range HINTS ON DOING WELL Select a topic that allows you to motivate The key thing is does your topic allow you to talk about a policy problem policy solutions and doable calls to action Steer clear of social ills I once had someone who wanted to do an advocacy speech on being nicer This was too vague Rather you are looking for broad policy issues that can be understood in a problemsolutionaction format same sex marriage increasing funding for NASA getting charter schools for Washington State increasing PE requirements in Washington State schools In a similar vein you might argue increasing funding or support for a specific nonprofit group working to end a larger ill Ihave had students argue quite compellingly for increased support for agencies working to end sex trafficking We will discuss advocacy topics more in class Make sure the argumentative elements work well together In thinking about your argument keep two items in mind stock issues and congruency So we will use stock issues for getting at most of the arguments in the advocacy speech It comes down to what s wrong and how can it be fixed or what s not wrong and why attempting to fix it is bad In an awareness raising situation this gets to the core elements Similarly you need to make sure that the various elements of your argument work well together We ll spend a day on this in class but the issue is are your solutions truly and clearly solving for the problems you identified Additionally do the calls to action truly and clearly advance the solutions discussed Write a stylistically rich argument In the advocacy speech you are writing for the ear You are carefully crafting a speech that will sound good even stirring when spoken This is quite a distance from the impromptu assignment where you delivered a clear but plainspoken speech Why do this Why write in this grander form of oratory For a couple of reasons One is that it allows you to meld your language style and argumentative aims Another reason is that it gives you a space to develop a richer sense of style Now you may not find yourself speaking in an occasion that calls for grand oratory but you will have a familiarity with stylistic devices A mastery of these devices allows you to instantly improve anything you say In a business meeting one or two stylistic devices in the appropriate places will make the presentation that much stronger and more memorable Of course there are many times you will find yourself in a COM 220 Public Speaking 64 position where more stylistically rich language is called for a wedding funeral religious services dedications etc Being able to craft a good line is always a good trait Deliver the speech s style appropriately Delivery is a huge component of this speech You are outside in front of an audience of strangers Delivery is key Certainly you will need to adapt to the space and adopt a bigger more dynamic persona in this speech At the very least you will need to significantly bring up your projection level simply to be heard outside Beyond simply bigger delivery though is the issue of delivering the style well In essence you need to write for good speech delivery and then in turn deliver the speech in a way that capitalizes on your writing If you look at the grading rubric for this assignment you ll see a number of specific elements like pacing pausing emotional tones and the like Just as the style needs to mesh with the argument the delivery needs to mesh with the style For example symploce as a stylistic device calls for a particular type of delivery cadence The part of your speech where you are talking about the problems calls for a different type of emotionality than when you are discussing your solutions Having spent lots of time crafting the language of your advocacy speech you need to devote considerable attention to how that writing sounds best when delivered Herein lies the challenge you have written a speech with style now you must deliver it in a way that doesn t sound read or memorized We ll talk more about this balancing act in class but it is one of the most important aspect of the advocacy speech Be serious in your efforts to be heard This speech is a unique opportunity to stand in a public area and demand attention People will literally stop in their tracks and listen to your argument The implication here is that it had better be a good argument and you had better be serious about your argument I m not saying that there can t be humor in your speech but that you should be serious about your topic and your intent In the past I have been discouraged when I see students playacting instead of speaking They get out there and scream and render their garments but it feels disingenuous Alternatively students simply stand there and read their notecards Both actions miss the point of the assignment which is to actually engage an audience of strangers with your honest and serious arguments It is difficult and potentially embarrassing but if you really commit yourself to being heard as a serious and engaging speaker you will get so much from this assignment COM 220 Public Speaking 65 Name ADVOCACY SPEECH EVALUATION excellent good adequate awed poormissing Note The percentages here are guidelines All these categories are mutually dependent Invention and Arrangement 35 The speaker addressed an appropriate topic in a comprehensive manner The speaker discussed the ill and blame and consequences if applicable effectively and appropriately The speaker discussed the cure effectively and appropriately The speaker discussed realistic calls to action effectively and appropriately The speaker s argumentative elements were congruent with one another The speaker used evidence effectively and appropriately The speaker oriented the audience to the topic in the introduction appropriately and effectively The speaker concluded the speech appropriately and effectively Style 30 The speaker included stylistic devices appropriately and effectively The speaker delivered the stylistic devices appropriately and effectively The speaker included emotional tones appropriately and effectively The speaker delivered the emotional tones appropriately and effectively Delivery 35 The speaker interacted with the environment and the audience effectively and appropriately The speaker spoke with appropriate projection for the space and the audience The speaker used notes effectively and appropriately The speaker used speech rate and vocal variety effectively and appropriately The speaker moved and gestured effectively and appropriately Additional Comments Time Time Penalty if any Grade for Speech COM 220 Public Speaking 66 HOLISTIC GRADING DESCRIPTIONS In addition to the above rubric I wanted to give you a more holistic description of what the different speeches often look and sound like What follows below is simply a discussion of some of the commonalities that occur when we see an excellent good adequate or poor speech Invention arrangement and delivery are all mutually dependent So a speaker might have excellent invention adequate arrangement and good delivery The resulting grade re ects this admixture Excellent advocacy speeches 81 90 Invention In excellent speeches the argument is very clear The speaker has done a good job of making a concise case for action The ill is wellstated and often well supported The evidence merges well with the writing By the end of the speech the audience understands the issue s clear and pressing need The cure fits the need perfectly An audience member can clearly understand how and why these particular solutions speak directly to the stated ills Blame and consequences when used also work to tighten the argument Argument congruency is an important part of excellent advocacy speeches these stylistically written speeches stand on a foundation of crystal clear logic Finally the calls to action are relevant interesting and doable The speaker provides sufficient information so each audience member knows what he or she must do in order to take the recommended action Arrangement Excellent speeches have a real sense of ow None of the speech s sections could be said to wander or lack focus rather each section fits perfectly with the other sections In terms of tone the different sections feel and sound different The writing and delivery in the ill is different from the blame andor calls to action In each case the section s tone matches its argument Style Excellent speeches have amazingly wellcrafted language The writing and argument have merged together seamlessly The stylistic devices are used in a way to amplify the underlying argument Rather than having a few stylistic devices throughout the speech the entire advocacy speech is written at a higher grander level thus magnifying the intensity of the argument Yet the stylistic devices are always appropriate to the argument and topic Delivery In excellent speeches the delivery is additive the delivery capitalizes on the stylistic writing and the strength of the argument to make the performance motivating and interesting The speaker appears to command the space with presence The speaker s volume is appropriate for the space loud enough to command attention but not so loud as to reduce the range of emotion available to the speaker The speaker s vocal variety and pacing work to highlight the argument and the stylistic devices The speaker builds effectively to an unmistakable conclusion Good advocacy speeches 7280 Invention In good speeches the argument is clear Most parts of the ill are discussed well There may be a few passages that don t feel as if they fit the ill quite as well The evidence is appropriate but at times can take away from the speech s momentum As with the ills the cures are also generally well argued Good speeches have strong argument congruency but the fit isn t as perfect as in in excellent speeches This could be because the speaker s cures don t cover all of the ills discussed or that the cures seem to address a related ill but not exactly the COM 220 Public Speaking 67 one discussed Finally the calls to action are relevant and doable While in excellent speeches these calls are informative and concise the class to action in good speeches aren t quite as clear After listening to the speech audience members may still have some questions about what they need to do in order to take up the action Arrangement Good speeches have a strong sense of ow That said unlike excellent speeches there are parts of good speeches that might wander or lack focus The speech has a sense of forward momentum but the overall structure simply isn t as tight as an excellent speech The sections have some sense of tonal difference While there may not be as many tones andor the differences may not be as significant as in the excellent speech such tones are present Style Good speeches have some excellent language use Many of the stylistic devices are integrated well into the speech However there are two different voices in the speech the stylistic one and the regular one Whereas an excellent speech has a consistent high style throughout the good speeches tack back and forth between a rich and overly plain style Delivery In good speeches the performer has devoted a fair bit of time and energy to finding the best delivery style However unlike excellent speeches good speeches have moments of great delivery as opposed to great delivery from beginning to end Good speakers appear comfortable in the space but they don t have a consistent presence The speaker s volume is appropriate for the space loud enough to command attention but not so loud as to reduce the range of emotion available to the speaker The speaker has some good vocal variety and pacing but there are also some places in the speech where the delivery drags a bit Adequate advocacy speeches 63 71 Invention In adequate speeches the argument is mixed While one element ill blame cure etc might be very clear the others might be lacking clarity This has a chain effect if the ill is unclear the cures won t make as much sense in the context of the speech Thus there tend to be a few congruency problems in adequate speeches While some of the evidence andor examples work well others seem to be odd choices Arrangement Adequate speeches need a greater sense of ow Often the opening sections need to be clearer and name the topic sooner or more clearly Some sections of the speech run either too short or drag on too long given what they are arguing Similarly there are some sections that undeniably lack focus Adequate speeches tend to not have much appropriate variation in tone and delivery While some delivery tones might be forced into sections of the speech these don t emerge organically from the argument and the writing Style Adequate speeches need a greater sense of style Whereas good speeches tack back and forth between a rich and overly plain style adequate speeches spend much of their time in the plain style Stylistic devices tend to stand out as noticeably inserted into the speech in that they don t seem to fit the rest of the argument and writing Delivery In adequate speeches the performer needs to develop a clearer sense of delivery style More often than not adequate speakers don t speak with enough volume for the space While they may not be uncomfortable adequate speakers do not have much of a sense for presence In COM 220 Public Speaking 68 many ways their delivery style seems more appropriate to the classroom than to the outdoor space Often adequate speakers are overly reliant on their note cards Ultimately adequate speeches sound like they need another couple of practices to bring the writing and delivery closer together Poor advocacy speeches 5462 Invention In poor speeches the argument is poor Multiple argumentative elements ill blame cure etc are vague or unclear At the end of the speech the audience may still not have a sense of the exact nature of the ill discussed In many cases this might stem from a lack of clear examples andor evidence or underdeveloped examples andor evidence Obviously argument congruency is a major problem in poor speeches the argumentative elements often feel disconnected from one another The calls to action tend to be few and poorly articulated Arrangement Poor speeches have a awed sense of ow Since the argumentative elements lack a compelling logic the arrangement tends to follow suit The speeches main sections tend to either be so underdeveloped that they fail to present enough relevant information or they drag on well past their usefulness and drain the speech of its momentum Style Poor speeches need significantly greater attention to style The attempts at style that are present are few and often poorly executed In listening to the speech it sounds as if the speaker never devoted much time to crafting the language of the speech Delivery The delivery in poor speeches actually harms the quality and clarity of the argument Poor speakers don t speak with enough volume for the space Poor speakers often don t change their delivery at all to accommodate the outdoor space Poor speakers often rely too heavily on their note cards Alternatively poor speakers have a rambling delivery since the speech wasn t planned out sufficiently Ultimately poor speeches sound like they paid little attention to crafting a strong delivery style Failing advocacy speeches 53 and below Invention Failing speakers develop and deliver speeches that have little to do with the assignment requirements If they deal with appropriate topics they make few if any attempts to motivate their audiences Such speeches can be rather apathetic or conversely rants that relate little to the assignment design Arrangement Failing speakers seem to have little to no sense of structure Main points and sub points if mentioned seem disconnected from one another and the thesis Style Failing speakers have little to no stylistic devices in the speech As an unprepared speech the speakers tend to opt for an entirely plain spoken style Delivery Failing speakers have inappropriate delivery This may mean that the speakers are clearly apathetic towards the entire act of giving a speech This may mean that the speakers are enthused but are doing so merely for comic effect or as a way of passionately advancing an inappropriate topic COM 220 Public Speaking 69 SOME FIGURES OF STYLE We Will discuss these figures of style in class but here is a listing of some The figures listed here barely scratch the surface of all the possible figures of style You can do a quick internet search for figures of style and find a wealth of options For a great listing of devices I really like the forest of rhetoric at httprhetoricbvuedu Alliteration The repetition of consonant sounds Asyndeton The omission of normally occurring conjunctions and or but for nor so yet Polysyndeton The insertion of excessive conjunctions Anaphora The repetition of the first word or set of words in a sentence clause or phrase Epistrophe The repetition of a word or phrase at the end of successive sentences or phrases Symploce The repetition of the first and last words in a clause over successive clauses Anadiplosis The repetition of the last word in one sentence at the beginning of the next sentence Anesis Adding a conclusion that diminishes What was said previously for contrastive effect Antithesis The pairing of contrasting words or ideas Appositio The elaboration and variation of a word Scesis Onomaton The elaboration and variation of a phrase COM 220 Public Speaking 70 SAMPLE ADVOCACY SPEECH MANUSCRIPT Below is a manuscript for a COM 220 advocacy speech While this speech I think needs more argumentative development the style is well done In terms of argument I think it needs a sharper discussion of the ill and the cure If these elements were better defined then the calls to action could also be a bit clearer I put the speech here because Ann did a really nice job of blending the stylistic writing with the nature of her argument That is you can t pull the argument and style apart they are one in the same COM 220 Advocacy Speech by Ann Trigg To Infinity and Beyond Those words first uttered by a DisneyPixar animation in 1995 can sum up the hopes and expectations of generations Since 1961 when JFK promised America we d land on the moon imaginations and dreams of galactic exploration have spilled into our culture An entire genre of fiction film books radio was born predicting the future of man in space discovering alien life forms exploring new fantastical worlds living somewhere other than Earth taking a step into the technological future that we know we re capable of creating It all starts with the moon The moon is the stepping stone to space exploration It s the first step to understanding all that space around us Until we can navigate the moon there s a very obvious limit to what we can accomplish If we can t invest in manned explorations to the moon the closest planetary body to Earth then how can we expect to ever roam farther than our own orbit NASA has been stuck using the technologies we developed back in the 50s and 60s But over the past four years NASA s Constellation program has been working to replace the original space shuttle model with new rockets and spacecrafts with new technology designed to carry crew and cargo to the International Space Station This means astronauts on the moon maybe Mars not robots but the return of man to space and with that the eyes of the entire world as we conquer the final frontier and unite not as individual countries but as Earthlings But recently aspirations to return astronauts to the Moon by 2020 have been completely dashed Like many agencies in recent years NASA has undergone a serious budget change And under President Obama s new budget plan NASA s Constellation program has been put on hold There are only two confirmed space shuttle launches left after which point the United States will rely on ironically enough our competitor in the Great Space Race Russia for access to the International Space Station But why Obama says the moon In the words of JFK why the moon Why choose this as our goal And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain Why 83 years ago y the Atlantic We choose to go to the moon We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things not because they are easy but because they are hard because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept one we are unwilling to postpone and one which we intend to win Debate on future human space ight is on the horizon again with Congress becoming increasingly concerned with more budget cuts than new adventures and without another bill from COM 220 Public Speaking 71 Congress manned missions to the moon by the United States could very well be obsolete in the next decade And we MUST garner support for manned missions for us for the world for the future we ve only seen through CGI It is difficult to express an opinion to the federal government It is impossible for a single student to sway the opinion of the federal government It is empowering to remember that the popular support of the public is ultimately the keeper of the federal government We must exert our in uence on our politicians on our Congressmen on our friends on our families We must email our congressman Jim McDermott at his formshousegovmcdermott website We must tell our friends and family through facebook or Twitter that our faith in NASA has not wavered like Obama s has We must make this issue known because without public support of NASA we will lose our global leadership enshrined by Neil Armstrong s first step on the moon in 1969 by the moment the world turned to look at us 1n awe In the words of Lou Friedman without a greater public will exerting in uence on the politicians we are not going to do better We need to harness public support and express that public will for the same reasons that Carl Sagan and Bruce Murray did 30 years ago Space exploration brings out the best in people and in nations enabling great adventures and great discoveries for the benefit of humankind And without this exploration without this unifying focus without this hope for a new wondrous world the future of human space travel looks altogether too bleak Up there are new hopes for knowledge and a new kind of peace Supporting NASA will lead to new discoveries and it is these discoveries that will usher in the future COM 220 Public Speaking 72 Selection from Barack Obama s speech to the Wisconsin Democratic Party Feb 2008 But understand this argument about words not mattering I the most important thing that we can do right now is to reengage the American people in the process of governance to get them excited and interested again in what works and what can work in your government to make politics cool again and important again and relevant again don t tell me words don t matter I have a dream just words We hold these truths to be selfevident that all men are created equal just words We have nothing to fear but fear itself just words Just speeches It s true that speeches don t solve our problems but what is also true is if we cannot inspire the country to believe again then it doesn t matter how many policies and plans we have and that is why I m running for president of the United States of America and that 3 why we just won eight elections straight because the American people want to believe in change again don t tell me words don t matter Don t tell me ideals and inspiration don t matter don t tell me hope doesn t matter It s fascinating for me to see lately my campaign criticized because I talked about hope too much He s talking about hope again he s so naive he s so idealistic his head is in the clouds he s a hope monger but democrats I also know this I also know this that nothing in this country worthwhile has ever happened except somebody somewhere was willing to hope That s how this country was founded by that greatest generation by that group of patriots that declared independence against the mighty British Empire nobody gave them a chance That s how slaves and abolitionists resisted that wicked system And how a new president charted a course to ensure this country would not remain half slave and half free That is how the greatest generation my grandparents generation my grandfather fighting in the World War two my grandmother staying behind with a baby working on a bomber assembly line how that greatest generation defeated Hitler and lifted itself up out of the great depression That s how we populated the West pioneers with great courage but also hope That s how immigrants came from distant shores uncertain about what they would find when they arrived but knowing they want a better life for their children That is how workers won the right to organize against violence and intimidation That s how women won the right to vote That s how young people travel South to march and to set in and to be beaten and some went to jail and some died for freedom s cause That s what hope is That 3 what hope is Imagining and then fighting for and then working for what would not seem possible before That s leadership John F Kennedy did not look up at the moon and say Oh that s too far we can t go false hopes Martin Luther King didn t stand on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and say Go home everybody the dreams deferred false hopes y all need a reality check COM 220 Public Speaking 73 There is a moment in the life of every generation when that spirit of hopefulness has to come through if we are to make our mark on our history When we cast aside the fear and the doubt and the cynicism and we stop settling for what the cynics tell us we have to settle for When we join together and we decide that we are gonna roll up our sleeves and we are gonna remake this country block by block neighborhood by neighborhood county by county state by state When we decide in our guts when we are determined that our children and grandchildren deserve the same chances as somebody gave us When we make a determination that we are willing to fight on the basis of the conviction that we are gonna keep the dream alive for those who still yearn for justice who still thirst for opportunity And democrats this is our moment This is our time And if you will stand with me on Tuesday If you vote for me on Tuesday If you are willing to keep on marching and organizing and knocking on doors and making phone calls and attracting young people and getting old folks reinvigorated and getting the middle folks involved I promise you we will not just win Wisconsin we will win this nomination we will win the general election and together you and I we will change this country and we will transform the world Thank you Wisconsin I love you COM 220 Public Speaking 74 Ronald Reagan The Space Shuttle quotChallengerquot Tragedy Address Delivered 28 January 1986 Ladies and Gentlemen I39d planned to speakto you tonight to report on the state of the Union but the events of earlier today have led me to change those plans Today is a day for mourning and remembering Nancy and I are pained to the core by the tragedy of the shuttle Challenger We know we share this pain with all of the people of our country This is truly a national loss Nineteen years ago almost to the day we lost three astronauts in a terrible accident on the ground But we39ve never lost an astronaut in ight We39ve never had a tragedy like this And perhaps we39ve forgotten the courage it took for the crew of the shuttle But they the Challenger Seven were aware of the dangers but overcame them and did their jobs brilliantly We mourn seven heroes Michael Smith Dick Scobee Judith Resnik Ronald McNair Ellison Onizuka Gregory Jarvis and Christa McAuliffe We mourn their loss as a nation together For the families of the seven we cannot bear as you do the full impact of this tragedy But we feel the loss and we39re thinking about you so very much Your loved ones were daring and brave and they had that special grace that special spirit that says quotGive me a challenge and I39ll meet it with joyquot They had a hunger to explore the universe and discover its truths They wished to serve and they did They served all of us We39ve grown used to wonders in this century It39s hard to dazzle us But for twentyfive years the United States space program has been doing just that We39ve grown used to the idea of space and perhaps we forget that we39ve only just begun We39re still pioneers They the members of the Challenger crew were pioneers And I want to say something to the schoolchildren of America who were watching the live coverage of the shuttle39s takeoff I know it39s hard to understand but sometimes painful things like this happen It39s all part of the process of exploration and discovery It39s all part of taking a chance and expanding man39s horizons The future doesn39t belong to the fainthearted it belongs to the brave The Challenger crew was pulling us into the future and we39ll continue to follow them I39ve always had great faith in and respect for our space program And what happened today does nothing to diminish it We don39t hide our space program We don39t keep secrets and cover things up We do it all up front and in public That39s the way freedom is and we wouldn39t change it for a minute We39ll continue our quest in space There will be more shuttle ights and more shuttle crews and yes more volunteers more civilians more teachers in space Nothing ends here our hopes and our journeys continue COM 220 Public Speaking 75 I want to add that I wish I could talk to every man and woman who works for NASA or who worked on this mission and tell them quotYour dedication and professionalism have moved and impressed us for decades And we know of your anguish We share itquot There39s a coincidence today On this day three hundred and ninety years ago the great explorer Sir Francis Drake died aboard ship off the coast of Panama In his lifetime the great frontiers were the oceans and a historian later said quotHe lived by the sea died on it and was buried in itquot Well today we can say of the Challenger crew Their dedication was like Drake39s complete The crew of the space shuttle Challenger honored us by the manner in which they lived their lives We will never forget them nor the last time we saw them this morning as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and quotslipped the surly bonds of earthquot to quottouch the face of Godquot Thank you COM 220 Public Speaking 76 George W Bush The Space Shuttle quotColumbiaquot Tragedy Speech to the Nation Delivered 1 February 2008 My fellow Americans this day has brought terrible news and great sadness to our country At nine o39clock this morning Mission Control in Houston lost contact with our Space Shuttle Columbia A short time later debris was seen falling from the skies above Texas The Columbia is lost there are no survivors On board was a crew of seven Colonel Rick Husband Lt Colonel Michael Anderson Commander Laurel Clark Captain David Brown Commander William McCool Dr Kalpana Chawla and Ilan Ramon a Colonel in the Israeli Air Force These men and women assumed great risk in the service to all humanity In an age when space ight has come to seem almost routine it is easy to overlook the dangers of travel by rocket and the difficulties of navigating the fierce outer atmosphere of the Earth These astronauts knew the dangers and they faced them willingly knowing they had a high and noble purpose in life Because of their courage and daring and idealism we will miss them all the more All Americans today are thinking as well of the families of these men and women who have been given this sudden shock and grief You39re not alone Our entire nation grieves with you And those you loved will always have the respect and gratitude of this country The cause in which they died will continue Mankind is led into the darkness beyond our world by the inspiration of discovery and the longing to understand Our journey into space will go on In the skies today we saw destruction and tragedy Yet farther than we can see there is comfort and hope In the words of the prophet Isaiah quotLift your eyes and look to the heavens Who created all these He who brings out the starry hosts one by one and calls them each by name Because of His great power and mighty strength not one of them is missingquot The same Creator who names the stars also knows the names of the seven souls we mourn today The crew of the shuttle Columbia did not return safely to Earth yet we can pray that all are safely home May God bless the grieving families And may may God continue to bless America COM 220 Public Speaking 77 CHAPTER 1 PUBLICSPEAKING ANXIETY GETTING TO KNOW WHAT AILS YOU Most everyone gets anxious about giving speeches For some the anxiety is overwhelming or close to it Here39s how one 39 yearold business executive describes his experience I get panicky about two weeks before the speech and there39ll be a few nights that I can39t sleep because I39m so worried about it Then when I give the speech I feel like I39m out of control like I don t really know what I39m doing up there My heart is pounding so hard I actually think I39m going to burst something All I can think about is getting it over with and then when it s nally over I can39t remember what happened It39s like I39ve practically blacked out during the speech A nurse in her early 305 puts it this way I just know something is going to go wrong and I39ll embarrass myself in front of everyone So I39m scared I shake all over my hands my knees my voice It39s terrible From a young man just starting out in public relations I always get through the speech but I don39t know how because I39m petri ed And it seems like there39s nothing I can do about it I39m giving the speech saying what I prepared but it feels like some sort of robot is talking instead of me because my mind is full of a zillion 2 OVERCOMING YOUR FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING AFTER 1 3 at it can be licked and will help you to understand the quot preach we will be taking to solve the problem disjointed thoughts rushing around about my gestures and voice and eye contact and even about my nervousness maybe especially that I sit down feeling relieved that it39s over but not really satis ed that I39ve given a very good speech quotDU ARE NOT ALONE Eractically everyone about 85 of the population in fact eXperiences stage fright when they give a speech Not all of these experiences are as severe as yours maybe but you probably would be surprised to know how many are Surveys show for example that the number one fear among American adults ranking above the fear of snakes heights disease f nancial problems or even death is the fear of speaking before a group This is not logical of course since the alconsequences of giving a speech are rarely on a par with i idisease nancial problems falls from heights and so forth 39 But then lots of things about stage fright are illogical It may surprise you also to realize that among those who experience extreme stage fright are persons well known for being particularly good speakers There are stories of extreme anxiety among some of our most successful and 39 experienced politicians evangelists and entertainers Franklin Roosevelt Ronald Reagan Billy Graham Jane Fonda Paul Lynde Lily Tomlin and Laurence Olivier are just a few of those reported to have suffered from extreme stage fright So in terms of your own public speaking maybe you can take some comfort in knowing that you are not alone in experiencing the anxiety And there should be some comfort in knowing that since the fear is practically universal it obviously does not prevent successful speeches Yet I39ll bet you are thinking that even if a lot of successful speakers have stage fright it would still be nicer if you could be a successful speaker without it I agree and achieving that goal is precisely what this book is about You get the idea I imagine and chances are that you could provide your own description from your own experience The details might vary a bit but the bottom line is the same Anxiety about public speaking is unpleasant at the very least If the anxiety is severe enough it can interfere with our ability to give a decent speech It can even interfere with our willingness to give a speech at all These days most of us are called upon to give speeches from time to time And the frequency of these invitations or assignments increases as we become more active or prominent in our respective vocations communities business and professional associations and so forth It makes sense that those who experience anxiety in public speaking situations wish there were something they could do about it I m assuming that as a reader of this book you are one such speaker I am assuming also that you can indeed do something about your anxiety and can become a con dent relaxed and competent speaker I can say this without knowing you personally simply because so many others in your predicament have been helped already through the very same approach that we will take in this book What I want to do in this rst chapter is to acquaint you a bit with the nature of the problem Of course your past speech experiences may have made you as well acquainted with stage fright as you care to be But it will be worthwhile to look at the anxiety in a more detached way A basic understanding of the problem will help to give you con dence 7 3 I 4 q OVERCOMING YOUR FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING By the way it is only about publicspeaking anxiety It is not about the stage fright of actors musicians and other performers Nor is it about shyness reticence and the like see Philip Zimbardo s excellent book Shyness if you are concerned about anxiety in everyday communication situations In essence this book presents a treatment that has been employed successfully with hundreds of highanxiety speakers over the past several years I39ve also included a few chapters on basic publicspeaking principles geared speci cally to improving your speeches whether in the classroom or in business professional community or other real world situations So that39s where we39re going Let me give you an idea of how we39re going to get there by brie y introducing a new way of viewing your stage fright and a new way of viewing your speeches SPEECH ANXIETY WHAT IS IT MADE OF There is one component of speech anXiety that you are no doubt already familiar with namely the physical symptoms Most individuals report some combination of signs like sweaty palms dry mouth increased heart rate shaky hands quivering voice weak knees shortness of breath and butter ies in the stomach With all of this going on inside it is no wonder that the experience can be an unpleasant one For some people it is so unpleasant that public speaking situations are avoided completely even to the point of sacri cing success in a chosen vocation For example I have treated attorneys ministers and publicrelations executives who were on the verge of quitting their professions altogether in order to avoid the anxiety that accompanied their public speaking obligations And I have treated others in various eldsvwho were sacri cing their own upward mobility by CHAPTER 1 39 I 5 passing off speaking assignments to colleagues All of these individuals were able to conquer their anxiety by the way The physical symptoms are just one component of speech anxiety however There is a second element which though less familiar is in some ways more important namely the psychological interpretation of the symptoms A few speakers for example will notice an increased heart rate or a queasy stomach and actually interpret the symptoms as a positive sign of being charged up or emotionally ready for the speech For these rare individuals the physical symptoms remain fairly subdued and are not particularly bothersome It would be nice if we all interpreted the symptoms positively but most of us don39t Instead we interpret the symptoms negatively The psychology behind this interpretation is both curious and important to understand Physically the symptoms are similar though not identical to the symptoms that occur when we experience fear Thus it is easy for the anxious speaker to assume that the symptoms represent fear But once we label an emotion as fear we have to psychologically justify it by nding an object of the fear something to be afraid of Consequently many speakers at this point begin to imagine and invent problems that might occur should their speech be less than perfect These imagined consequences are almost always exaggerated and irrational As a simple example many speakers will claim It s going to be embarrassing if I make a mistake These individuals will later acknowledge however that their experience as audience members shows that audiences are in fact quite forgiving of a speaker39s errors as long as the speech is generally worthwhile And that39s true isn39t it From a rational point of View the fear of being ridiculed for minor mistakes is obviously exaggerated So are 6 OVERCOMING YOUR FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING almost all of the other justi cations speakers invent for their fears as we will see later Now to make matters worse the two components we have mentioned so far the physical symptoms and the fear interpretations can interact with one another to make a proverbial vicious cycle The speaker interprets the symptoms as fear and invents justi cations for the fear This in turn intensi es the symptoms which then leads to even worse fears which also have to be rationalized and so on Feeding off one another both components can escalate to the point of extreme physiological arousal coupled with thoughts that catastrophic consequences of the speech are inevitable In my research for example I have measured heart rates of over 200 beats per minute in speakers who have become convinced that they will make fools of themselves during their speech ONE MORE CRUCIAL COMPONENT This view of speech anxiety physical symptoms and fear oriented rationalizations cycling and refueling one another has been around for many years But it has always raised a version of the old chickenand egg question Which comes rst the symptoms or the imagined fears And whichever comes rst what causes it to get started in the rst place Newer views of speech anxiety would answer that what comes rst and what gets the physical and psychological cycle rolling so to speak is yet another phase of publicspeaking anxiety What gets the cycle rolling in the rst place has to do with the speaker39s view of speeches in general Speci cally most speakers with stage fright view speeches as performances They View the speaker s role as that of satisfying an audience of critics set on evaluating the speaker39s behaviors gestures language eye contact and so forth Speakers with this performance orientation cannot CHAPTER l 7 describe with much precision just what kinds of behavior the audience critics expect but they assume at least that proper publicspeaking behaviors should be rather formal and arti cial somehow better than their natural everyday speech An alternative orientation and the one taken by many lowanxiety speakers is the view that a speech is not a performance but a communication encounter Here the speaker39s role is to share ideas with an audience who is more interested in hearing what the speaker has to say than in analyzing or criticizing a performance Notice that this creates a situation which at least in terms of its objectives is not very different from everyday conversation Later we will see that it doesn t differ much from everyday conversation in terms of behaviors either As for how these different perspectives affect anxiety it happens that the performance orientation has certain anxiety arousing associations built in In very basic terms it works like this Our physical fight or ight response increased adrenaline increased heart rate and other related physical symptoms is triggered by all kinds of emergency events One of the things that will set off this response in most any social situation is knowing or believing that we are going to be evaluated Something else that almost always triggers the response is being uncertain about proper or formal behavior in unfamiliar circumstances Since both a concern about being evaluated and a concern about proper behaviors are part of the performance orientation they trigger the physiological symptoms of anxiety in public speaking just like they do in other situations Speech anxiety may thus be thought of as at least a threestage phenomenon the performance orientation triggers the physiological arousal which in turn triggers the fear interpretation which cycles with rationalizations and 8 OVERCOMING YOUR FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 6quot justi cations for the fear All of this begins well in advance of the 30131131 Speech and continues into the speech itself Here is a simple diagram of the process THE PRIMARY PHASES OF PUBLICSPEAKING ANXIETY l 39 2 3 Performance gt Physical gt Psychological Orientation Arousal lt lnferprelalion THERAPY APPROACHES So high speech anxiety apparently contains three components 1 a performance orientation causes 2 certain physical symptoms which are 3 interpreted through irrational justifications It makes sense then that therapy for speech anxiety should be aimed at one or more of these components And that is just what we nd when we examine successful therapy techniques for publicspeaking anxiety One popular approach for example concentrates on improving general publicspeaking skills The assumption is that speakers needn39t be so anxious about audience reactions once they have polished their speaking skills The jury is still out on this approach Some have argued that while it may produce more polished speeches it does not actually reduce anxiety Still the approach does seem useful for those with mild anxiety who are interested primarily in netuning their speaking style In any case publicspeaking ability and publicspeaking anxiety clearly do not go hand in hand Some extremely CHAPTER 1 9 anxious speakers are quite excellent in everyone s opinion but their own and speakers who approach the task39so casually as to experience virtually no anxiety often do quite poorly Most of us would like to have our cake and eat it too that is to get rid of our anxiety am be a good speaker And that is why this book devotes a good bit of attention to improving your speeches We Will assume however that reducing the anxiety must come first It doesn39t do much good to know how to give an excellent speech if you are afraid to give one Another popular therapy approach called systematic desensitization deals directly with the physical component of speech anxiety This approach involves training in muscle relaxation techniques coupled with Visual imagery of public speaking situations The target is to reach a state of physical relaxation while imagining oneself giving a speech 39The assumption is that one cannot be psychologically anxious while being physically relaxed Typically the technique begins with the mental image of an event fairly remote from one39s own speech such as imagining being in the audience for someone else39s speech Once relaxation is achieved with that image the relaxation process is repeated for graduated images The nale is staying relaxed while visualizing yourself giving a speech Although this approach is reported to be successful with many speakers it is not the approach we will use That doesn39t mean that we will ignore the physical component of speech anxiety We will just deal with it in different ways Another popular treatment approach rational emotive therapy is aimed at the mental interpretations of speech anxiety In particular it attempts to get the anxious speaker to realize that many of the accompanying fears are irrational Once speakers attempt to articulate what it is that they are afraid of a trained objective outsider can point 1O OVERCOMING YOUR FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING out logical aws in the corresponding reasoning and can help the speaker toward a more realistic and less fearoriented View of the anxiety As a simple example students of my public speaking courses often report that their object of fear is the grade they are to receive on the impending speech If this were true then my offer to leave the room and allow the speech to remain ungraded would eliminate the anxiety It doesn39t of course since the fear of audience evaluation remains and out the window goes one myth about the speaker39s object of fear More typically speakers will articulate irrational overgeneralizations I never speak well or selfful lling prophecies I39m going to bore them to death Rational emotive therapy replaces such statements with more positive and reasonable ones I can explain my point of view to friends so I should be able to do so with this 39 audience or Since this information is interesting to me I should be able to make it interesting to others Rational emotive therapy is not the primary technique employed in this book but we will borrow some of its strategies Throughout the book your irrational views of what is likely to happen to you during a speech will be replaced with more realistic and less anxietyridden views and knowledge OUR APPROACH v Having discussed therapy techniques that we won39t be using let me introduce the approach that we will be using I emphasize introduce I39ll describe what the approach tries to do but this isn39t where we39re going to try to do it By far the most successful technique I have encountered focuses on the initial component of the speech anxiety the performance orientation The premise is that if a performanceoriented View of public speaking is what initiates the entire cycle in the rst place then changing that View should dramatically reduce the speech anxiety This CHAPTER I l I approach operates by persuading the speaker that the goals attitudes and behaviors that make for effective public speaking are in fact more like those of ordinary communication encounters than of public performances This view happens to be entirely consistent with contemporary instruction in public speaking by the way Once an individual genuinely approaches a speech as a communication task rather than a performance it becomes more closely associated with daily communication episodes than with past anxietyridden performance experiences Speech anxiety almost always subsides and the speech almost always improves As a simple example notice that true performances plays musical recitals tapdance routines and so forth usually present memorized material When we hear a speech that sounds memorized however we usually don39t like it By the same token anyone who has experienced a memory block during a performance understands one reason why true performance produces anxiety Thus the reason that speakers are routinely advised not to memorize speeches is that memorization both increases anxiety and produces an arti cial speaking style Notice also that one of the goals of a performance is to receive from the audience a positive evaluation of one39s performance skills When this impending evaluation becomes a focus of attention anxiety usually follows An alternative is to focus instead on more practical goals and more realistic audience responses For example a jazz combo of which I am a member recently played its debut performance As we assembled our instruments and equipment the dominant topic of conversation was the stage fright being experienced by most of the members But the anxiety was almost totally and immediately eliminated by suggesting that our real goal was not to get applause but for the audience to have fun 12 OVERCOMING YOUR FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING And the audience would probably have fun if we had fun so we should just stop worrying and have some fun playing our music A nice fringe bene t was that this not only eliminated the anxiety but in turn improved our music I think And it is a safe assumption that whatever mistakes we made were easily ignored or forgiven by the audience as long as they were having fun with the music The analogy for most speeches would be to recognize that the true goal is for the audience to understand the speaker39s information and point of View Thus the main thing the speaker needs to do in the speech is simply to explain the venous points clearly It helps to recognize that unlike our school classmates who counted the number of times we said uh during our book reports the typical speech audience is more interested in hearing what we have to say than in evaluating our performance skills To put it another way the preferred alternative to the performance orientation is a communication orientation This alternate view assumes that a good speech is one that achieves its primary communicative purpose the audience39s information gain attitude change or whatever I am reminded for example of a highschool valedictory address I heard a few years ago in which the speaker employed considerable oratorical air and embellishment fancy language dramatic shifts in volume practiced gestures and so forth It was truly spectacular When afterward I asked another audience member her thoughts on what the young man had said her reply was I really didn39t understand what he said but it certainly was a good speech wasn39t it The performance orientation might answer yes but a communication orientation would reply no That is if the speaker39s ideas were not received or understood by the audience then the speech failed no matter how eloquent the speaker might otherwise have been CHAPTER 1 393 By the same token when a speaker accomplishes the goal of sharing the intended message with the audience then the speech is successful regardless of how unpolished the speaker might appear upon closer inspection Polish and eloquence have their virtues certainly but substance and communicative clarity are much more worthy primary objectives for the speaker They are also less anxiety arousing Ironically though discarding the performance orientation in favor of a communication orientation actually improves the speaker as a speaker That is to say many of the aspects of performance with which the anxious speaker is most concerned gestures vocal in ection facial expression and so forth are in fact greatly improved by abandoning the performance orientation Most notably high anxiety speakers as part of their performance orientation are almost invariably worried about their style of delivery Notice however that by far the most important quality of a speaker39s delivery is directness the audience39s impression that they are truly being spoken with rather than spoken at We have all been members of audiences in which the speaker appeared to be delivering a soliloquy in some sort of farremoved oblivion We have also been in audiences when the speaker seemed to be truly relating talking directly with us and with every other individual present Almost always the speaker39s attitude in the former situation is one of performing and the accompanying behaviors are unnatural artificial and phony And almost always the attitude in the latter situation is one of genuine communication accompanied by behaviors that are spontaneously natural and familiar For true performances piano recitals public soliloquies and so forth one is expected to have unusual behavioral skills and to show them off For communication 14 OVERCOMING YOUR FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING we may rely on more ordinary and natural behaviors and certainly do not need to show them off The gestures vocal in ections facial expressions and so forth preferred in speeches are basically the same as those employed in the speaker39s everyday conversation so the basic skills are already in the speaker39s repertoire The idea that public speaking is more like conversation than like performance is sometimes dif cult to accept by performanceoriented speakers but consider this There are only two primary differences between what you do when you engage in conversation and what you do when you give a speech In a speech 1 you talk longer before your turn is up and 2 you get to take more time planning organizing and clarifying your thoughts before you speak The advance planning is the hard part but once that is accomplished the actual speech presentation is the easy part There is one more difference between conversing and public speaking of course In speeches you get to share your ideas with more people all at once It is not the size of the audience that determines whether the encounter is viewed as performance or communication however An exercise I have used in speechanxiety seminars demonstrates the point As the speaker approaches the podium the instructor temporarily dismisses the audience but stays to initiate a oneway conversation with the speaker Basically the speaker s instructions are to forget about giving a speech to an audience and instead simply talk spontaneously to the instructor using the speech outline notes only as an organizational guide In this oneto one relationship the speaker will feel rather silly orating or performing so a natural conversational directness complete with conversational language in ection gestures and so forthw quickly develops The speaker then is instructed to maintain the conversational style while an assistant has the audience CHAPTER I 1 5 gradually return a few at a time so that all are present by r the end of the talking The question of course is at what pomt did the talking become a speech Ideally and usually the speaker will have maintained the conversational d1rectnessattitudinally and behaviorally throughout If not then the transition from talk to speech is invariany identi ed by the audience as the point at which naturalness and effectiveness began to decrease and by the speaker as the point at which anxiety began to increase Thus it is not a the size of the audience that makes a speech a performance but rather the speaker39s goals attitudes and behaviors ROUNDING OUT THE APPROACH There are a couple of good reasons why I prefer to gear speechanxiety treatment toward replacing the performance orientation with a communication orientation First it 7 makes sense that if the entire speechanxiety cycle is set into motion by the performance orientation then getting rid of L that orientation would get rid of the anxiety And if substituting the communication orientation improves the speech then all the more reason to focus there Second it s not Just a matter of logic or theory I have seen hundreds of cases in which this approach has been followed by 7 dramatically reduced anxiety and by dramatically improved 3 speeches Third there is impressive scienti c evidence that I this approach works very effectively For example a study was conducted at the University of California Davis to compare certain leading approaches to anxiety reduction Highspeechanxiety individuals were randomly assigned to one of four groups One was a control group that received no g treatment until after the study was completed and a second group read a popular book on stage fright A third group recelved systematicdesensitization therapy of the sort we dlscussed earlier and the fourth group simply read the rst 1639 OVERCOMING YOUR FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING three chapters of a draft version of this book The rst two groups experienced no appreciable change in anxiety The anxiety of the people in the systematicdesensitization group dropped from High to Moderately High But the anxiety of those who simply read this book dropped more than twice that much from High to Moderately Low So there are good reasons to focus our attention on replacing the performance orientation with a communication orientation But this doesn39t mean that attention to the other components of anxiety is not worthwhile In fact since the various parts tend to go hand in hand it makes sense that any therapy aimed at one phase of the anxiety would do well to pay a fair amount of attention to the others Thus while we will concentrate on replacing the performance orientation we will not ignore the other components of speech anxiety the physical arousal and the irrational fears and interpretations What we will end up with is a very complete treatment for speech anxiety Sometimes the complete treatment isn39t even necessary For example many of the people I counsel can easily replace their performanceoriented misconceptions with a new communicationoriented View and they experience a tremendous reduction in anxiety almost immediately Let me relate a case in point that of a young business man I met on a ski lift one day After I mentioned during our initial small talk that I was a communication professor he told me that he experienced really bad stage fright about public speaking In the next fteen minutes or so I told him about the importance of approaching speeches as communication events instead of performances There was only enough time to cover some of the general points I39ve made in the few preceding pages of this chapter before we exchanged business cards hopped off the lift and skied off in different directions That was the last I saw of him but I received a most CHAPTER I A 17 satisfying note a few days later about his having successfully delivered a very important speech without appreciable anxiety The note expressed his pleasure and surprise at having been able to conquer his almost lifelong speech anxiety after such a short conversation on a ski lift saying It39s a miracle that just thinking about getting my points across instead of snowing everybody could make such a difference Sometimes it39s that easy Often it39s almost that easy The point is that while I don t usually do counseling in fifteen minutes or on ski lifts my approach always begins with the need to change the performance orientation Likewise that will be the focus of this book Some people have an easy time accepting the orientation shift If you are one of those you probably feel at least a little better already and will probably feel completely satis ed well before you nish the book Other people are more reluctant to accept the orientation shift In those cases my treatment goes into certain other areas So does the book
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