PSY 270 Chapter 7 notes continued
PSY 270 Chapter 7 notes continued PSY 270
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Grissom on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Definitions Examples Important Information PSY 270 Chapter 7 notes continued Emotions: The state of feeling that has physiological (the body’s reaction), situational (environmental factors), and cognitive (ideas or thoughts) components Development of emotions: To measure emotions prelinguistically, researchers use observations and measure brain waves Types of expression: 1) Positive Attraction to pleasant stimulation 2) Withdrawal Emotions from aversive or negative stimulation Izard’s differential emotional theory states that infants are born with discrete emotional states that appear around the same time cognitive and social functions develop Izard’s MDFMSS (Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Scoring System chart system that determines the emotion that an infant is conveying Fear of strangers: Anxiety around strangers is normal Most children exhibit distress with strangers, but distress lessens when the mother is present 45 months: infants smile more at primary caregivers than at strangers because they have developed a preference 912 months: fear peaks and declines at 2 years 1824 months: fear peaks and declines at 3 years Social References: Seeking another’s perception of a situation in order to form our own view and opinions on the same situation Developed around 6 months of age Requires: 1) Looking towards an individual during a new situation 2) Associating the individual’s emotions with that specific situation 3) Regulating emotions according to that of the other individual How does one regulate his/her emotions? Emotional Regulation: Different ways in which one controls his/her emotions Ex) thumb sucking or looking away from an unwanted object Children learn how to regulate their emotions with the help of caregivers Two way communication There’s a positive correlation between secure attachment to mothers and higher abilities for a child to regulate his/her emotions Temperament: A stable individual’s differences in styles of reaction Present at a very early age Basic foundation for personality Contains a genetic component Types of temperament: 1) Easy (40%) Mostly positive, regular, adaptable, and curious children Contain moderate to low emotional intensity 2) Difficult (10%) Negative, irregular, slow to adapt children who withdraw from new situations High emotional intensity present 3) Slow to warm up (15%) Usually calm, inactive children Exhibit mild positive and negative reactions Moderate stability beyond infancy Main emotional extremes are shyness vs. extraversion and difficult temperament The 5 factor model expresses the building blocks for adult personality Does our personality define us? Selfconcept: The sense of self and impression of oneself Selfawareness allows for: Sharing and cooperation Selfconscious emotions Selfconcept develops gradually 18 months: children succeed in mirror test (marking a child’s face to test whether they recognize that they are seeing their reflection) 24 months: children recognize themselves in pictures and use “I” when introducing themselves Gender Differences: Sex the sex chromosomes that differentiate reproductive anatomy Gender societal roles based on sex or internal selfidentification Girls are faster to develop motor skills Boys and girls have similar sensory development and preferences At early ages, boys and girls equally prefer toys with faces 1218 months: gender specific toys are preferred Girls prefer faces (dolls) Boys prefer moving parts (cars) 24 months: children are aware of gender consistent/inconsistent behaviors and correct their peers Adult behavior towards gender: Adults respond differently towards each gender Ex) offer girls dolls and boys footballs; encourage boys to be more physically active when playing Parental behavior: Play more physically with sons Smile and talk more with daughters Express more favorable reactions when children choose to play with gender consistent toys Autism Spectrum Disorders: Usually detected at 3 years Persistent deficits in: Nonverbal communication in social interactions Unable to reciprocate in social or emotional interactions Inability to develop, maintain, and understand relationships Behaviors: Restrictive and repetitive actions Have limited interests and activities Types of ASD’s: 1) Asperger’s Social deficits and stereotypical behavior Do not exhibit cognitive or language delays 2) Rett’s disease Physical, behavioral, motor, and cognitive abnormalities 3) Childhood disintegrative disorder Children lose their previously acquired skills Features of ASD’s: Lack of interests in social interactions Stereotypical behaviors Difficulties accepting change Deficits in peer play, imaginative play, imitation, and emotional expression Parents rejecting their children causes these diseases. FALSE Causes of ASD’s: Genetics! 60% of identical twins and 10% fraternal twins Vulnerability is genetic but the conditions that interact and produce ASD’s is still undetermined. Neurological abnormalities: Unusual brain patterns or seizures Abnormal sensitivity (whether high or low) to certain neurotransmitters Unusual brain activity Neglect and MMR vaccines do NOT cause ASD’s. That’s not to say that parent’s don’t neglect or abuse their children. It happens. Neglect and Abuse: Causes: 1) Situational stress 2) History of child abuse in a parent’s family 3) Lack of coping or skills for raising children 4) Unrealistic expectations of the child 5) Wrongly perceive that the child is intentionally disobedient 6) Substance abuse Abuse runs in the family because parents serve as role models, showing their offspring how to be a parent, or the exposure to violence becomes a normal familial situation. Insecure attachment is passed down as well Dealing with abuse: 1) Report it Most states require civilians to report abuse/neglect Know the warning signs (unexplained injuries or lack of clean clothes) 2) Prevent it Strengthen parent skills Make visits to homes with high risk families Use a support hotline Raise public awareness Milestones Birth 6 months: Physical Development Preference towards attractive faces Voluntary grasping Ability to support their own head Cognitive Development Primary circular reactions Deferred imitation Object permanence developed SocialEmotional Development Discrete emotions End of indiscriminate attachments 6 months – 1 year: Physical Development Development of depth perception Loss of speech discrimination Cognitive Development Visual recognition memory developed Adultlike prelinguistic vocalizations SocialEmotional Development Social referencing Specific attachments Fear of strangers 1 – 2 years: Physical Development End of breast feeding Brain is 70% of its adult weight Ability to stand and walk Half adult height Cognitive Development Linguistic speech development Sensitive period of speech beings Vocabulary explosion Symbolic thought SocialEmotional Development Gender toy preferences Mirror test success 2 – 3 years: Cognitive Development Sensorimotor phase SocialEmotional Development Aware of gender toys 3 – 5 years: Physical Development Adult sight levels developed SocialEmotional Development Autism detected
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