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Geography Week 7

by: Annah Shrader

Geography Week 7 His 1030

Annah Shrader
GPA 3.705

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About this Document

These notes cover South America.
World civilizations III
Amy huesman
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annah Shrader on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 1030 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Amy huesman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see World civilizations III in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Geography Week 7 South America South America  Relatively large continent.  Located South East to the United States, it is not directly below of us.  It is relatively close to Europe and Africa, but much farther away from Asia.  Andes Mountains in the East, Amazon Basin in the central north. Cultural Heritage:  Inca: Located in the Andean Highlands near Peru. They conquered the surround natives and made a successful and thriving advanced civilization. They were similar to the Aztecs in that the Spaniards invaded their homelands and took them as indentured servants on the haciendas. Their culture has survived in forms of language, music, customs, and dress.  Spaniards: Invaded in the 1530s. They invaded the northern area first, and worked their way south. They were very interested in looting the Incans gold and silver collections.  Portugal: Landed on the eastern side of South America in modern day Brazil. o To settle the boundary dispute between the Spanish and the Portuguese they wrote up the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. This th treaty divided South America on the 50 meridian. Spain to the west, Portugal territory to the east.  Other European influences: The Dutch, British, and French set claims to small territories on the Caribbean Coast, and still lay claim to those countries but did not influence South America as a whole. All South America countries gained independence by 1824.  This was due in part to all of the countries being isolated from one another by land area, even though their cultures and languages were extremely similar.  The early 1800s were full of boundary disputes and wars over territory on the horizon of independence. Demographics of South America:  Population is located on the periphery and coasts. It is largely uninhabited inland.  South America is one of the most rapidly urbanizing locations in the world. People are moving away from rural lands to urban cities in hopes of finding opportunities, but unfortunately many of the people are just moving their poverty to the cities. The cities are overcrowded and there are not enough jobs.  Africans were brought into the Caribbean Coast and the eastern coast of Brazil to work as slaves on the sugar plantations. Their descendants stayed in the area and make up a large part of northeast Brazil.  Mestizos are mainly in the interior north and middle.  Spanish influence is in Southern Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.  Amerindian (native Incas) influence is in the amazon basin and northwest Peru area. Agriculture:  Sugar plantations were a major source of income for South America. Soybeans are the recent popular crop in SA. Grains are also grown. There is large amounts of cattle herding too. Economy:  South America was isolated from within until a few decades ago. The past few decades have picked up interpersonal relations and trade arrangements that are advantageous to all parties. Integration has begun. Latin City Structure: It is very unique.  The Latin American city structure looks like a circle. The center of the circle is a small square where the CBD (central business district) is located. This is where people are employed, businesses are located and the plaza is. In colonial times the plaza was where the government buildings and church were located, and it has remained a part of the CBD in Latin cities. The square of the CBD has a tail known as the commercial spine that travels downwards to the end of the entire circle. It is an extension of the CBD where offices and retail services are located. On both sides of the CBD spine are the elite residential sectors where there is housing for upper class. Outside of the central CBD zone there is a small circle called the zone of maturity. This is where the middle class live. The area is generally nice where the people care about their homes looking good. A bigger circle circles the zone of maturity and it is known as the zone of in situ accretion. This is a transition area from well to do people to the impoverished periphery. The housing is modest, but there are many unkempt areas within. Outside of the zone of in situ accretion is the zone of peripheral squatter settlements. This is where the lower class lives. Very poor people, and typically recent migrants live here, trying to find jobs that usually don't involve documentation. The final structure in Latin cities strikes through the three circles and is known as the zone of disamenity. It is where people live along highways, railroads, and riverbanks. 4 Regions:  Caribbean North: o Colombia: More stable than Venezuela. Main source of income is from the cocaine industry. There is warfare between the drug lords and the government. Larger country in the region. o Venezuela: Rough economy, very unstable. Run by socialists. They have access to oil but are not making much off of it because of the low price of oil. o French Guyana: French territory. Heavily jungled. The coast is where the people live. Very small population. o Suriname: Dutch territory. Coastal populations. o Guyana: British territory. Coastal populations.  Andean West: o Peru: The largest of the region. It has a desert within which is the driest on the earth. o Bolivia and Paraguay: Both are landlocked. They have large Amerindian populations. They are the least urbanized. They are known for agriculture. o Ecuador: Tiny extension on the north line of Peru.  Southern Cone: o Argentina: Large country located in the south of SA. Very European in culture. Lots of Italians live there. They fell on economic hard times in the 1980s and are still on the mend. Their currency is not even worth a fourth of the US dollar.  Falkland Wars: The Falkland Islands are located right off of the east coast in Argentina. They originally belonged to Argentina, but after their independence the British took advantage of their weak position and conquered those islands to be used as potential naval bases. Argentina wanted those islands back, and in 1982 they tried to seize them. Lives were lost and Argentina lost. o Uruguay: Small and prosperous. Heavily European influenced. o Chile: High European influence. It is an elongated country where the width is only 90 miles across but the length is over 2000 miles. They have a very good and stable economy. There are many Germans living in Chile who have a wide influence. Agriculturally well off, too.  Brazil: This is the largest region. It is almost half of all the terrain and population in South America. It is filled with the Northern Amazon Basin and Rainforest, and the south is temperate climates. The amazon rainforest is facing massive amounts of environmental degradation. People are cutting out the jungle and using it as crop fields but the soil is not fertile and does not last long. There are a lot of raw resources, especially iron. They make guns. They are Portuguese in heritage. The north east in mainly Africans. Lightness of skin represents social status. o Brasilia: For over 200 years the capitol of Brazil was Rio de Janeiro. In order to prove their commitment to the interior development of Brazil, they moved the capitol to Brasilia in 1960. It is a forward capitol.


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