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His 102, Week 4, Ch 17 Notes

by: Tessa Peak

His 102, Week 4, Ch 17 Notes His 102

Marketplace > Northern Virginia Community College > History > His 102 > His 102 Week 4 Ch 17 Notes
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About this Document

These are notes from chapter 17 of the textbook. Main ideas from this chapter will most likely be on the upcoming midterm exam.
History of Western Civilization II
Dr. Dluger
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tessa Peak on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 102 at Northern Virginia Community College taught by Dr. Dluger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization II in History at Northern Virginia Community College.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
His 102 Notes­ Ch. 17: The Enlightenment A. The Foundations of the Enlightenment a. Lasted for most of the eighteenth century; some opposed everything it stood for,  others accepted certain Enlightenment values but sharply rejected others b. Writings shared several basic characteristics: confidence in the powers of human  reason, nature operated according to laws that could be studied and observed,  represented declaration of intellectual history c. Much of the eighteenth­century Enlightenment consisted of translating,  republishing, and thinking through the implications of the great works of the  seventeenth century; Enlightenment thinkers drew heavily on Locke’s studies of  human knowledge d. Locke­ all knowledge originates from sense perception, human mind at birth is a  “blank tablet”; starting point was the goodness and perfectibility of humanity e. Enlightenment thinkers sought nothing less than the organization of all  knowledge; scientific method B. The World of the Philosophes  a. Enlightenment thought was European in a broad sense, including southern and  eastern Europe as well as Europe’s colonies in the New World b. France provided the stage for some of the most widely read Enlightenment books  and most closely watched battles c. Enlightenment thinkers often called by the French word philosophes, meaning a  free thinker d. Voltaire i. Voltaire best known philosophe at the time; virtually personified the  Enlightenment; landed in prison and temporarily exiled from England,  regularly exiled from France ii. Themes were religious and political liberty, weapons were comparisons e. Montesquieu i. Born into noble family, relatively cautious jurist but did right satirical  novel ii. Work The Spirit of Laws may have been the most influential work of the  Enlightenment iii.  Suggested there were three forms of government: republics, monarchies,  and despotisms; soul of republic was virtue, soul of monarch was honor,  and soul of despotism was fear f. Diderot and the Encyclopedia  i. Most remarkable French publication was the Encyclopedia which claimed  to summarize advanced contemporary philosophical, scientific, and  technical knowledge, making it available to any reader; guiding spirit  behind the venture was Denis Diderot ii. Was banned because thought it was propagate materialism, but didn’t stop  purchasing; purchasers were elites iii. Sought political stability and reform C. Internationalization of Enlightenment Themes: Humanitarianism and Toleration a. Enlightenment flourished across central and southern southern Europe; Northern  Italy was an important center of Enlightenment thought b. Enlightenment thinkers raised similar themes: humanitarianism (dignity and  worth of all individuals), religious toleration, and liberty c. Beccaria­ Critique of arbitrary power and respect for reason and human dignity,  proposed concrete legal reforms and attacked prevalent view that punishments  should represent society’s vengeance on the criminal (only legitimate rationale for punishment was to maintain social order and prevent other crimes) d. Beccaria argued for respect for individual dignity dictated that humans should  punish other humans no more than is absolutely necessary; opposed torture and  death penalty e. Humanitarianism and reason also counseled religious toleration, proved  compatible with very different stances on religion, but enlightenment support for  toleration was limited  f. Economics, Government, and Administration i. Enlightenment ideas had a very real influence over affairs of state;  defended reason and knowledge for humanitarian reasons but also  promised to make nations stronger, more efficient, and more prosperous ii. Addressed issues of liberty and rights but also took up matters of  administration, tax collection, and economic policy iii. Mercantilism­ term for very wide range of policies based on government  regulation of trade iv. Advocated simplifying tax system and following a policy of laissez –faire  (letting wealth and goods circulate without government interference) D. Empire and Enlightenment a. Colonial world loomed large in Enlightenment thinking; how colonies could be  profitable, saw Americas through highly idealized vision­ effects of colonialism  on Europe were a central Enlightenment theme b. Slavery and the Atlantic World i. Individual moral freedom lay at the heart of what the Enlightenment  considered to be a just, stable, and harmonious society; slavery defied  natural law and natural freedom ii. Many Enlightenment thinkers condemned slavery in the metaphorical  sense; writers dealt more gingerly with the actual enslavement and slave  labor of Africans c. Exploration and the Pacific World i. Systematically mapping new sections of the Pacific was among the crucial developments of the age, impact on public imagination; explorations were  missions to expand scientific knowledge ii. The Impact of the Scientific Missions 1. Drew freely on reports of scientific missions; stories of new  peoples and cultures were immediately fascinating 2. Enlightenment thinkers found it impossible to see other peoples as  anything other than primitive versions of Europeans E. The Radical Enlightenment a. Undermined central tenets of eighteenth­century culture and politics; wide  resonance beyond a small group of individuals b. The World of Rousseau i. Rousseau was an outsider who quarreled with other philosophes and  contradicted many of their assumptions; shared philosophes’ search for  intellectual and political freedom, attacked inherited privilege, and  believed in the good of humanity and possibility of creating a just society ii. Introduced other strains including morality and what was called sensibility (cult of feeling) iii. Interest in emotions led him to develop a more complicated portrait of  human psychology; considerably more radical iv. Argued that in the state of nature, all men had been equal; social inequality therefore was anchored in private property and it profoundly corrupted  “the social contract”, or the formation of government v. Believed legitimate authority arouse from the people alone; argument had  three parts: sovereignty belonged to the people alone, exercising  sovereignty transformed the nation, the national community would be  united by what Rousseau called the “general will” vi. Argued that women should have very different educations, as they were to be useful socially as mothers and wives; drew sharp criticism c. The World of Wollstonecraft i. Shared political views of Rousseau and was a republic, opposed to  monarchy, spoke more forcefully against inequality and most radically  argued that women had the same innate capacity for reason and self­ government as men, virtue should mean the same thing for men and  women, and relations between the sexes should be based on equality ii. Applied the radical Enlightenment critique of monarchy and inequality for the family; education for women had to promote liberty and self­reliance iii. Believed a natural division of labor existed and that it would ensure social  harmony iv. Enlightenment left a mixed legacy on gender, closely parallel to its legacy  on slavery F. The Enlightenment and Eighteenth­Century Culture a. The Book Trade i. Book publishing and selling flourished; much of the book trade was both  international and clandestine­ changes in printing and distribution have  been called a “revolution in communication” and they form a crucial part  of the larger picture of the Enlightenment ii. Governments did little to check revolutionary transformation iii. Clandestine booksellers smuggled thousands of books across the border­  “literary underground” b. High Culture, New Elites, and the Public Sphere i. Enlightenment produced in networks of readers and new forms of  sociability and discussion ii. Elite culture very literate and took discussion very seriously; many  academics flourished as centers of Enlightenment thinking iii. Salons 1. Operated informally; organized by well­connected and learned  aristocratic women 2. Brought together men and women of letters with members of the  aristocracy for conversation, debate, drink, and food 3. Rousseau viewed salons as a sign of superficiality and vacuity in a  privileged and over civilized world 4. Coffeehouses multiplied with the colonial trade in sugar, coffee,  and tea, and occupied a central spot in the circulation of ideas;  many possible links between smaller discussions and news &  debates 5. Ability to think critically and speak freely, without deferring to  religion or tradition, was a point of pride; gave birth to the very  idea of public opinion c. Middle­Class Culture and Reading i. Great deal of literature was aimed at middle­class women; etiquette books  and how­to manuals for the household sold very well d. Popular Culture: Urban and Rural i. Literacy rates varied dramatically by gender, social class, and region; even illiterate lived in a culture of print and saw visual material ii. Literacy rates higher in cities and towns than rural areas  iii. Popular culture rested on networks of sociability; it did not exist in  isolation and oral and literate culture overlapped e. Eighteenth­Century Music i. Flourishing musical culture was one of the most important features ii. Bach and Handel 1. Bach wrote music of such intensity that the listener feels the  salvation of the world hanging on every note 2. Handel was a publicity­seeking cosmopolitan who sought out  large, secular audiences iii. Haydn and Mozart 1. Haydn and Mozart were the leading representatives of the  Classical style which transformed musical culture in Europe in the  second half of the eighteenth century 2. Classicism in music sought to organize itself around the principles  of order, clarity, and symmetry iv. Opera 1. Opera’s combination of theater and music spread rapidly  throughout Europe in the space of a single generation 2. Themes satire, self­criticism, criticism of hierarchy, optimism, and  th social mobility are key to understanding 18  cent. Culture G. Conclusion a. Enlightenment arose from scientific revolution, new sense of power and  possibility that rational thinking made possible, and rush of enthusiasm for new  forms of inquiry; made many contemporaries uncomfortable


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