Behavioral Analysis PSYC 461
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hope Good on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 461 at University of South Carolina Aiken taught by Green in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Therapy in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina Aiken.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 1: The ABCs of Applied Behavior Analysis Behavior Analysis: the study of behavior change o The study of functional relations between behavior and environmental events o Experimental analysis of behavior is concerned primarily with change o Applied behavior is concerned with natural environments o 3 concepts: functional relations: tendency of 1 event to vary in a regular way with another event behavior: actions that can be observed environmental event: any event in a person’s environment that can be observed Functional relations o One event must vary DEPENDABLY with another If x, then y Light switch/ lights on Black cat superstition o A functional relationship doesn’t represent casualties Ice cream example: increase ice cream, increase drownings/crime rates Movie #23 Behavior o It is extremely difficult to study what we cant observe (thoughts/feelings) Defined measurable and observable terms 1 one to classify behavior overt behavior: behavior that can be observed by someone other than the person performing it. Covert behavior: behavior that can be observed by the person performing it (private events) Other ways to classify Respondent: behavior influenced by events that proceed it; reflexive behavior (pavlov/Watson); involuntary/ classical conditioning Operant behavior: influenced by events that follow it (skinner); voluntary DEAD MANS TEST: if a dead man can do it…..its NOT a behavior o Behavioral Repertoire: all the things someone can do at any given time Environmental Events o Any events in a person’s environment that can be observed o Antecedent: environmental event that occurs BEFORE a behavior o Consequence: environemental event that occurs AFTER a behavior o A persons learning history includes all environmental events that have affected a persons behavior up to the present o Behavior analysis is concerned with external events—not with internal, mentalistic variables o 3 term contingency A ----------------------------------B---------------------------------------C Antecedent----------------behavior------------------------consequence Applied Behavior Analysis: the attempt to salve a behaviors problem by providing antecedents and or consequences that change the behavior o “Problem” behaviors excess: occurs often deficits: does not occur enough o Medical Model: the view that behavior probkesm are merely symptoms of an underlying psychological disorder Permeates all of our culture All diagnosis in DSM are behaviors o The focus of applied behavior analysis is on what people can actually do rather than explanatory fictions o Symptom substitution is the idea that if a behavior problem is solved without resolving the underlying psychological disorder, another behavior problem will take its place No scientific evidence that this exsist Another type of system substation Daniels Dictum Aubrey Daniels o “if you think this stuff is easy, you’re doing it wrong!” group performance research A.D. institute in Atlanta Chapter 2: Methods in Applied Behavioral Analysis Behavioral Assessment: 3 goals o Define target behavior o Identify functional relations between target behavior and its antecedents/consequences o Identify an effective intervention for changing the target behavior Target Behavior: behavior to be changed by an intervention o Behaviors that need to occur more/less likely o Requires an operational definition Must clearly be stated using measureable/observable terms Vague terms lead to confusion and disagreement “throwing a fit” o typically assessed and developed through interview and direct observation o operational definition examples: physical aggression: movement of any limbs that strikes an individual whose goal response is injury to another (functional) on task behavior (topographical) purchasing items (task analytic) Identifying Functional Relations o The development of hypotheses of relationship of environmental antecedents/consequences through interview/direct observation Functional Assessment v. Functional Analytic o Functional assessment: relies on observation conducted in the natural environment and the use of conditional probabilities to demonstrate relations o Functional Analysis: the contrived manipulation of variables to determine the maintaining function The process of testing hypothesis about the functional relations among antecedents/consequences and target behavior o These 2 are often confused and incorrectly used interchangeably o Assessment: natural and correlational o Analytic: response and causal Identifying an Intervention o 1 : requires the accurate recording of the behavior o 2 : (accurately monitoring) a possibly intervention requires the correct display of the behavior in graphical form o rather than estimating/guessing the rate or frequency of a behavior, most accurate means is to observe/record the behavior o count the occurrences o “in god I trust and everyone else brings data” no data/proof; it did not happen show me the data!!!!! Recording Behavior Rates o 2 main ways: continuous recording: recording each and every occurrence of a behavior during a prescribed period (event recording) typically used during observational sessions lasting 30 mins to 1 hour (must be consistent) particularly useful in recording discrete behaviors that have an obvious beginning and end not very helpful in the use of recording behavior that lasts for any extended period not very helpful in use of recording behavior that occurs at a very increase frequency typical tallied behavior: observer, period, location, count, date, notes interval recording: recording whether a behavior occurs during each of a series of short intervals within an observational period provides an approximation of how often behavior occurs and is therefore less accurate that continuous observation periods are divided into small intervals, typically no longer than 30 seconds o shorter the more accurate not concerned with counting the behavior but whether or not it occurs effective for recording behavior without a discrete beginning and end and for behavior that occurs at very increase rates o other ways: duration: how long intensity: energy expended to produce behavior latency: amount of time it takes for behavior to begin next occurrence inter-response time: amount of time between behavior ending and the beginning of next occurrence A-B-C Data Collection (most important) o Data collection method that provides a structure for noting behavior and the environmental events that surround itself o Important to remember that consistent environmental events don’t respect causation but are correlational o The only functional assessment tool used that is able to ascertain functional relationships without manipulation variables o Functional relationships are determined through the use of conditional probabilities (0.0-0.1) behaviors preceded by antecedents and followed with a consequence Task Analytic Data Collection o Designed for the use of controlled presentation of tasks that included multiple discrete behaviors o Higher order behaviors steps o Provides IMMEDIATE REPRESENTATION of the individual’s performance allows determination of problematic steps Measuring Reliability o Reliability: achieve a reasonable level of agreement o Inter-observer reliability: is a measure of the degree of agreement in data tallies made by 2 or more observers Continuous: small number / large number x 100 Interval: intervals agreed upon / number of total intervals Report in % good report would be 90% Graphing Behavioral Data o Graphical representation of data to quickly determine intervention effectiveness and identify trends, anomalies and variability Simple: each point indicates number of times a behavior occurred at a particular time Cumulative: each point total number of times behavior occurred up to that point! It never dips just increase overtime! Evaluating Effectiveness o Single Case Design Groups not suitable for determining effective individual’s behavior Goal to determine practical significance; not statistics 2 phases: baseline: behavior recorded and not modified intervention: modifying behavior and recording behavior graphs show anomalies, trends and variability anomaly: inconsistency trend: overall direction path: direction: degree: 3pts minimum variability: degree of variance ABAB Reversal Design o A single case in which baseline/intervention conditions repeated with same person o Extremely powerful demonstration that is able to definitively show functional relationships o Cannot always be used
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