Behavioral Analysis PSYC 461
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hope Good on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 461 at University of South Carolina Aiken taught by Green in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Therapy in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina Aiken.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 3: Reinforcement Thorndike’s Law of Effect: demonstrates that in any situation, the probability of a behavior occurring is a function of the consequences that the behavior has had in that situation in the past. o Behavior is a function of its consequences o Gives a great tool to alter it Reinforcement v. Reinforcer o Reinforcement: PROCEDURE of providing consequences for a behavior that increase or maintain the frequency of the behavior o Reinforcer: EVENT, when made contingent on a behavior, increase or maintains behavior frequency Defined with results Not a bribe/reward prior to behavior More immediately done o Helping kids feel better and seeing the appreciation makes me want to do it more. Types of Reinforcers: what happens in the environment o Positive: something is ADDED following a behavior o Negative: something is REMOVED following a behavior and increasing it Escape and avoidance o 2 nddistinctions primary: not dependent on their association with other reinforcers biological importance deprivation states and situations secondary: are dependent in their associations with other reinforcers (smiling, praise, awards, attention) independent upon context and prior learning conditioned reinforce dependent learning and the reason reinforcers become individualized rd o 3 distinctions contrived: ARRANGED for use of intervention to modify behavior natural: has not been arranged spontaneous/ unplanned ultimate goal Schedules of Reinforcement o Refers to patterns of timing for delivery of reinforcers o Continuous reinforcement (CRF) is delivered on a 1:1 ratio Novel behavior Target behavior has low frequency Must be removed once stable, due to: Time consumption Satiation Reinforcers dependency (extinction) Intermitten: reinforcement follows some occasion of the target behavior o Great production and time periods o Used to increase or maintain occurrence of the behavior o 3 types: ratio schedule: number of times behavior occurs determines timing of reinforcement delivery does it occur interval: whether behavior occurs following predetermined time frame determines if reinforcement occurs behavior does not have to occur response-duration: continuous amount of time a target behavior occurs determines the reinforcement behavior has to happen continuously for the period fixed/variable schedules strongest based on average of response example: slot machine: when it will determine a win time durations constantly change but average out to specific number how long occurs Thinning Schedule: gradually becomes available less often/ contingent on greater amounts of appropriate behavior o Dense ----------- sparse o Should result in Increase steady responding Decrease reinforcement expectations Maintenance of behavior Removal of instructor to see if behavior is really gone Transfer of control to more natural Strength of Reinforcer/Intensity o Different reinforcer; different value to individual o Different amount of the same reinforcers holds different value o Known reinforcement Rules of Reinforcement o Define target behavior o Select appropriate reinforcers Always choose positive reinforcers Preference, secondary first Pairing primary with secondary immediately if primary is needed Ultimate goal= natural reinforcement o Systemically choose reinforcements Ask Observe behavior freely Try common reinforcers Create reinforcers (pair with secondary) Preference assessment / sampling form o Make reinforcement immediate and certain Factors can affect value of reinforcers but none are as important as: Making reinforce contingent on production you wish to strengthen on production you wish to strengthen Natural will follow undesirable more than desirable Don’t follow rules; little affects on target behavior Delaying can cause confusion on which behavior it goes towards o Monitor Results Collect data Graph Everyday/ every session Reveals important info Problems o Inappropriate use Can make behavior worse Misuse of reinforcements Bootleg reinforcement: not part of intervention but undermines it o Moral objections Manipulative and controlling Reinforcement violates that people need to suffer/make mistakes to learn o Negative side effects Become spoiled Undermines peoples natural interests Behavioral contrast
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