Behavioral Analysis PSYC 461
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hope Good on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 461 at University of South Carolina Aiken taught by Green in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Therapy in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina Aiken.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 4: Prompting and Fading Chapter 5: Shaping and Chaining (summed up) Prompt: an antecedent that induces a person to perform a behavior that otherwise does not occur. o Needed to evoke a behavior where natural antecedents (discriminative stimuli) are ineffective and so that reinforcement can be delivered. o Response competence: hierarchy to evaluate performance level on a specific skill determining reinforcement schedules and level of prompting Acquisition: initial learning of behavior; accuracy and fluency Fluency: the rate of accurate responding Maintenance: ability to perform response over time without reteaching Generalization: ability to preform and adapt the behavior under conditions difference from those in place during acquisition Hardest skills for intellectual disabled people Multiple staff/ multiple environments o Graduated system and represents levels of intrusiveness to the individual your working with o Least intrusive to most intrusive Verbal Gesture Modeling Physical Verbal prompts: involve spoken or written words or parts of the word o Instructions directly to behavior o Questions posed to assist individual to independent recall behavior Can pose problems: individual may not acquire/fluent behavior Gestural Prompts: involve facial/posture expressions o Takes a great deal of practice o Used with verbal prompts Modeling prompts: involve demonstration of the desired behavior o Natural and efficient way of evoking a desired behavior because most people learn to imitate behavior very early on in life o So important in learning that if an individual is unable to imitate, it will be one of first skills learn Physical Prompt: involve in guiding the person’s body through the required movements to produce the desired behavior o Guidance/ hand over hand o If individual is tactile/defensive will need to use other method to even use physical prompt o Cannot use language as physical prompt Prompting and Fading o Prompting: procedure of providing antecedents that evoke a target behavior Efficient/effective Not natural Wean off prompts o Fading: gradually reduces the strength of a prompt Types of Fading o To encourage behavior in response to a natural antecedent (discriminative stimulus) o Must fade contrived prompts in presence of natural antecedent (3) Prompt fading: the behavior is acquired, less and less of the response prompt is provided Prompt delay: once the behavior is acquired, the natural antecedent is presented but the delivery of a prompt is delayed for a fixed amount of time/ in a graduated way Stimulus fading: when a physical stimulus is added to assist in evoking a specific response, that physical stimulus is gradually removed Shaping: used when a behavior does not yet exist or if an individual will not participate in the components of a behavior o The reinforcement of successive APPROXIMATIONS of a target behavior o Approximation: to a behavior, is any behavior that resembles/ takes person closer to desired behavior o You do this in steps, so that the individual has to produce a closer approximation in order to obtain the reinforcer More of an art than science Shaping a behavior can be done quickly Chaining: reinforcing induvial responses occurring in a sequence to form a complex behavior o Forward chaining: chaining procedure that begins with the first element in the chain (first step) and progresses to the last Brushing your teeth: grab tooth brush, turn on water, wet toothbruch….. o Backwards chaining: chaining procedure that begins with the last step of the chain and moves up to the first Often very effective
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