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HIST 212 Class Notes 10/6/16

by: Lauren Notetaker

HIST 212 Class Notes 10/6/16 HIST 212

Marketplace > Winthrop University > HIST 212 > HIST 212 Class Notes 10 6 16
Lauren Notetaker


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About this Document

These notes cover the Great War, which will be on our next exam. Added to these notes is a mini-quiz at the end.
United States History since 1877
Andrew Doyle
Class Notes
War, WWI, Pre-WWI, TheGreatWar, Troops, Trench warfare, Warfare, TotalWar, Technology, poison, Artillery, history, AmericanHistory, Woodrow Wilson, Submarine, Roosevelt, Winthrop University
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 212 at Winthrop University taught by Andrew Doyle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
HIST 212 Class Notes Oct. 6, 2016  The Great War o War lasted 1914-1918 o US was involved 1917-1918  US troops were only actively fighting for 8 months  This was brutal warfare  European dominance of the world: 1500 up until WWI o They took a tumble  The US got more power and riches post-WWI  Same scenario in WWII  Total War- all humans and natural resources go into war effort- everything else is put on hold o Everything either shut down or moved to create war supplies  Only happened twice- WWI and WWII  Won’t ever happen again  10 million killed, 20 million wounded in all  New technology- put all energy into new technology to win war- this is the way it has always been o Humans are a violent animal o Poison gas was created and weaponized war chemicals  Artillery- cannonballs weren’t super effective o Modern artillery shells were super effective  The term “shell shock”, aka PTSD, was coined o Machine gun invented o Barbed wire- originally used by farmers for cattle  Very effective o Take was invented, but wasn’t used to its full capability  Artillery favored/ helped the defense  Trench warfare  British and French were not strategic  The war was composed of two sides, the Allies and the Central Powers  Allies o French- wanted revenge of the Germans  Democratic o Russians  Tsarist o British  Democratic  “The enemy of my enemy is my friend”  Central Powers o Germany o Austria-Hungary o Ottoman  None of these were democracies  Germany started the wars, and Americans blamed Germany  Americans wanted to side with the Allies  Roosevelt wanted to join the war to become a world power player  Isolationism became rookie ball compared to entering the war  America was divided o Roosevelt and realpolitik  Joining the war meant increasing US power o Woodrow Wilson  Official policy of the US is neutrality  There’s no such thing as neutral  Tilt- unofficially favoring the Allies, especially in trade o Sold food and fuel  Soldiers only consumed about 800-1000 calories a day o Standard Oil sold food to the British o Americans used their steel to make and sell ammunition  British creditors loaned money to US o US went from the largest debtor nation to the largest creditor  US loaned to the French and British (the Allies) o This kept fueling the war  There has to be strong support to enter a war like this Why to enter the war:  Loans  Submarine warfare by Germany o British prevented US trade with Germany by blockading the ports o The law of the sea is to pick up survivors  Submarine warfare had no room for survivors  This strategy would keep the submarine from coming up to sea level  If the submarine came up, it would be attacked o US: Germany is killing innocent people o Germany: US is keeping Britain in the war  Lusitania- similar to Titanic o A sitting duck hoping it would be attacked  Submarines were called off in 1916 o Diminished American support for the war o Germany resumed submarine warfare in 1917 by underestimating the US  Assumed racial diversity would separate us  Zimmerman telegram to Mexico o Germany wanted Mexico to attack the US  This is during the middle of the Mexican Revolution o The British found out of this scheme and told the US  Wilson’s Idealism o 14 points  Spread democracy  Anti-colonialism  Free Trade  Arms Control  The League of Nations  Forerunner to the United Nations- not particularly beneficial o Believed it would prevent war and spread democracy  Wilson- lack of preparedness before war o The US had the 19 largest army in the world prior to WWI  The US went on a crash course- became the 5 th largest army o US entered the war in April 1917, despite significant opposition  Crackdown on dissent or anti-war activities  Wilson supported  Not considered a violation of free speech o There became a huge, fast military buildup  The US tipped the balance o The Allies would’ve lost without the US  Germans quit when they saw they didn’t stand a chance  The war was fought in France and Belgium, not Germany o Because of this, Hitler was able to convince the Germans that the war was lost because of the Jews  Perception is reality  The war made US the number one nation Mini Quiz: 1.) Who made up the Allies? 2.) Who made up the Central Powers? 3.) What years did the war take place? 4.) Describe submarine warfare and its significance. 5.) What was the benefit of the US waiting until the close of the war to join? 6.) What were some examples of modern artillery introduced in WWI?


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