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by: simba

LOQ_Lec_01_Ecology_and_science__1_.pdf BIOL 312

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Thomas Jurik
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by simba on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 312 at Iowa State University taught by Thomas Jurik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see ECOLOGY in Biology at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Biology 312 ­ Ecology Learning Objectives and Review Questions Lecture One – Introduction and Scientific Method Define the term Ecology.  What are the root words of the term? Provide examples of scientific disciplines that overlap to form the basis for ecology. Provide examples of how the science of ecology spans scales from individuals to the biosphere. List the four (six) major areas of ecological study and provide examples of the types of questions they  might investigate. Describe why it is essential in the study of ecology that we are not overly biased by our personal  experiences.  How are humans typically biased in their views of the world? Define/describe “science”. Describe the nature of a hypothesis and how they may be tested (do we “prove” hypotheses?). List/describe/diagram the “scientific method”. Why is there usually some degree of doubt associated with scientific “facts” and statements? What is Occam’s razor? Use the simplest explanation possible that adequately accounts for all the observations (this does  not mean the explanation is simple!) What is an experimental unit?  Why are controls important in scientific investigations?  What are  examples of investigations that cannot use controls? Why is replication important in scientific investigations?  How many replicates should one use in  experimental studies? ­ Can eliminate individual variation  ­ Confidence of result will increases ­ 4­5 replicate sin field studies ­ Lab studies depends on the cost and the time consume to run the experiment  Biol 312   Objectives and Review Questions for Lectures 2 and 3 (Climate) Objectives: To understand the physical bases of climate at different points around the globe. To understand broad trends in environmental factors across the globe, as well as some of the  terminology associated with weather and climate. To know major types of climates, where they are found, and why. Review Questions: What is the biosphere? ­ living organisms plus those regions of the earth inhabited by life ­ the sum of all the earth's ecosystems. ­ Oceans, streams and lakes, the land to a soil depth of a few meters (or more??), and the  atmosphere up to a few kilometers. How have perspectives on the earth changed over the last century, as technology has afforded  new views? ­ Larger perspective in time and space ­ Dispersion of lights all over increases  ­ More lights in eastern area which the settlers came from the east ­ More lights pattern along the coast, because need water for everything, resources.  Living near water is a good thing, transportation origin near the water ­ Organized patterns of light at the middle across the Midwest, because of the farmlands,  trains (which reflect the effect of railroads,  ­ West lots of mountains so difficult to revolutionist ­ If we see in the whole world, ­ Light pollution produces ecological effects, and energy costs  ­ revolutionized in the last 50­70 years by satellite imagery and methods for dating things  in the geological record ­ can capture images of the earth What is the Blue Marble? ­ Image of the earth taken from satellite  ­ The latest image was in Dec 7, 1972   What is the wave nature of light?  the quantum nature?  How does energy per quantum vary  with wavelength? ­ Wave nature ­­an oscillation of electromagnetic energy ­ Quantum nature­­in discrete packages called photons (the energy associated with a  photon is called a quantum) ­ energy varies with frequency (i.e., with wavelength). Higher frequencies (or shorter  wavelengths) have more energy per quantum (Q). ­  Gamma  rays­ x­rays­ uv­visible light­infrared­microwave­ (remember this pattern and  how the wavelength increases and energy increases Know what declination means, how it varies over time, and what effects it has on solar energy  received at a given point on the earth’s surface. ­ Declination is the angle between the sun's rays and the equatorial plane. What are the equinoxes?  the solstices? ­ The spring (vernal) and autumnal equinoxes occur when the declination is zero (March  22, Sept 22).  ­ Equinox means day length and night length are equal (12 hr & 12 hr). ­ Solstice Solstice refers to a point in the year where the sun reaches a maximum  declination and day length and night length are most uneven.  ­ The summer and winter solstices (June 21 and Dec 21) occur when the declination is + or ­ 23.5 degrees. How does light received on a surface vary with angle of the sun’s rays relative to the surface?  How is this affected by latitude, time of day, time of year, etc.? ­ Slide 71, 72 What are general patterns of latitudinal differences in daylength, total yearly irradiance, total  yearly hours of direct sunlight, etc.? What are Milankovitch cycles?  Very generally, how might they influence climate? What major factors influence the climate at any given point on the globe? What do the terms dewpoint, relative humidity, absolute humidity, etc. mean?  From a graph of  saturation vapor pressure and absolute humidity, be able to calculate relative humidity,  dewpoint, etc. (or vice versa).  Why do Hadley cells, polar cells, and Ferrell cells form, and how do they work?  What are the  consequences, with respect to amounts of rainfall and vegetation and wind movement at  different latitudes? What is the Coriolis effect?  How does it affect movement of wind, water, rockets, etc? What are the major patterns of ocean circulation, and how do they affect climates in different  regions of the globe? What does the term "lapse rate" mean?  What are orographic precipitation and rain­shadows?   How/why do they occur?   What are zones of upwelling?  Why do they occur?  How are they important? What are broad patterns of world rainfall?  How are they related to patterns of vegetation? What are different types of climates, e.g., continental, Mediterranean, maritime?  What climate  does Iowa have? For any arbitrarily chosen spot on the globe, have some idea of the prevailing wind direction and the likely climate (and vegetation), based on latitude, topography, proximity to oceans, etc. Biol 312   Objectives and Review Questions for last part of Lecture 3 (El Nino): Objectives: To understand the basic features of an El Nino event and why it occurs. To understand why there are global effects of an El Nino event and what some of those effects are. To understand what occurs during a La Nina event. Review Questions: Near the equator: Why is sea level in the western Pacific normally higher than sea level in the eastern Pacific?    Why are surface water temperatures in the western Pacific normally higher than surface water  temperatures in the eastern Pacific? ­ Because is being transferred  ­ Gulf stream  What is an El Nino event? What happens to sea levels, water temperatures, and atmospheric pressures in the eastern and  western Pacific during an El Nino event? What general effect does an El Nino event have on weather in North America and Iowa?  In other parts  of the world? Know an example of how the biota can be affected by an El Nino event. What is a La Nina event?  What happens to sea levels, water temperatures, and atmospheric pressures in the eastern and western Pacific during a La Nina event?  What are effects on weather? Biol 312  Learning Objectives and Review Questions for Lecture 4 (Greenhouse effect and climate  change) Objectives: To understand the physical bases of the greenhouse effect and climate change. To be able to put the current rate of change in a historical context. Review Questions: What is the greenhouse effect?  How/why does it occur?  What are the major greenhouse gases? ­ Rays of sunlight penetrate the lower atmosphere and warm the earth's surface. ­ The earth's surface absorbs much of the incoming solar radiation and degrades it to longer­ wavelength infrared radiation (heat), which rises into the lower atmosphere. Some of this heat  escapes into space and some is absorbed by molecules of greenhouse gases and emitted as  infrared radiation, which warms the lower atmosphere. ­ As concentrations of greenhouse gases rise, their molecules absorb and emit more infrared  radiation, which adds more heat to the lower atmosphere. ­ Major greenhouse gases: water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous  oxide (N2O), plus synthetic chlorofluorocarbons, synthetic perfluorocarbons, etc. What are general patterns of global temperature and atmospheric CO  content over the recent geological past?   2 How have these varied with glacial advances and retreats? ­ Up and down, recently increase in temperature  ­ In last than 10000 years as agriculture emerges temperature increases and stay somehow around 1  temperature change. ­ As 21  century started the changes increases rapidly  ­ As average temperature over past 130 years increases ­ Changes around the globe also getting warmer ­ Glacial cold temperature decreases  What is relative frequency of extreme events now, as compared to the past century? Why is there less seasonal variation in atmospheric CO  mean values at the South Pole than at Mauna Loa,  2 Hawaii or at Pt. Barrow, Alaska? Although climate has exhibited large changes in the past, why is the present rate of change a problem? What changes in temperature and precipitation are expected to occur in the 21st century, compared to the 20th  century? Why is it predicted that polar regions will have greater increases in temperature than tropical regions, over the  next century?  What are some of the likely effects of global warming over the next century? How can the rate of increase in CO  in2the atmosphere be slowed?


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