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PLCY 110 Week 7 Notes: Governance and Corruption

by: Victoria Snow

PLCY 110 Week 7 Notes: Governance and Corruption 110

Marketplace > University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill > PLCY > 110 > PLCY 110 Week 7 Notes Governance and Corruption
Victoria Snow

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About this Document

This week we discussed more in depth about governance and corruption. We talked about collecting data measurements and biases with qualitative data. We explored the policies against corruption and ...
Global Policy Issues
Dr. Zimmerman
Class Notes
Public, Policy, Governance, corruption, research
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Snow on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 110 at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill taught by Dr. Zimmerman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Global Policy Issues in PLCY at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
PLCY 110 Week 7 Governance and Corruption:Lecture 2 10/4/16 Collecting Evidence for Policy Memos -Theory/Hypothesis: IV (independent variable=Intervention/policy) leads to DV (dependent variable=outcome) -“Measure” of IV- specific policychangein a country -In order to test hypotheses, you need to “operationalize” outcomes -Translatethem from concepts to measures Measures takeseveralforms-need to “triangulate”to showfinding isrobust  Direct Quantitative Measurement- data on variables capturing concepts exactly o May still beissues inconceptualization pertaining to differences in definition  Indirect Quantitative Measurement- data on proxy variables capturing related concepts o Proxy= very closeto actual variable you want to study o Ex: type of roof is a good proxy variablefor level of income  QualitativeMeasurement- Info from media, interviews, Facebook posts,etc. Two Ever-PresentChallenges:  Measurement error: no measure is perfectly operationalized o Systemic constant bias-always under or always over by sameamount  OK o Systemic variable bias-always under or always over by different amounts  Not OK o Random constant bias-samelevel of difference but can be over or under.  OK o Random variable bias-canbe under or over-estimated by a different amount  Eh  Selection bias/missing data-data missing for setof units o Ex: rich people, employed people, villages farthestfrom roads, etc. SourcesofQualitative data  Cross-National (atcountry level) o Nation Master o CIAWorld Factbook o World Bank- Worldwide gov. indicators o Transparency International- Corruption Barometer, Corruption Perceptions Index o Varieties of Democracy o Qualityof Government o ICRG  Cross-National and Sub-National (atindividual level): o Afrobrarometer o Americac Barometer o Asia Barometer o Arab Barometer Policy Toolsfor Affecting Corruption:  DecreaseMotivation - individual factors o Pay scale o Meritocracy-allowpeopleto be promoted due to merit  Ceiling with this bc you can only go sofar up in public offices o Performanceevaluation o Performanceevaluationtied to merit bonuses  DecreaseOpportunities -institutional design o Institutionaldesign  democratic institution  Separation of power- checks and balances  Selection mechanisms-  free and fair elections  abilityfor citizens to kick officials out  BUT corruption is highestin most and leastdemocratic countries  Inverted U “deep democratizatoion” o Removing “human error”  Taking people out altogether  Ex: “smart card” in India from reading  IncreaseTransparency -monitoring o Anti-corruptionBureau o WhistleBlowing o Information Campaigns o Text MessageCampaign o Telling people how corrupt their officials are o Consequences for corruption o Regulationfor how elections should be o Definecorruption and compare to other people/countries  IncreaseAccountability -Punishment and Rewards o Necessary for transparency o Known mechanismfor voicing concerns  Elections  Letters to higher level officials  Torching buildings  Refusing to pay taxes  Traditional protest o But they don’t takehold.Why?  Actions must have consequences- “teeth”  Actions must be publicized (citizens need to know they are available to them)  Common understanding of “good” officials Governance and Corruption:Lecture 3 10/6/16 ResearchPaper Notes:  Acceptable policyheterogeneity o 2 policiesin2 countries with 1 distinguishing part ofa policyonly in one  Acceptable outcome heterogeneity o Needdiversity inoutcome variables  Not all long term,all education, etc.  Acceptable use of other sources o Can use it to guide thinking on outcomes, policysummary, etc. o Cannot use source to decide ifpolicyworked or didnot work- you have to do that on your own and write about it Outcomesof Anti-CorruptionPolicy: Most obvious- Reduce corruption Challenge-Hard to measure Howdo we measure?  Perceptions data (cross-national)-anyone, residents,etc. gives their opinion on how corrupt X is.  Behavior data (sub-national)- data on corrupt officials o Difficultto collect PerceptionsData:  Expert perceptions o Transparency Internatonal o World Bank o International Country RiskGuide o Qualityof Government Institute o Varieties of Democracy Project (V-DEM)  Citizen Perception o _______Barometers (Afro, Asia,America, etc.) o If they have experienced personally, intheir city, etc. o Challenges:  Experiences vary  People liewhen reporting  Different definitions of corruption  May not be aware of corrupt things happening around them Problemsw/Perception data:  Measured with error o Thoseanswering do not have all info o Or they do not know about certain kinds ofcorruption  BundleIndices-no definition of “corruption” o Aggregation methods not preciseand not published o Not V-DEM  Cross county comparabilitychallenges (notV-DEM)  Cannot comparetrendsover time (notV-DEM) Behavior data:  “Onpaper” audits o look at receipts, etc. o Problems:  only catches corrupt activities that have paper trail  Doesn’t show who did it or where it went  Officials canmaketheir paperwork look good and/or disappear  “Real life” audits o go look at physical things/projects governments are supposed to do o Indonesia Road Project Committee- MIT (?) student engineers went to Indonesia to build fakeroads then compared with the locals to seeifthe locals were diluting any materials (ifthey were stolen, etc) o Problems:  Very expensive  MIT engineers probably made different roads with different techniques than the locals  Behavioralobservation o Go to meetings and seehow much time is spent doing what o Such as:speeches,questions,critical analysis,etc. o Problems:  Inferences are made on how corrupt government is by their time spent doing certain things (not basedoff facts)  People change when they know they are being observed  Getting data on attendance, speeches,and other things that areNOT about corruption= bad measure  Undercoverbehavioralobservation- o Zimmerman’s study with taxi driver and bribery o Problems:  Sample sizemay be too low  Data may not be valid becauseother people arebeing sent out  Not a random sample  Unethical/dangerous for the people acting undercover  DirectReporting o Giving straight forward surveys to officials andasking about their participation inor knowledge of corrupt activities o Questionnaire given to district officials inMalawi o Problems:  People will liewhen self-reporting  Underreport corruption by ~24%  DirectReporting keeping o Extremely rare, but super useful o Policechief inPeru kept receipts ofall the bribery o Kept them from the media to hide certain events o Problems:  Extremely rare


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