HIST 201 Chapter 6 Reading Notes
HIST 201 Chapter 6 Reading Notes Hist 202-07
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elly Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 202-07 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Roger Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see United States History since 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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HIST 201 Chapter 6 Reading Notes: Empire and Resistance English and Spanish Imperial Reform Transatlantic Trade as an Engine of Conflict Trade was central to the British colonies o New England shipbuilding and lumber equipped navy and provided barrels for rum trade and cod o Mid-Atlantic colonies added iron production, fur trading, and shipbuilding o Quaker and Jewish merchants relied on transatlantic networks and grew prosperous o Maryland and Virginia produced tobacco o Carolinas and Georgia contributed pine tar, indigo, and rice o Every colony participated in slave trade British Parliament imposed series of controls and taxes on colonial trade through the Navigation Acts o Officials had not strictly enforced it o Colonial merchants became accustomed to governing themselves As transatlantic trade grew, so did North American cities o These cities housed the legal, political, and financial institutions that facilitated imperial trade British debts from the Seven Years’ War caused British officials to renew their interest in North American trade when George Grenville became prime minister o He enacted a series of policies that touched off colonial resistance o Wanted to raise revenues in the colonies Grenville’s Program Grenville moved the Sugar Act through Parliament in 1764 Designed to raise revenue through strict enforcement of trade taxes on American colonies Sugar Act increased taxes on sugar, coffee, coconuts, whale fins, silk, and animal hides Also forbade American colonies from importing rum from any non- British source Many colonists smuggled cheaper, non-British goods Grenville also expanded restrictions on colonial paper money Grenville’s legislation allowed for some expansion in colonial trade including increase in rice exports from South Carolina and New England timber Stricter enforcement raised fears among colonists Pontiac’s Rebellion British government took a hard line in dealing with Indians surrounding the colonies Many Indians had better relationships with the French than the British Feared British would seize their land Sir Jeffery Amherst was the commander-in-chief of British forces o He imposed new restrictions on Indian fur traders and seized Seneca land Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, gathered forces from different groups of Indians who wished to keep British settlers from land. o Attacked 11 British forts and communities o Food and ammunition ran low, and many got smallpox October 1763 London tried to deal with the rising violence by sending reinforcements King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763 that prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and restricted land sale to the east o Many British settlers ignored the proclamation Bourbon Reforms Spanish government was more successful at centralizing control and reforming its empire in North America after 1763 Spain acquired the French territory west of the Mississippi River and city of New Orleans but traded possession of Florida to British in exchange for Havana, Cuba Charles III and a group of bureaucrats influenced by Enlightenment sought to rebuild centralized control over North and South America The Bourbon Reforms aimed to increase Spanish revenues and control over institutions of the Catholic Church Sought to reduce the authority of Creole families who governed mixed- race populations in Spanish America Galvez sought to reform almost every aspect of imperial life: administrative, economic, and religious Several groups resisted the Bourbon Reforms o Officials had to keep Creole elites from striking against authority o Catholic friars saw their spiritual power challenged The Enlightenment and Colonial Identity European Enlightenment influenced European leaders and their colonial opponents Ideas of Enlightenment thinkers influenced social and economic reform, science, philosophy, and social and political theory Works of English politician and philosopher John Locke, especially his Two Treaties on Government argued that governments must protect the rights of individuals to purse life, liberty, and property Most British American colonists in 1763 saw themselves as a part of the empire of British liberty, a view enhanced by Enlightenment principles o Believed that British government was a bastion of liberty and property rights Enlightenment ideals strengthened their allegiance to the empire, they also exposed the colonies’ economic and political dependence Americans who opposed British taxes called themselves Whigs Stamp Act and Resistance Parliamentary Action Grenville determined to raise funds and assert imperial authority Bill asserted, for the first time, a unified tax on all the British colonies Stamp Act taxed paper, shipping and legal documents, playing cards, dice, newspapers, pamphlets, almanacs, and calendars To enforce taxes, British government appointed stamp “distributers” in each colony Protest and Repeal Protest proposed by Patrick Henry Stamp distributers where targets for protest Crowd violence against British authority spread Rich and poor people joined the protests, which worried colonial officials Groups of Stamp Act protests began calling themselves “Sons of Liberty” o Coordinated crowd actions, petitions, pamphlets, and consumer boycotts o Spread awareness of colonial protests between colonies o One leader was Samuel Adams Virginia House of Burgesses and other colonial assemblies passed legislation opposing the Stamp Act In the midst of protests, George III replaced Grenville as prime minister o Appointed the Marquis of Rockingham Rockingham aligned himself with the Whig party in Parliament and faced the challenge of how to quell the unrest Commander of British forces, Thomas Gage, said he lacked time, resources, and troops to subdue the opposition March 1, 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act Empire and Authority Although Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, Britain retained its authority to tax the colonies Parliament passed the Declaratory Act o Reasserted British right to control the colonies and pass laws o Stressed the king’s royal authority throughout the empire Tensions inside the colony provoked conflicts over imperial authority Conflicts between eastern and western inhabitants over land rights, political representation, and Indian policy caused trouble for officials Pontiac’s War increased tensions in Pennsylvania Unrest led Parliament to pass the first Quartering Act in 1765, authorizing British military forces to be permanently housed in the colonies at the expense of colonists o Many colonists refused to comply and feed British troops Consumer Resistance Townshend Duties June 1767, Parliament passed a new series of taxes that emphasized their resolve to legislate for the colonies (Declaratory Act) Sought to increase government revenue through a series of new taxes on trade Ushered a series of taxes through Parliament known as the Townshend Acts o Hit a variety of commodities central to the transatlantic colonial trade: tea, paper, lead, glass, and paint o Tax also continued a previous tax on molasses Parliament also continued to press for stricter enforcement of trade duties Military presence emphasized new control The Non-Importation Movement October 1767 when news of the acts spread, colonists began boycotting British imports o Movement spread across the colonies Samuel Adams drafted a petition to King George III that protested “taxation without representation” and called for other colonies to coordinate their resistance Britain ignored protests and the non-importation movement spread Merchants led the non-importation movement Non-importation drastically reduced the trade of sugar into the North American colonies and increased hardships where sugar was produced in the West Indies, causing thousands of enslaved people to starve The non-importation movement fostered bitter disputes between those who supported Parliament and the boycotters Men and Women: Tea and Politics Non-importation movement brought men and women together politically Tea drinking had become an important part of many white women’s social rituals o White women were associated with tea Male supporters of the non-importation movement appealed to women in speeches and articles to participate in boycotts and several women wrote articles Female shopkeepers signed pledges not to sell British imported goods and city women only drank coffee or herbal teas By the end of 1769, British government realized the Townshend duties had failed Repealed all the Townshend duties except for tax on tea The Boston Massacre When the Townshend duties were in place there was harsh resistance particularly in Boston British government responded by sending soldiers to keep order o Soldiers often clashed with local citizens who feared them Tensions boiled over on March 5, 1770 in the Boston Massacre o Crowd began to harass a British sentry and threw rocks and snowballs at the soldiers o Soldiers fired into the crowd killing five men Resistance Becomes Revolution Boston Tea Party and Coercive Acts Tax on tea remained and colonists continued to avoid drinking tea Group of men formed Committees of Correspondence to provide networks of communication between Whigs in different colonies Parliament passed the Tea Act in March of 1773, granting East India Company a monopoly on North America tea trade o Lowered the price of tea, but did not remove the tax o Also allowed East India Company to appoint tea merchants in each colony The legislation reawakened protest as Whigs planned resistance Boston Tea Party 60 men disguised as Mohawk Indians stormed tea ships and dumped 90,000 pounds of tea into the Boston Harbor o Spread resistance to other colonies Destruction of property in the tea protests shocked Parliament Dubbed the Coercive Acts or the “Intolerable Acts” o Closed the port of Boston and reorganized Massachusetts government o Imposed royal control over local courts, authorized troops to be in private houses and buildings, and installed the British Army commander, Thomas Gage, as the new colonial governor Empire, Control, and the Language of Slavery The Coercive Acts increased political opposition in Massachusetts and the Whigs soon organized a new boycott movement Virginia legislator Thomas Jefferson wrote that the colonies had natural rights to free international trade and that the king, not Parliament, held sovereignty Jefferson used the word “slavery” signaled the extreme fear that many colonists had of being deprived of their liberties During the boycott movement, Abigail Adams referred to tea as “this weed of Slavery” American colonists were not blind to the irony of calling themselves “slaves” o Intentionally used the term to indicate a subordinate position Mobilization Parliament intended the Coercive Acts to cut off Massachusetts from the other colonies Instead the acts aroused sympathy for Massachusetts Representatives of 12 colonies (not Georgia) met in a Continental Congress at Philadelphia o First Continental Congress o Discussed colonial independence even though very few supported it o Vigorously enforced boycotts and endorsed a declaration of rights and grievances Angered King George urged Parliament to impose more control All 13 colonies organized public defense Local militias in Massachusetts and Connecticut went on alert (minute men) War Begins General Gage decided to crack down on Concord, Massachusetts April 18, 1775 assembled 700 red coats on Boston Common Whig activists Paul Revere and William Dawes rode to warn the militiamen at Concord and Lexington to ready themselves That morning, the local militia now reinforced by other men engaged British regulars in a larger battle at North Bridge After the battle, British forces made their way back to Boston and came under fire from the woods The Second Continental Congress convened on May 10, 1775 and set about organizing an army o June 15 chose its commander George Washington Before Washington could assume command, the Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17 o British suffered their heaviest casualty rate of the entire war British remained in Boston planning their next move as Washington organized the Continental Army Declaring Independence The World’s First Declaration of Independence Through the first months of the Revolutionary War, many Whigs still pledged allegiance to the king o Felt that royal authority would guard them against Parliament July 1775 the Continental Congress sent an Olive Branch Petition to George III asking him to settle the conflict o But by spring 1776, Congress fielded petitions from colonial committees calling for independence March 1776 British forces evacuated Boston and retreated to Halifax o Planned out a full-out offensive attack King rejected peace Virginia’s delegation to the Continental Congress proposed a motion to declare independence on June 7, 1776 Jefferson wrote the declaration and issued by Congress on July 4, 1776 o First document of its kind in world history The Revolutionary War intensified and offered a military test for the new nation Spanish Imperial Consolidation In contrast to British empire, Spanish officials were able to bring more of North America under control through the Bourbon Reforms Jose de Galvez visited Mexico and made plans Spanish colonies north of Mexico were formed into a territory for military defense, trade, and crown administration Spain had been slower to take control over Louisiana after French ceded it Citizens of New Orleans revolted in October 1768 and tried to rejoin the French empire Spanish military forces was effective at regaining civil control Ideology and Resistance In the British colonies, the Independence movement helped to solidify ideological changes Elite colonists who supported Whigs invoked Enlightenment political ideas o Ordinary men and women also believed in “liberty” and “representation” Techniques of resistance in 1760s and early 1770s o Pamphlet writings, riots, destruction of property, burning, petitions o All where familiar to British British colonists fit into a transatlantic tradition of protest Whig Americans rejected not just the actions of British government but British control all together Taking Stock of Empire 1776 Spain was expanding its North American empire just as the British Empire crumbled Bourbon reforms increased crown control over extensive territory British imperial reforms achieved the opposite result