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Syntax & Semantics; English 219

by: Brittany Sholl

Syntax & Semantics; English 219 Ling 219

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Linguistics > Ling 219 > Syntax Semantics English 219
Brittany Sholl
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes cover our latest material that will be on the midterm exam! More syntax and semantics and also a TON of definitions and examples! :)
Intro Linguistics
Dr. Evg Chukharev-Khudilaynen
Class Notes
english, 219, Lingustics, intro, semantics, syntax, antonym, synonym
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Sholl on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ling 219 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Evg Chukharev-Khudilaynen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro Linguistics in Linguistics at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Syntax + Semantics Tuesday, September 27, 2016 12:37 PM Complimentizer:  Subordinate conjunctions (because, although)  "that" can be a complimentizer when it is not starting a sentence; if there are two separate clauses Sentences that are structurally ambiguous:  There are two possible meanings of each sentence, because the words can be combined into different constituent structures. EX: The boy saw [the man {with the telescope}]. Semantics: the study of linguistic meanings of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences is called semantics  Lexical semantics  Phrasal/sentential semantics  Pragmatics Truth conditional (compositional) semantics Jack runs: true or false? [ You see Jack run] Jack runs: true or false? [Somebody tells you but you don't see it] Tautologies (analytic): Sentences that are always true. EX: Circles are round. A person who is single is not married. {The truth of the sentence is guaranteed by their meaning} Contradictions: sentences that are always false. EX: Circles are square. A bachelor is married. Entailment: one sentence entails another if whenever the first sentence is true, the second one is also true in all possible circumstances. EX: Karen runs. Karen runs gracefully. Karen runs gracefully entails Karen runs. {Entailment goes only one direction.} Entailment & Negation  One sentence entails another if whenever the first sentence is true, the second one is also true in all possible circumstances. EX: Karen doesn't run. Karen doesn’t run beautifully. {Negating both sentences reverses the entailment.} Synonyms: if two statements entail each other, they are synonyms of each other Antonyms: if a statement entails the negation of another statement, they are antonyms of each other Entailment and Related Notions EX: Karen put off the meeting. Karen postponed the meeting. {If one statement is true, the other must be true as well.} Contradictory sentences EX: Karen is alive. Karen is dead. Karen is alive and Karen is dead. (CON) {When one is true the other is false. Two sentences are contradictory is one entails the negative of the other.} This will make you smart Smart: clever Smart: a sharp stinging pain, burning sensation Lexical Ambiguity: When at least one word in a phrase has more than one meaning. Anomaly  Breaks no syntactic rule  Breaks no morphological rule  BUT breaks meaning rules Semantic Violations: Anomaly Semantic Properties (features) are violated in some cases  Creative writing  In poems Metaphors:  It is a phrase that does not carry the the literal meanings of the words but is used to mean something different. (It has figurative meaning) EX: o Time is money. o She has a heart of gold. o He is a walking encyclopedia. Idioms:  Collocations of words or phrases with nonliteral meanings.  Idioms are phrases whose meanings are not predictable. EX: o Kick the bucket o Tie the knot o Let the cat out of the bag Pragmatics:  is the study of utterances that are dependent on the: o The speaker o The addressee o Context of utterance (social setting) o Generally observed principles of communication o The goals of the speaker {Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics which studies how people use language within a CONTEXT and why they use language in particular ways}  Physical Context: where the conversation takes place  Epistemic Context: background knowledge shared by speakers and hearers  Linguistic Context: utterances previous to the utterance  Social Context: social relationship and setting of speakers and hearers Speech Acts:  People use language to do things  Offer greetings Extend an invitation   Compliment  Insult  Flirt  Supply info Direct and Indirect Speech: Direct: o Please take out the trash. Indirect: o The garbage isn't out yet. o Could You take out the garbage? Lexical Semantics (word Meanings)  What is meaning?  Dictionaries provide paraphrases rather than meaning.  We need referential and sense meaning to know what something is. Referential meaning: the meaning of a word is the actual person, object, abstract notion, event or state to which the expression makes reference, the entity the term picks out or identity. The meaning of a word is its reference, its association with the object refers to. This real-world object is called referent. Semantic Relations Synonym: Two words are said to be synonymous if they mean the same thing in some or all contexts. EX: She is a real lady. o The referent is polite, kind , elegant and proper. She is a real woman. o The referent is strong and determined. Antonymy: a binary relationship between two words; the words that are opposite in meaning are antonyms. EX: Gradable Pairs Non-gradable Pairs Big x Small Complementary Pairs: Single x Married Hot x Cold Converse Pairs/Relational: Give x Receive, Come x Go, Able x Unable Happy x Sad {You can use comparatives and superlatives with these words.} Hyponomy: A hyponym is a subordinate, specific term whose referent is included in the referent of a superordinate term. EX: Color: Superordinate Blue, Red, Yellow, Green..: hyponyms {Can be multiple layers} Homographs: Homophones: Have the same spelling but different meanings Have the same pronunciations but different meanings Dove and dove Bear and bare Meronymy: One word is the subdivision of the other. EX: Part/Whole Relationship: Face: mouth, cheek, nose, eye (eye 'part of the face') Polysemy: when it has two or more related meanings {examples from lecture}  Plain English (easy, clear)  Plain white shirt (undecorated)  Plain yoghurt (no flavor) EX: The defendant was in the pub at the bar. He bought a bar of soap. Mary walked along the bank of the river. City Bank is the richest bank in the city. Semantic Properties  There are semantic features or properties that are part of word meanings and that reflect our knowledge about what words mean.


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