CRJ 270: Chapter 11-12 Notes
CRJ 270: Chapter 11-12 Notes CRJ 270-1001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vee on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 270-1001 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Terance Miethe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminology in Criminal Justice at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 11: Positivisti Criminology (Lombroso , Ferri, Garofalo) • Cesare Lombroso (1835) • Italian positivist • former surgeon • took influence from Charles Darwin’s idea of origin of species • founding member of the Positive School of Criminology • found “atavists” subhumans that were a biological throwback or reversion to our caveman ancestors • excessive hair • huge foreheads • big jaws • swollen lips • bullleggedness • hunchbacks • flared nostrils • asymmetrical face • beady and deepset eyes • created three types of criminals: • (1) Born Criminal • exhibits the traits of atavists • (2) Insane Criminal • low intelligence • serious psychological problems/degeneracy • (3) Criminaloid • no physical stigmata or signs of psychological degeneracy • engages in criminal behavior due to situational and environmental factors • the most common type of criminal • had great influence on the field of criminology because; • (1) first person to systematically develop the idea that “biological structure determines social function” • (2) he established the value of multifaceted explanations for criminal behavior by examining how a wide variety of social and environmental factors • Enrico Ferri (18561909) • Lombroso’s student • major contributions involved: • his critique of the classical notion of “free will” • his scientific investigation of the interrelationships between social, economic, and political factors and crime • three major criminogenic (crime causing) factors: • (1) physical environment • an area’s structural attributes • climate/temperature • geographical location • (2) anthropological attributes • age • sex • race • (bodily) physical structure • (3) social factors • ex. • population density • cultural traditions • religion • nature of the government • economic conditions • liberal • believed in things like • free trade • abolition of monopolies • redistribution of wealth • birth control • freedom of divorce/marriage • public assistance/recreation • Raffaele Garofalo (18521934) • Lombroso’s student • psychological degeneracy • the sources/determinants of crime are • lower intellectual abilities • psychological pathology/degeneracy • influenced by Darwin’s law of adaption and the principle of the survival of the fittest • argued that society must eliminate those who have shown that they cannot adapt to civilized life • supported the death penalty or policies of segregation (deportation and/or isolation) to keep criminals from the gene pool • Nazi and Fascist regimes of Germany and Italy referenced his work during World War II Video Crime 15: • Example: is there a relationship between broken homes (BH) and delinquencies (D). • Method: SampleObservationAnalysis • (1) draw random samples of BH and nonBH • (2) assess correlation between BH and D • (3) establish temporal ordering: BH—>D • (4) statistical control for other factors • broken homes lead to lower supervision, which leads to delinquencies Chapter 12: Biological Theories of Criminal Propensity • biological criminology began with physiognomists • tried to link criminal behavior to facial features • Franz Gall • phrenologist • particular locations of the brain are associated with basic functions • looked at skull structure • one of the earliest Western scholars in the field of human anatomy and physiology • bodytype theorists established the basic idea that one’s biological structure determines our behavior • i.e atavists and Lombroso’s born criminals • criminal link due to the casual connection between particular body types and a particular temperament • endomorphic soft round physique • ectomorphic lean, fragile, small • it can be a “selffulfilling prophecy” Video Crime 17: Profiling Criminal Faces/Body Types • Assumptions about Body Type and Crime • Identifying Criminals by Physical Appearance • Problems with Approach • accuracy and selffulfilling prophecy • see celebrity mug shots • biochemical explanations for crime: • both dopamine and serotonin are basic neurotransmitters of electrical impulses within the brain that are associated with information processing and antisocial behavior. • dopamine triggers: • emotional responses that affect our fight or flight responses • sensation seeking behavior • avoidance of something unpleasant • the ability to experience pleasure and pain • serotonin has importance • in impulsive behaviors and aggression • i.e. temperature regulation, sensory perceptions, and mood control. • Testosterone • risk factor for aggression • peak in the mid‐teens and decline over the life course • high levels may predispose some individuals to behave in dominant and aggressive ways, but behaving in these specific ways may also increase testosterone levels. • The primary value of this new research paradigm is that it has • (1) increased understanding of neurophysiology and other aspects of human information processing • (2) provided the analytic means to identify the relative magnitude of the genetic inheritability of particular traits • (3) led to a more complete specification of the various causal paths that link biological processes to differences in social behavior. • Other bio‐chemical explanations of crime focus on an assortment of additional risk factors. • These risk factors include: • the role of diet • vitamin/mineral deficiencies, allergies • environmental factors
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