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CRJ 270: Chapter 11-12 Notes

by: Vee

CRJ 270: Chapter 11-12 Notes CRJ 270-1001


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About this Document

These notes summarize the chapters 11-12 of the textbook, Criminology (Author: T.D. Miethe and Publisher: CJ Research).
Introduction to Criminology
Dr. Terance Miethe
Class Notes
criminology, introduction to criminology, intro to criminology, Criminal Justice/Criminology, Criminal Justice
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vee on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 270-1001 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Terance Miethe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminology in Criminal Justice at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 11:   Positivisti  Criminology   (Lombroso  , Ferri, Garofalo)   • Cesare Lombroso (1835) • Italian positivist  • former surgeon  • took influence from Charles Darwin’s idea of origin of species  • founding member of the Positive School of Criminology  • found “atavists”­ subhumans that were a biological throwback or reversion to  our caveman ancestors  • excessive hair  • huge foreheads • big jaws  • swollen lips • bull­leggedness  • hunch­backs  • flared nostrils • asymmetrical face  • beady and deep­set eyes • created three types of criminals: • (1) Born Criminal • exhibits the traits of atavists   • (2) Insane Criminal  • low intelligence  • serious psychological problems/degeneracy  • (3) Criminaloid  • no physical stigmata or signs of psychological degeneracy  • engages in criminal behavior due to situational and  environmental factors  • the most common type of criminal  • had great influence on the field of criminology because; • (1) first person to systematically develop the idea that “biological  structure determines social function”  • (2) he established the value of multi­faceted explanations for  criminal behavior by examining how a wide variety of social and  environmental factors  • Enrico Ferri (1856­1909) • Lombroso’s student  • major contributions involved: • his critique of the classical notion of “free will” • his scientific investigation of the interrelationships between social,  economic, and political factors and crime  • three major criminogenic (crime causing) factors: • (1) physical environment  • an area’s structural attributes  • climate/temperature  • geographical location • (2) anthropological attributes  • age • sex • race • (bodily) physical structure  • (3) social factors  • ex.  • population density  • cultural traditions  • religion • nature of the government  • economic conditions  • liberal  • believed in things like • free trade  • abolition of monopolies • redistribution of wealth  • birth control  • freedom of divorce/marriage • public assistance/recreation   • Raffaele Garofalo (1852­1934) • Lombroso’s student  • psychological degeneracy • the sources/determinants of crime are  • lower intellectual abilities  • psychological pathology/degeneracy  • influenced by Darwin’s law of adaption and the principle of the survival of the  fittest  • argued that society must eliminate those who have shown that they cannot  adapt to civilized life   • supported the death penalty or policies of segregation (deportation and/or  isolation) to keep criminals from the gene pool  • Nazi and Fascist regimes of Germany and Italy referenced his work during  World War II  Video Crime 15: • Example: is there a relationship between broken homes (BH) and delinquencies (D). • Method: Sample­Observation­Analysis  • (1) draw random samples of BH and non­BH • (2) assess correlation between BH and D • (3) establish temporal ordering: BH—>D • (4) statistical control for other factors  • broken homes lead to lower supervision, which leads to delinquencies Chapter 12: Biological Theories of Criminal Propensity  • biological criminology began with physiognomists  • tried to link criminal behavior to facial features  • Franz Gall • phrenologist • particular locations of the brain are associated with basic functions  • looked at skull structure  • one of the earliest Western scholars in the field of human anatomy and  physiology  • body­type theorists established the basic idea that one’s biological structure  determines our behavior  • i.e atavists and Lombroso’s born criminals  • criminal link due to the casual connection between particular body types and  a particular temperament  • endomorphic­ soft round physique  • ectomorphic­ lean, fragile, small  • it can be a “self­fulfilling prophecy” Video Crime 17: Profiling Criminal Faces/Body Types  • Assumptions about Body Type and Crime  • Identifying Criminals by Physical Appearance  • Problems with Approach  • accuracy and self­fulfilling prophecy • see celebrity mug shots  • biochemical explanations for crime: • both dopamine and serotonin are basic neurotransmitters of electrical  impulses within the brain that are associated with information processing and antisocial behavior. • dopamine triggers: • emotional responses that affect our fight or flight responses • sensation seeking behavior • avoidance of something unpleasant • the ability to experience pleasure and pain • serotonin has importance • in impulsive behaviors and aggression • i.e.  temperature regulation, sensory perceptions, and  mood control. • Testosterone  • risk factor for aggression • peak in the mid‐teens and decline over the life course • high levels may predispose some individuals to behave in dominant  and aggressive ways, but behaving in these specific ways may also  increase testosterone levels. • The primary value of this new research paradigm is that it has • (1) increased understanding of neurophysiology and other aspects of human  information processing • (2) provided the analytic means to identify the relative magnitude of the  genetic inheritability of particular traits • (3) led to a more complete specification of the various causal paths that link  biological processes to differences in social behavior. • Other bio­‐chemical explanations of crime focus on an assortment of additional risk  factors. • These risk factors include: • the role of diet • vitamin/mineral deficiencies, allergies  • environmental factors 


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