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Viruses and The Prokaryotes

by: Shakerra L Chambliss

Viruses and The Prokaryotes Biol 1201

Marketplace > North Carolina Central University > Biology > Biol 1201 > Viruses and The Prokaryotes
Shakerra L Chambliss
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About this Document

These notes cover some of the items that's going to be on the test.
Principles of Biology: Organisms & Diversity
Dr. Mabel Royal
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shakerra L Chambliss on Monday October 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1201 at North Carolina Central University taught by Dr. Mabel Royal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology: Organisms & Diversity in Biology at North Carolina Central University.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Shakerra Chambliss September 22, 2016  Viruses and The Prokaryotes The Viruses: Are associated with a number of plant, animal, and human diseases Can only reproduce using the metabolic machinery of the host cell Are noncellular; May have a DNA or RNA genome. With the invention of the electron microscope, these infectious agents could be  seen. Parasitic Nature: Viruses: Are obligate intracellular parasites:  Cannot reproduce outside a living cell Can be cultured only inside living cells e.g. Chicken egg and tissue culture  Bacteriophages – Viruses that infect bacterial cells Bacteriophage Life Cycles: There are two types of bacteriophage life cycles The lytic cycle: Viral reproduction occurs, and the host cell undergoes lysis (rupture and  destruction) The lysogenic cycle: Viral reproduction does not occur immediately but wait in the cell to  reproduce in the future. Viral life cycle in animals: Similar to that of prokaryotes Attach to surface of cell and inject nucleic acid Or fuse with plasma membrane and the nucleocapsid is released into cell  Or use Receptor Mediated endocytosis (bind to a specific receptor on cell surface) Many are enveloped viruses­ bud out through the membrane Viral Categorization: Classification is based on: Type of nucleic acid Size and shape Presence / absence of outer envelope DNA viruses­ double stranded DNA; single stranded DNA Include: Adenovirus, Papillomavirus, Herpes virus, Smallpox RNA viruses­ double stranded RNA; single stranded RNA (+; ­ strands) Include Rotaviruses, Norwalk, Rubella, Mumps, Hanta virus, Ebola Retroviruses: RNA virus uses reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome.   The DNA then is incorporated into the host genome via an integrase enzyme.   There are many endogenous retroviruses which have been a part of the host genome for  generations and the integrated DNA is inherited (provirus).   


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